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absolutely used, was a title afterwards restrained to the Dauphio of France.

MONSIEUR; in the plural messieurs, a term, or title of civility used by the French, in speaking of their equals, or those a little below them; answering to Mr. or Sir, in English. The word is a compound of mon, my, and sieur, Sir. The Italians say signor, and the Spaniards senor, in the same sense, aud from the same origin. The superscription of all letters began, A monsicur, monsieur such a ope. The use of the word monsieur was formerly more extensive. It was applied to persons who had been dead for many ages, as monsieur St. Augustine, monsieur St. Paul, &c. &c.

Motto, or Device. This is some word or sentence indicative of the quality or character of the bearer, or it conveys some peculiar and important truth; as miseris succurrere disco, I learn to succour the distressed ; sola nobilitat virtus; virtue alone enyobles us.

NOBILITY The nobility of England is called the peerage of England. There are five degrees of nobility, viz. that of duke, marquis, earl or count, viscount, and baron. The term nobility is, in England, restrained to degrees of dignity above knighthood. Some refer the origin of uobility to the Goths, who, after they had seized a part of Europe, rewarded their captains with titles of honour, and called then nobles, (nobiles) to distinguish them from the cominon people. In England, nobility is only conferred by the king, and that by patent. In other countries there are other ways of acquiring it. Thus, in France, formerly, several offices couferred perfect nobilty; as all offices of the crown. There were others also which communicated only a personal nobility, and died with the person, but the late revolution has swept away all these distinctions, and the imperial dynasty of Napoleon has created new ones, too numerous to be detailed. The privileges of the English nobility are very considerable; they are esteemed as the king's here titary counsellors, and are privileged from arrests, unless from treasou, felony, and breach of the peace. In criminal cases, they are only to be tried by a jury of peers, who are not put to their oaths. They give their verdiet upon their honour. In their absence, they are allowed a proxy to vote for them.

NORROY KING OF ARMs. His office is to marshal the funerals of all the inferior nobility, as baronets, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, on the north side of the Trent. See Clarencieux.

PRINCE, is a person invested with the supreme command of a state or country; independent of any superior. It is also used for one who is sovereign of his own territories; yet acknowledges some other as his superior, and pays homage to him. Thus, all the princes of Germany are feudatories of the emperor : and, though they are as absolute in their respective principalities as the emperor himself, yet they are all bound in certain services to him. Prince is a title given to the issue of princes, or those of the royal family; in which sense, those of France were called princes of the blood. In England, the eldest son is created prince of Wales; the younger are created dukes or earls, with what title the king pleases. To all the king's children, belongs the title of royal highness. All subjects are to kneel when admitted to kiss their hand; and at table, out of the king's presence, they are served on the knee. The youngest sons and daughters of the king, have precedence of all peers and public officers, as well ecclesiastical as temporal. Prince of Wales is born duke of Cornwall, and immediately entitled to all the rights, revenues, &c. belonging thereto He is afterwards created prince of Wales and earl of Chester.

PURSUIVANT, the lowest order of officers at arms. They are properly, attendants on the heralds, when they marsbal public ceremonies. Of those, in England, there were formerly, many, but at present only four, viz. bluemantle, rouge-cross, rouge-dragon, and port-cullice. In Scotland, there is only one king at arms, styled Lyon, who has under him, no less than six heralds, as many pursuivants, and a great number of messengers at arms.

QUARTERING. This is the proper disposition of the coat-armour of distinct families within one escocheon; as on account of marriage when the arms of man and wife are conjoined together paleways. This is called impaling baron and feme. When children are born, the baron bears the arms of the feme, she being an inheritrix, in an inescocheon. The heir may bear his mother's arms quartered with his own.

An augmentation of honour and arms is fre


quently acquired by adoption. By the gift or munificence of the sovereign, a person bears his own coat together with the new ensigns of honour.

SHIELD. See Escocheon. SIRE was a title i in France given to the king as a mark of sovereignty: he was thus addressed in epistles and dis

Sire was antiently used in the same sense with sieur and seigneur, and applied to barons, gentlemen, and citizens. Sieur having been a title of honour among the French, the lawyers would say, I plead for the sicur marquis, the sicur abbot, &c. for sicur often expressed seiga nory, or lordship.

