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in reputation; and he who is a justice of the peace, has this title only during the time he is in commission, and no longer, if he be not otherwise qualified to use it. A sheriff of a county, being a superior officer, bears the title of esquire during his life. The chief of some antient families are esquires by prescription; and in late acts of parliament, many wealthy persons, commonly reputed to be such, were ranked among the esquires of this kingdom.

Furs are of different kinds, and represent the hairy skins of certain animals, prepared for the linings of robes of state ; and antiently shields were covered with furred skins ; they are used in coats of arms.

GARTER, PRINCIPAL KING OF ARMS. This officer was constituted by Henry V. with the advice and consent of the knights of the garter, for the service of this poble society. His duty, iu relation to the garter, is to perform whatever the sovereign, prelate, or chancellor of the order shall enjoin. This officer, as principal herald, or king of arms, in England, (as Lion is in Scotland, and Ulster in Ireland,) marshals the solemn funerals of the higher order of nobility of England, as princes, dukes, marquisses, earls, viscounts, and barons. See Clarencicur and Norroy.

GENTLEMAN; a person of good family, or descended of a family which has long borne arms. In our statutes, gentilis homo was adjudged a good addition for a gentle

J. Kingston was made a gentleman by king Richard II. If it be asked wbạt constitutes a gentleman, the apswer is-being entitled to bear arms. Camden, observes, that the distinction between a gentleman of coat armour, or an upstart, and a gentleman of blood, is the bearing arms from the grandfather, and that he who bears arms from his grandfather, is properly a gentleman of the blood; for which cause it is requisite by the statutes of the Bath, that every knight, before his admission, prove his qualifications. According to Guillim, if a gentleman be bound apprentice to a merchant, or trader, he does not lose his gentility; and he desires it to be remembered for the honour of trade, that Henry VIII. thought it no dishonour to marry the daughter of a mayor of London.

But the word gentleman is a general term, with us, for persons of good education and respectable appearance.


The French gentilhomme, the Italian' gentilhuomo; and the Spanish hidalgo, imply a person of note or fashion. HATCHMENT. See Achievement

HELMET. The helmet was worn in battle and at toutmaments, both for use and distinction; the invention of fire-arnas, however, has confined it nearly to heraldic purposes. The manner of placing them on shields is

very different. Those right in front, with many bars, belong to sovereigns only; those nearly in profile, to peers; wheu front and open, to baronets and knights ; in profile close, to esquires and gentlemen.

HERALDS. In former times, heralds frequently attended their sovereigns in their wars abroad; and in their progress, were often despatched to other princes, with messages of war, as defiances, &c. and if they received any violence, or affront, it was highly resented by him whom they served. Their business was to determine peace and war, leagnies and agreements, and to proclaim them. They were also · employed at jousts and tournaments. Noblemen, as well as princes, bad their heralds and pursuivants.

HERALDS' COLLEGE. This college is situated upon St. Bennet's-bill, near Doctors'-Conimons, and was the antient house of Thomas Stanley, earl of Derby, who married Margaret countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. and the duke of Norfolk having in lieu thereof exchanged lands with the crown, he procured the same to be bestowed by queen Mary on the king's heralds and pursuivants of arms for ever, that they might assemble, and preserve their records in this place. It has been rebuilt since the fire of London, and has a large room for keeping the court of honour, together with a library, houses, and apartments for the officers. See Earl Marshal, Garter, Clas rencieux and Norroy.

KING. A monarch who rules singly over a people. Camden derives the word from the Saxon. Among the Greeks and Romans, kings were priests as well as princes. The king of the Romans was a prince chosen by the emperor, as a coadjutor in the government of the empire. In all public letters, the king styles himself nos, we; though in the time of king John, he spoke in the singular number,


KNIGHT properly signifies a person, who, før hiš virtue and martial prowess, is, by the king, raised above the rank of gentleman, into a higher class of dignity and honour. The word knight, in German, Knecht, signifies a servant; and has since been used for a soldier or man of

There is but one instance where kpight is used iu the first sense, and that is in knight of the shire, who properly serves in parliament for such a county. In the Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, and Dutch languages, knight is expressed by a word signifying a horseman, as being usually employed on horseback. Indeed, our common law calls them milites, soldiers, because they usually held lands in knight service, to serve the king as soldiers in his wars; in which sense the word miles, was used pro vas. salo. Kuighthood was the first degree of honour in the antient armies, and was conferred, with mucb ceremony, on those who had distinguished themselves by valorous exploits. They were originally adopted, which we now call dubbed ; as being supposed, in some measure, the sons of him who knighted them. The ceremonies at the creation of a knight have been various. The principal were a box on the ear, and a stroke with a sword on the shoulder. A shoulder belt, a gilt sword, spurs, and other military accoutrements, were put on, after which, being armed, as a knight, he was led in great pomp to the church.

