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§ 2. Order of the Thistle. This order was instituted by Achaius, king of Scotland, in 787, restored by James V. 1540, revived by king Jamu II. in 1687, and re-established by queen Anne, in 1703. It consists of the sovereign and twelve brethren or knights, making in the whole thirteen, and four officers. The star is worn on the left side of the coat or cloak, and consists of a St. Andrew's cross, of silver embroidery, with rays going out between the points of the cross; on the middle a thistle of gold and green upon a

field of and round the thistle and field a circle of gold, having on it the following motto, in green letters:

NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT, (no man provokes me with impunity.) The badge or jewel is worn pendant to a green riband over the left shoulder, and tied under the arm. It consists of the image of Si. Andrew, with the cross before, enamelled and chased on rays of gold, the cross and feet resting upon a ground of enamelled green; and on the back enamelled on a green ground, a thistle gold and green, the flower reddish, with the above motto round it. The collar consists of thistles and sprigs of rue interspersed, and from the centre is suspended the image of St. Andrew; the whole of gold, enamelled.

§ 3. Order of the Bath. This order was instituted in England at the coronation of Henry IV. 1339, revived by George I. and made a statutable order in 1725. The number of the knights is at the pleasure of the sovereigo. The badge or ensign of this order is a rose, thistle, and shamrock, issuing from a sceptre between three imperial crowns, surrounded d with this motto

, TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO, signifying the three theological virtues. The whole is of pure gold, chased and pierced, and is worn by the knight elect, pendant from a red riband across the right shoulder. 'The collar is of gold, and is composed of nine imperial crowns, and eight roses, thistles and shamrocks issuing from a sceptre, enamelled in their proper colours, and tied or linked together with seventeen gold knots, enamelled whitė. The star consists of three imperial crowns of gold, surrounded by the motto upon *

circle of red, with silver rays issuing from the centre, forming a star, and is embroidered on the left side of the upper garment. No knight elect can wear either the collar, or star before his installation, without leave from the sovereign.

4. Order of Saint Patrick. This order was instituted by George III. in 1783. It consists of the sovereign, a grand master, a privce of the blood royal, and thirteen knights, making in the whole sixteen, and seven officers. The lord lieutenant for the time being is the grand master. The star is charged with three imperial crowns of gold, within a circle of gold, with the motto, Quis SePARABIT, MDCCLXXXII. the whole surrounded with eight rays of silver; and is embroidered on the left side of the coat or cloak. The collar is of pure gold, composed of six harps and five roses, alternately joined together by five knots. In the centre before, is a crown, from which is suspended the badge or jewel of the order, of gold, enamelled, which the rays excepted) is similar to the star.


1. Titles were not so common among the antient Greeks and Ronians, as they are in modern times. Till the reign of Constantine, the title of illustrious, was never given except to those who were distinguished in arms or letters; but in process of time it became hereditary in the families of princes, and every son of a prince was illustrious. The title of highness was formerly given only to kings. The kings of England before the reign of Henry VIII. were ad. dressed by the title of your grace. Since that time, they had the title of king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland; but since the union with Ireland, the title is simply king of the British Isles : the king of France had the title of king of France and Navarre ; ihe king of Spain had a

page of titles to express his several kingdoms and territories he is master of; the king of Sweden entitled himself king of the Swedes and Goths ; the king of Denmark, king of Denmark and Norway: the king of Sardipia among his titles took that of king of Cyprus and Jeru


salem; the duke of Lorrain, the title of king of Jerusalem and Sicily.

2. The pope has the title of holiness ; a cardinal prince of the blood that of royal highness, or most serere highness; other cardinal princes, most eminent highness : an archbishop, grace and most reverend; a bishop, right reverend; abbots and priests, reverend.

To an emperor is given the title of imperial majesty; to kings, majesty ; the kings of France had most christian majesty; to the kings of Spain, catholic majesty; the kings of England that of defender of the faith ; to the Turk, grand seignior and highness; to the prince of Wales, royal highness; to the dauphin of France, serene highness; the doge of Venice, most serenie prince; to electors, electoral highness ; to nupcios and ambassadors, excellency.

The enıperor of China among his titles takes that of Tien Su, Son of Heaven. The Orientals are exceedingly fond of titles; the simple governor of Schiraz, for instance, after a pompous enumeration of qualities, lordships, &c. adds the titles of flower of courtesy, nutmeg of consolation, and rose of delight. The titles of dukes, earls, &c. are conferred on persons from their interest or influence with the king or his ministers; and sometimes they are bestowed for services done to the state ; as also on admirals, great statesmen, and men learned in the law. The chancellor is always made a peer, and sometimes the judges.