STADTHOLDER, a title formerly given to the governor or lieutenant of a province in the United Netherlands; para ticularly that of Holland, where the word has been chiefly used. It is derived from the word stadt, state; and houlder, holding, which is, lieutenant of the states.

The stadtholder was considered the first member of the republic, and chief of all the courts of justice. All sentences and judgments were despatched in his name; and when an office became vacant in any of the courts, the states proposed three persons to the stadtholder, who chose one of them. He could pardon criminals, had the choice of chief magistrates in each city; and the power to cashier masters, and put others in their room. He was arbiter of all differences that arose between the several provinces, or between the cities and members of the states of any province. The office of stadtholder is very antient; the counts not being able to reside in Holland, appointed stadtholders to command in their absence. William 1. prince of Orange, was stadtholder of Holland and Zealand at the time the Dutch shook off the Spanish yoke.

SULTAN, a title given to the emperor of the Turks, which had its rise under Mahmoud. The word is Turkish, and signifies king of kings, and was first given to the Turkisla princes about 1055, The title has been used ever since this time, by all Mohammedan princes. The highest officer, among the Turks, next to the sultan, is the grand vizier, who has the care of the whole empire. He lives in the utmost splendour, and has more than two thousand officers and domestics in his palace.

SUPPORTERS, are figures by the side of a shield, ap pearing as if they actually held it erect. They use chiefly figures of beasts: figures of human creatures for the like purpose, are called tenants. In England, none under the degree of banneret are allowed supporters, which are restrained to those called the high nobility.

THANE, was a dignity among the English, or AngloSaxons. Soon after the conquest the name was disused, and instead, that of king's barons was used. Their origin is referred to king Camute, who taking the chief of the Danish nobility, to the number of 3000, for his guard called them thing-lethe, from two Danish words, theing or thein, both of uobility, and lith, order of battle. In old English authors, thane signifies a nobleman; sometimes a freeman, and sometimes a magistrate.

Viscount is used for a degree of nobility, next below a count or earl, and above a baron. It is supposed to have been brought hither by the Normans. The coronet of a viscount is surrounded with pearls only.

WREATH. A roll of silk, of two colours, blazoned op the shield, and laid on the helmet, as a support to the crest.

Select Books on Heraldry. Porney's Elements of Heraldry, dvo, Memoirs of Antient Chivalry, from the French of M. de St. Palaye, 8vo. a very entertaining work. Brydson's Heraldry, 8vo. As valuable and useful hooks of reference, the following may be named:-Gwillim's Heraldry, fol. Edmouson's Complete Body of Heraldry, 2 vols. fol.''Collins' {Peerage, by 'Sir S. E. Brydges, 9 vols. 8vo. Biographical Peerage, by Sir S. E. Brydges, 3 vols. 12mo. Cruise on Diguities and Titles of Honour, 8vo, an interesting and learned work.


Part V.- Mlanufactures.

A MANUFACTURE is a commodity produced from raw or natural materials, either by the work of the hand, or by machinery. . Nanufactures had begun to flourish in different parts of Europe, long before they were attempted in Britain; the few articles of this description, being obtained in cxchange for wool, hides, tin, or such other produce, as the uncultivated state of the country would supply. ' In 1337, a law passed, prohibiting the exportation of wool, the wearing of any but English cloth, and inviting foreign cloth-workers to settle in England. Before this time, the English were little more than shepherds and wool-sellers. Since the regular establishment of manufactories in this country, the progress of improvement has, in most instances, been remarkably great. This success may justly be attributed to the liberty of the subject—the practical application of the important doctrine of the subdivision of labour--the increased knowledge of the properties of various materials--the vast improvements in all kinds of machinery-and the great capitals invested in the different branches.

Chemistry has contributed powerfully to the improve ment of inanufactures. By the aid of this science the enlightened artist is enabled to investigate the different processes of his manufacture, and to exatnine, by analysis, the nature of the materials he employs. By these means his art is reduced to principles--his operations simplified this processes accelerated, and his labour shortened.

The accounts, hitherto given, of manufactures, are in many respects extremely erroneous.

Those which are now presented to our readers, have been rendered as accurate as possible ; not contented with printed information, we have, in a great variety of instances, availeu ouro selves of the obseivations of practicul men. Some of the articles have been submitted to extensive manufacturers for their correction ; while others have been described from personal iuspection.

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