Knights becoining very numerous, the dignity was of much less repute. Charles V. is said to have made five hundred in a single day; on which account,

therefore, new orders of knighthood were instituted, to distinguish the more deserving. A knight, eques, among the Romans, was the second degree of nobility, following immediately that of the senators. At the tinie of building the city of Rome, the whole army of Romulus consisted of 3000 foot and 500 horse ; which 500 horse were the original of the Roman equites, or knights. These made the second order that had places in the senate.

KNIGHTS ERRANT; a pretended order of chivalry, repeatedly mentioned in romances. They were heroes, who travelled in search of adventures, redressing wrongs, rescuing danisels, and taking all occasions to signalize their prowess. This romantic bravery of the old knights was, formerly, the chimera of the Spapiards ; among whom

every cavalier had his mistress, whose esteem he was to gain by some heroic action. The duke of Alva, remarkable for his age and gravity, is said to have vowed the conquest of Portugal to a young lady. The celebrated romance of Don Quixote, written by the ingenious Cervantes, very successfully ridiculed the adventures of these heroes, and considerably reduced their number. An interesting illustration of the curious and amusing ceremonies of knighthood may be found in a work, entitled, 'Antient Chivalry, 8vo. translated from the French of M. de Palaye,'

KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE, or knights of parliament, are two gentlemen chosen on the king's writ, by such of the freeholders of every county as can expend 40s. per annum to represent such county in parliament. These, when every man who had a knight's fee, was customarily constrained to be a knight, were of necessity Milites gladio cincti, for so the writ runs to this day ; but now custom adinits esquires to be chosen to this office. They must have at least 600l. per annum, and their expenses are to be defrayed by the county, though this is seldom now required.

KNIGHTS BACHELORS, were the lowest order of knights, and inferior to bannerets. At present, they are called equites aurati ; from the gilt spurs that are put on them at the time of creation. The ceremony is exceedingly simple, the king touches him lightly with a naked sword, and says, Sois chevalier, au nom de Dieu; and afterwards Avance chevalier.

KNIGHTS BANNERETS were an antient order of knights, or feudal lords, who, possessing several large fees, led their vassals to battle under their own flag, or banner. The banneret was a dignity allowed to gentlengen of family, who had the power to raise a certain number of armed men, with an estate şufficient to subsist about thirty men. Bannerets were second to none but kuights of the garter. They were reputed the next below the nobility. In England the title died with the persons that gained it. The last person created banneret was Sir John Smith, made so after the battle of Edgehill, for rescuing the standard of king Charles I.

KNIGHT OF THE GARTER. When a knight of the garter marries, his wife's arms must be placed in a distinct shield, becanse his own arms are surrounded with an ensigu of the order; for though the husband, may give his equal share of the shield and hereditary honour, yet he cannot share his temporary order of knighthood with her. See Sect. I. British Orders of Knighthood.

LORD; a title of honour, attributed to those who are deemed noble, either by birth

or creation, and are vested with the dignity of a baron. The word is of Saxon origin, and originally signified bread-giver : alluding to the hospitality of our antient pobles. Lord, amounts, in the above sense, to peer of the realm, lord of parliament. It is also applied to those so called by courtesy in England : as all sons of a duke, or marquis, and the elder son of an earl. The appellation is also given to some persons honourable by office; as lord chief justice, lord chancellor, lord of the treasury, &c.

MANTLE, is the drapery that is thrown around a coat of arms, and is doubled or lined throughout by one of the furs.

MARSHAL, or MARESCHAL; primarily denotes an officer who has the care, or command of horses.

Marshal of France was the highest dignity of preferment in the French armies, under the old monarchy. The title was abolished at the revolution, but has since been revived, and is now used in the French and English armies. See Earl Marshal.

MARQuis is a title next below a duke. It is derived by some from the Marcomanni, an antient people, who inhabited the marches of Brandenburg. Marquisses were antiently governors of frontier cities, or provinces, called marches. Marquis is originally a French title; the Romans were unacquainted with it. Richard II. was the first that introduced the dignity of marquis in England. The coronet of a marquis has strawberry leaves and pearls placed alternately.

MONSEIGNEUR, in the plural messeigneurs, a title of honour and respect formerly used by the Frenci in writing to persons of superior rank, or quality. The word is a compound of non, my, and seigneur, lord. Dukes, peers, archbishops, bishops, were complimented with the title monseigneur. In the petitions presented to the sovereign courts, they used the term nosseigneurs. Monseigneur,

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