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that the art gained its ancient honour, and in the fifteenth century, when Cimabue applied himself to the pencil, he transferred the poor remains of his art into his own country.
2. He was succeeded by some Florentines; the first who obtained any reputation was Ghirlandai, Michael Angelo's master; Pietro Perugino, Rafaelle, Urbin's master; and Andrea Werocchio, Leonardo Da Vinci's master. The scholars, however, far surpassed the masters--they not only effaced all that had been done before them, but carried painting to a height, from which it has ever since been declining. It was not by their own noble works alone that they advanced painting, but by the number of pupils they instructed, and the schools which they formed. Angelo, in particular, founded the school of Florence ; Raffaelle, the school of Rome ; and Leonardo Da Vinci, the school of Milan; to which must be added the Lombard school, established about the same time, and which became very considerable under Giorgione and Titian.
3. Besides the Italian masters, there were others, who had no communication withi them, as Albert Durer, in Germany; Hans Holbein, in Switzerland; Lucas, in Holland; and others in France and Flanders ;-— but Italy, particularly Rome, was the place where the art was practised with success; and where, from time to time, the greatest masters were produced, To Raffaelle's school, succeeded that of Caracci, which has, in its scholars, remained almost to the before them, and by no means equal to some of their successors.
4. From the middle of the seventeenth, till towards the middle of the eighteenth century, scarcely any painters of first rate excellence had appeared. The mantles of those great masters Rubens, Vandyke, Guido, and other contemporary artists seem not to have fallen upon any of their immediate successors. At the commencement of the, eighteenth century, Kneller, Dahl, Richardson, Jervas, and Thornhill, of Great Britain, were conspicuous in their respective departments of painting; as were also Cignani, Giordano, Maratti, Jauvenet, and many others on the continent of Europe. But these artists, though unquestionably of the first class then known, were inferior, particularly the former group, to many who had gone
5. Though the eighteenth century produced fewer painters. of great and original genius than several preceding ages, yet is it remarkable for having given birth to an unprecedented number, who, with a moderate portion of genius, and with great industry, have risen to high respectability in this art. There was, no doubt, more painting performed by artisis of this period, than during any former one of similar extent, since the art was cultivated. The most numerous and the most excellent painters during the eighteenth century, have been produced in Italy, Great Britain, France, and the United States.
6. About the year 1750, the painters of Great Britain, with a view of promoting their art, associated together, and formed a kind of academy, which was supported by annual subscription. This association was continued, with various changes in the degree of its respectability and sucçess, until 1768, when the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, was established under the auspices of his present Majesty, and composed of the ablest artists in the country. In the establishment of this institution, no individual was more active, or exerted more useful influence, than Sir Joshua Reynolds, who held the highest rank in his profession, and who was for many years president of the academy. From the rise of this institution, which at once furnished a school for instruction, a scene of Annual Exhibition, and numerous incitements to emulation, may be dated the revival of a correct taste for the fine arts in our own country.
7. During the last thirty years, many specimens of painting have been produced by British artists, which gave them high distinction, in a comparative estimate of their talents with those of other nations, In producing this effect, much has been ascribed to the eloquent and instructive discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who appears to have taken unwearied and very successful pains to form the taste of his pupils, on the principles of the great masters of the Italian and Flemish schools. His exertions to promote a just taste in this art have been very honourably and ably seconded by those of West, Fuseli, and other distinguished artists. The subsequent establishment, by
a society of noblemen, of the British Institution in Pallmall, for the exhibition and encouragement of the works of British artists, is admirably calculated to foster and reward native genius.
8. The historical painters of the eighteenth century, besides Cignani, Giordano, Maratti, and Jauvenet, already named, are, Battoni, Mengs, Martini, Dietrich, and several others of the Italian school. In Great Britain the works of West,* Reynolds, Copley, Barry, and Trumbull, have been much celebrated. In France, Vincent, David, Vernet, Regnault, Gerrard, and others, hold a distinguished rank. In comic painting, the works of Willium Hogarth, have been long and universally famed. He invented a new species of diamatic painting, in which all the ridicule of life became concentrated and embodied by his magic touch, to a degree altogether unknown tó any former artist, and in which he will probably bave few equals. In a particular part of comic painting, Henry Bunbury has much distinguished himself. He is the only successful imitator of Hogarth ; and, like his great predecessor, displays more humour when he invents, than when he illustrates. In portruit painting, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lawrence, Ramsay, Gainsborough, Northcote, Opie, Beechey, Romney, and Barry, ale entitled to the highest praise. In ullegorical painting, Angelica Kauffman and Mr. Fuseli hare displayed unrivalled talents. In landscape, Gainsborough, Wilson, Smith, Turner, Norland, and others, are held in deserved estimation. In depicting cattle, and various kinds of animals, Stubbs, Gilpin, Catton, and Reinagle, way be compared with the painters of any age.
