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tinople, which attracted the most celebrated architects to the east ; but the almost total ruin and neglect of architecture in this island, may doubtless be attributed to the final departure of the Romans. The natives, and the descendants of Roman and British parents, having neither skill nor courage to defend their numerous towns, forts, and cities, suffered them to be plundered and destroyed by their ferocious invaders, the Scots, Picts, and Saxons. The last, in particular, having no taste for the arts, committed the most wanton and extensive devastations.
3. Saron Architecture. The Saxon, in fact, was the Roman architecture in a decayed state. The Saxons having the Roman buildings continually before their eyes, employed workmen to build their edifices in a similar manner. The style of building practised throughout Europe was of this kind, and so continued to be used by the Normans, with some trilling alterations, till the introduction of the Saracenic architecure about the reigu of Henry II. The characteristics of Saxon architecture, are, the semicircular arch, and short, thick, massive columns. It has no pinnacles or pointed ornaments, no escocheons or delineations of arms, nor any statues, except in relief. The best specimen of this style is the north transept of Winchester Cathedral.
4. Norman Architecture. This differs from the Saxon chiefly in its increased proportion, and in the magnitude and massiveness of its buildings. The arches were highly ornamented with figures of angels, fruit, animals, &c. subjects of the most serious and ludicrous nature were promiscuously blended together. The walls were almost uniformly without buttresses, and the arches were supported by solid, clumsy pillars, with a regular base and capital. The capitals were adorned with carvings of foliage and animals; and the columns had small half columns joined to them, the surfaces being ornamented with spirals, squares, network, and figures in relievo. Various instances of these may be seen in the monastery of Lindisfain in Holy Island, the cathedral at Durham, and the ruined choir at Orford in Suffolk,-. but in none more completely or beautifully, than in the crypt or under-croft of Canterbury Cathedral.
5. Saracenic or Gothic Architecture. The marks of the
Saracenic architecture are its numerous and prominent buttresses, its lofty spires and pinnacles, its large and ramified windows, its orvamental niches and canopies, the sculptured saints and angels, the delicate lace-work of its fretted roofs, and an indiscriminate profusion of ornaments. The fret-work is so called from the Saxon word fræitan, signifying fishes' teeth. But its most distinguishing characteristics are the small, clustered pillars and pointed arches, formed by the segments of two intersecting circles. This style is supposed to be of Arabian origin, and to have been introduced into Europe by the crusaders; or by those who made pilgrimages to the Holy Land. In the reign of Henry. Ill. many of the old buildings were pulled down to give place to new ones on this model. The cathedral of Salisbury was begun early in this reign, and finished in 1258. It is one of the finest productions of ancient architecture in this island, and is completely and truly gothic. This term, however, has been much abused; and is daily employed, by the ignorant, to designate the mongrel labours of every common builder. The words pointed style might, perhaps, be more appropriately substituted.
6. Florid Gothic. On the death of Eleanor, wife of Edward I. in 1290, this monarch, to show respect to the memory of his queen, caused a magnificent cross to be
erected at every spot, where her body and the funeral proÀ cession halted. Most of these crosses have since been
destroyed ;—they were profusely decorated with sculptured ornaments. Those at Northampton, Geddington, and Waltham, are the most perfect which yet remain. This kind of workmanship was particularly adapted, by its richness, for screens and altar-pieces, and the lesser parts of the Gothic structure. Elaborate canopies, ornamented pinnacles, and octagonal niches and stalls were introduced, with the crocket ornament stealing up the angle, till the pyramidal point was crowned with a larger flower, or pineapple,--while pendant decorations of fruits, flowers, and emblazonry were seen in all parts. Sculptures of small imageries were introduced in the freited roofs of the principal aisles and cancel.
7. The thirteenth century must be considered as the graad epocha of Gothic luxuriance, when the combination
of ornament, and profusion of decoration, had been extended over the whole of the building. Among the principal erections in this and the succeeding centuries may be reckoned, the nave and western front of York cathedralthe whole of Litchfield cathedral-a transept of Canterbury cathedral -and our Lady's chapel at Ely-- Merton, and New College, Oxford-St. Stephen's chapel, Westminster-with additions and alterations to several other cathedrals. Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westminster is particularly worthy of admiration, from the wonderful skill exhibited in its sculpture. The almost constant use of stained glass in the windows of the cathedrals, was another great addition to their beauty, and completed that solemn effect, so necessary to be preserved in religious edifices. Foreign artificers were first employed to glaze the monastery of Weremouth in the year 674. The figures of kings and prelates were represented in painted windows as well as in sculpture. The most ancient specimens now existing are in the cathedrals of Canterbury and York, and in the chapel of King's College, Cambridge. The eastern window of St. George's chapel at Windsor, is the finest specimen among our modern attempts. Murphy, speaking of the effect of the western painted window, in the church of Batalha, in Portugal, says, that “ the fathers usually assemble in the choir to chaunt the evening service, whilst the myriads of variegated rays which emanate from this beautiful window, resemble so many beams of glory playing round them.”
8. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, most of the exteriors of our Saxon and Norman churches were transformed into the Gothic, which completed the victory of this, over every other style in the kingdom. From the end of the fourteenth century, no remarkable variation can be discovered. Gothic architecture, at this period, had been at the height of its perfection for nearly two centuries, When Henry VIII. began the reformation, and the dissolution of monasteries took place, the two universities were at first included in the general ruin; these edifices, how. ever, sacred to science, as well as to religion, were saved from that dilapidation which many of the monasteries and cathedrals experienced. The desolating hands of those reformers who succeeded Henry VIII. destroyed many
the most beautiful specimens of this style of architecture, and despoiled them of their most beautiful ornaments.* Castelluted Gothic was generally used in that age, when the feudal system rendered it necessary that noblemen should possess fortified castles. This style resembles the original Saxon and Norman architecture.
§ 4. Modern Architecture. .
1. From the time of Henry VIII. Gothic architecture began to decline, and was succeeded by a style, in which the Grecian and Gothic were mixed together. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the chaste architecture of the Greeks and Romans was revived. The first improvements in architecture took place in Italy, whence they passed into most other parts of Europe; and though the Italians were for a considerable period accounted the first architects, England produced men who successively rivalled them. Among these Inigo Jones and Sir ChrisTOPHER WREN hold the most exalted station. The banqueting-house at Whitehall, queen Katharine's chapel at St. James' palace; the present piazza of Covent Garden, and the church destroyed by fire, and many other public buildings, are monuments of the taste and skill of inigo Jones.
2. The churches, the royal courts, the stately halls, magazines, palaces, and other public structures designed by Sir CHRISTOPHER Wren, are proud trophies of his unparalleled genius, and lasting monuments of British talent. If the whole art of building were lost, it might be again recovered in the cathedral of St. Paul, and in that grand historical pillar, the Monument. These would alone have eternized his memory, but when we superadd Greenwich Hospital, Chelsea Hospital, the theatre at Oxford, Trinity College Library, and Emanuel College, Cambridge—the churches of St. Stephen in Walbrook, St. Mary-le-bow, und FIFTY-Two others in London-while we contemplate these, and many other public edifices erected or repaired
* The Puritans, in the time of Oliver Cromwell, were famed for their dilapidation of ancient cathedrals ; particularly those of Old St, Paul's and Canterbury,
under his direction, we are at a loss which most to admire --the fertile ingenuity, or the persevering industry of the artist.
3. The architectural history of the eighteenth century differs from that of preceding ages in two essential circumstances. (1.) The public buildings erected, during this period, are, in general, less grand and massive than those of some former periods. But while they fall short in splendour and magnificence, they are infinitely superior to most ancient specimens of architecture in simplicity, convenience, neatness, and real elegance. (2.) Private dwellings have been made more spacious, convenient, and agreeable to a correct taste, than in any preceding period. The liberal use of gluss, in modern buildings, contributes greatly to their beauty and comfort, and is a point, in which the moderns peculiarly excel. And, in descending to the various minute details of human dwellings, especially those which relate to elegance and enjoyment, it is evident that the artists of the eighteenth century exceeded all others.
Balusters are small pillars of wood, stone, &c. used to ornament the tops of buildings, and to support railing. When continued they form a balustrade.
Caryatides, are figures of women dressed in long robes, after the Asiatic manner, and used like Persians to support entablatures in buildings. Other female figures have been used for a similar purpose, but the original name is still retained. The origin of this was, a war which had been carried on by the Athenians against the Carians ; the latter being totally vanquished, their wives were made captive. To commemorate this event, trophies were made by the Athenians, in which figures of women, habited in the Caryatic manner, were used for the purpose just explained. They should never much exceed the human size.
Persians. These are so called from a victory gained over the Persians by Pausanias, who having brought home prisoners, spoils, and trophies to the Athenians, they chose Persian male figures to support the entablatures. These have been changed in the same manner as the Caryatides, o