ABATEMENT is a casual mark annexed to coat armour, which announces some dishonourable act of the bearer.

ACHIEVEMENT is composed of the shield or escocheon, the mantle, helmet, and crest, which see.

Achievement Funeral, or Hatchment is a coat-armour affixed to the front of a house, acquainting us with the rank of the deceased; whether he was a married map, bachelor, or widower; with the degrees also belonging to females. 1. Bachelor. The arms single or quartered, but never impaled, a crest on the hatchment, and the ground without the escocheon, black. 2. Single woman. Her arms are placed in a lozenge or rhombus, single, or quartered with the ground, black, and a shell instead of a

crest. Ensigned on the hearse with a kuot of ribands. 3. Married man. His wife's arms are impaled with his own, with the ground, black on his side of the hatchment, and white on his wife's side, to distinguish the dead from the living. 4. Wife. Her arms as before on the ground on her side, black, and white on her husbands; a shell instead of a crest. 5. Widower. His arms are impaled with those of his wife, ground all black and a crest. 6. Widow. Her arms are impaled with her husbands's within a lozenge shield; ground all black, a shell instead of a crest. 7. When the deceased is the last of a family, instead of a crest or shell, a death's head is used, thus significantly denoting the universal empire of the king of terrors. The little shields placed on the foreheads of horses drawing the hearses are called chaperonnes.

ARMS, are all those figures and characters with which the field of the escocheon is charged, and are expressive of the degree, merit, and quality of the original bearers.

AUGMENTATIONS, are additional charges borne on an escocheon, and given as particular marks of honour.

BARON is derived from the Latin baro, which was used in the pure age of that language for vir, a valiant man; whence, those placed next the king in batile, were called barones, as being the bravest men in the army: and as princes frequently rewarded the bravery and fidelity of those about them, the word was used for any noble person who held a fee immediately of the king. Baron is more particularly used in England for a lord, or peer of the lowest class; or a degree of wbility, next below that of a viscount, and above that of a knight, or - baronet. Barons are lords of parliament, and peers of the realm, and enjoy all the privileges thereof. The coronet of a baron has only four pearls.

BARONET, a dignity, or degree of honour next below a baron, and above a knight; having precedency of all knights, except those of the Garter. The dignity of baronet is given by patent, and is the lowest degree of hereditary honou The order was founded by James I. in 1611, instead of knights banuerets. They had considerable privileges given them. Baronets take place according to the dates of their patents.

Bey denotes a governor of a country, or town in the

Turkish empire. The Turks write the word beigh, or bek, but pronounce it bey: it properly signifies lord, but is particularly applied to a lord of a banner, or standard, and is the badge of him who governs the principal place in some province.

CHARGES. A charge is that which possesses the field, whether natural, artificial, vegetable, or sensitive, and may be placed throughout the superficies, or in some particular parts of the escocheon.

Common charges consist of angels, men, heasts, birds, fishes, insects, celestial bodies, vegetables, and artificial objects. These are very numerous: they express ensigns of dignity, both spiritual and temporal, the liberal and mechanical professions and military and naval acts. Military figures are equally usual, and consist of castles, batteringrams, daggers, and spears, with many other emblems too numerous to detail.

CLARENCIEUX KING of ARMS, was so named from the duke of Clarence to whom he first belonged; for Lioneltbird son to Edward III. having by bis wife the bonour of Clare in the county of Thomond, was afterwards declared duke of Clarence; which dukedom escheating to Edward IV. he made his earl, king at arins.

His office is to marshal the funerals of the lower pobility; as baronets, knights, and esquires on the south side of the Trent; whence he is sometimes called surroy or southroy in contradistinction to norroy. These two last are called provincial heralds, as they divide the kingdom between thenı into provinces. They have power to visit noblemen's families, to set down their pedigrees, distinguish their arms, appoint persons their arms, and with garter to direct the other heralds. See Norroy.

COMMONER. The arms of a commoner married to a lady of quality, must not be impaled with hers; but should be placed by the side of each other on separate shields, as the lady still retains her title and rank.

CORONET or Crown is inore antient than the helmet, and was invented as the testimony of triumph and victory. The radiated crown was assigned to emperors, but the coronet with pearls on the circle, and intervening foliage has pot been used for more than 300 years.

The coronet of a duke is adorned with strawberry leaves, of a murquis has leaves with pearls interspersed; that of an earl raises

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