9. The invention of a more perfect manner of preparing water-colours, by Mr. Thomas Reeves, is an important event in the history of modern painting. The numerous advantages conferred on the art of drawing in water-colours, by this invention, are generally known, and can scarcely: be too highly appreciated. The two exhibitions of paintings in water-colours have boasted much talent; among these the pictures of Heaphy and Glover are the most distinguished.
* We cannot pass the name of this eminent painter without a mention of his two most celebrated performances, ‘Christ healing the Sick,' and the Judgment Hall' The magnitude of these pictures, the number of figures, and the strong contrasts which are exhibited, equally defy all attempts at descriprion. In short, these pictures give a glosy not only to the painter, but to the country they adota.
SECT. III.DIFFERENT METHODS OF PAINTING.
Crayon Painting. For this the colours duly lowered by the admixture of some simple earthy substance, such as fine chalk or pipe-clay, are ground with water thickened by gum or a fine size made by boiling shreds of glover's leather into a paste, which is formed into small rolls, and then used as pencils. The paper used for crayon painting should be strong cartridge, blue or grey, and free from knots.
Distemper. This method of painting is performed with colours mixed with size or whites of eggs, or any thin glutinous substance, and on paper, linen, silk, board, or wall. If the colours are mixed with any glutinous or unctuous matter, instead of oil, it is said to be done in distemper. The cartoons at Windsor, and, in general, the scenes of our theatres, are painted in this manner.
Elydoric Puinting, invented by M. Vincent, of Montpetit, is little known. It takes its name from two Greek words, signifying oil and water, both these liquids being, employed in its execution. Tlie great advantages of this invention are, that the artist is enabled to give a very high finishing to small figures in oil to add to the mellowness of oil-painting, the greatest beauty of water-colours in miniature-and, to do this in such a manner, that it appears like a large picture viewed through a diminishing glass.
Enamel Painting is performed on plates of gold, silver, or copper, with certain metallic or earthy colours, melted into them by exposure to intense heat. Fine enamelling ishould only be practised on plates of gold, the other metals being less pure. Nor must the plate be made fiat ; for in such case, the enamel cracks: to avoid which, they usually forge them in the form of a watch-glass, and not too thick. The plate being well forged, the operation is begun by laying on a coat of white enamel, on both sides, which prevents the metal from blistering, and this first
layer serves for the ground of the other colours. The plate being prepared, the subject to be painted is drawn with red vitriol, mixed with oil of spike, marking all parts of the design lightly with a pencil. The colours, which are previously ground with water in a mortar of agate extremely fine, and mixed with oil of spike, are laid on. The painting is afterwards gently dried over a slow fire to evaporate the oil, and the colours melted to incorporate them with the enamel, making the plate red-hot. That part of the painting which is any way effaced, is passed over again, strengthening the shades and colours, committing it again to the fire; and this is repeated till the work is finished. This painiing is usually employed in miniature.
Encuustic Painting. In this method, which was used by the ancients, wax was employed to give a gloss to their colours, and to preserve them from injury. The art was restored by Count Caylus, and the method of painting in wax was announced to the French Academy of Painting and Belles Lettres, in 1753; though M. Bachelier had actually painted a picture in wax in 1749. Some improvements were afterwards made by Mr. Muntz: in 1759, by Mr. J. Colebrooke; and in 1787, by Miss Greenland (now Mrs. Hooker). The wood, or cloth, stretched on a frame is rubbed over with bees' wax, being at the same time held horizontally over, or perpendicularly before a fire, at such a distance, that the wax may gradually melt, while it is rubbed on. It must diffuse itself, penetrate the body, and fill the interstices of the texture of the cloth, which, when cool, is fit to be used. But to make the colours, which are ground in water, adhere to the wax, the whole surface is first rubbed over with Spanish chalk, or white, and then the colours are applied. When the picture is dry, it is put near the fire, by which the wax is melted, and the colours are absorbed. They are not liable to fade er change--no damp or corrosive substance can affect them, they have no tendency to crack --and, if by accident they receive injury, they can be easily repaired.
Fresco Painting is performed on walls, so as to endure the weather. It is done with water-colours on fresh plaster; or a wall laid with mortar not dry. This sort of painting has a great advantage by its incorporating with