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dinia, and Spain. Hence arose wars with the Romans, the two former of which, were long and violent, but in the third, Carthage was utterly destroyed. The first Pupic war began about 289 years after the buildiug of Rome, and continued for 23 or 24 years. The second distinguished by the expedition of Hannibal into Italy, continued 17 years, and the last four years, Carthage being destroyed about 602 A, U. C.
2. The two Macedonian wars; the first against Philip; the second against Perseus; who being conquered by the cousul Paulus Æmilius, was carried in triumph to Rome.
3. The Syrian war with Antiochus the Great.
4. The Grecian war, in which the famous city of Corinth was razed to the ground.
5. The Cimbrian war, which was of high importance. Had it not been for Caius Marius, Rome would then have been no more.
6. Tbe Mithridatic war, with Mithridates, king of Pontas, which was long and obstinate ; that prince having supported himself 26 years against the Romans, notwithstanding the defeats he met with from Sylla and Lucullus. Pompey, at length, triumphed over that prince, as well as over bis ally Tigranes.
7. The war with the Helvetii and Gauls, who were subdued by Julius Cæsar..
The principal civil wars were 1. Between Marius, Cinna, and Sylla, in which Sylla being the conqueror, was created perpetual dictator.
2. Between Pompey and Cæsar, in which Cæsar prevailed, and having defeated Pompey on the plains of Pharsalia, put an end to the liberty of the Romans.
3. Between Antony and Octavius; the latter being victorious in the naval fight at Actium, founded the Roman monarchy, A. U. C.723, A. C. 31.
Roman Houses. According to Vitruvius and others, the Roman Houses, in the city, were thus constructed. The part wbich first presented itself, was the vestibulum, or what we call the portico ; passing this, you entered the atrium, or ball, at the extremity of which, was the tablinum, or repository for books, records, etc.; from the sides of the atrium, you passed by alæ, or ailes, to the cavedium, which was an open court, surrounded by a portico,
or piazza, at the extremity of which was the basilica, or place to administer justice, etc. The triclinia, or dining rooms, with their procæton, or room for attendants, the cubicula or chambers, with the baths, were disposed on the sides of the cavædium; also on the sides of the basilica, were the pinaeutheca, or rooms for pictures and library; passing all these, the perystilium presented itself, which was as spacious as possible, and surrounded with a portico or piazza. This was always of an obloug form. At the extremity of the perystilium were æci or halls appropriated to different purposes.
Their country houses or villas were frequently of one floor, and if they belonged to persons of consequence, were of very great extent, and enriched with the most magnificent and spleudid decorations of every kind, though their external elevation was, generally, quite plain. They consisted of several large halls, porticos, and open courts, running through the centre of the building, with suits of rooms branching out, on either side. These villas were divided into three parts: 1. The urbana, in which the master and his fainily dwelt. 2. The rustica, destined for the uses of husbandry. 3. The fructuaria, or receptacle for fruits of the earth. • The empire of Rome received its chief acquisitions during the ages of the republic; and it was the policy of Augustus and his successors rather to preserve, than extend their dominion. Britain, however, was conquered by the emperors of the first century of the Christian æra, and Dacia by Trajan.
The empire of Rome was about two thousand miles in breadth, from the walls of Antoninus and the northern limits of Dacia, to mount Atlas, and the tropic of Cancer ;- it extended in length more than 3000 miles, from the Western Ocean to the Euphrates, and was supposed to contain 16,000 square miles. The number of subjects, who, either as citizens, provincials, or slaves, observed the laws of Rome, is estimated at 129,000,000.
The trade of Rome was as extensive, as avarice and luxuty could make it. Amber was brought from the Baltic, and furs from Scythia. Babylonian carpets, and other manufactures of the east, were in frequent use. Diamonds, aromatics, and silks, of which a pound was esteemed equal to a pound of gold, were annually exchanged in India for the silver of Rome. The army, upon the peace establishment, consisted, in the time of Adrian, of 375,000 men. The annual pay of a Roman soldier, was about eleven pounds of our money, and, after 20 years service, he was rewarded with a hundred pounds sterling, or an equivalent quantity of land.
Every part of the Roman empire was made accessible by roads, on which it was easy to travel a hundred miles in a day. At the distance of six miles from each other, posts were established, each of them provided with 40 horses, of which the use was seldom permitted to any other, than the servants of the public.
III. The state of the Romans under emperurs, may be divided into two parts: 1. Uoder Pagan emperors. II. Under Christian emperors.
1. Under Pagar emperors. 1. Augustus, founder of the empire; he allayed all the discords with which the public had been agitated. He reigned 44 years after the battle of Actium, and died A.D. 14, in the 76th year of his age. He was assisted in his government by Mecænas, who favoured the nobles; and by Agrippa, who was friendly to the common people, and the commonwealth of Rome. By this means, Augustus preserved the appearances of a popular form of government, even while he was divesting the people of all real authority. Our blessed Redeemer, JESUS CHRIST, was born in the time of this pacific emperor. This is the æra of a new chronology, all Christians computing events from the nativity of Christ.
2. Tiberius, the son of Tiberius Nero and Livia Drusilla, who was afterwards married to Augustus. He was suspicious, angry, cruel, and debauched. One of his vilest actions was the engagement of Piso, governor of Syria, to poison his nephew Germinicus, at Antioch in the 34th year of his age, after he had adopted him as his successor. During the reign of this emperor, Christ was crocified, died, and rose from the dead." Tiberins reigned 22 years, lived 78, and died A. D. 37.
3. Caius Caligula, was more a monster than a man; of wbom Tiberius said, that he brought up a serpent for
the Roman people. Such was the folly of this emperor, that arrogating to himself divine majesty, he was saluted with the title of Jupiter; and snch bis barbarity, as to wish the Roman people had but one neck, that he might cut it off at one stroke. He was killed by the tribunes Cassius and Sabinus, A. D. 40, baving reigned three years, two months, and eight days.
4. Claudius, who on account of his folly and simplicity · may rather be said to have been governed by others, than to have governed himself. His wife Messalina was so debauched, as to marry Caius Silius, during the life of her husband. Claudius had another wife called Agrippina, whose son Nero he adopted, to the exclusiou of Britannicus, whom he had by Messalina. Under this emperor, Great Britain was reduced to the form of a province. He died A. D. 54, being more than 63 years old, of which he reigned not quite 14 years. The revenue which accrued to Rome from the provinces, formed an annual income of 15 or 20 millions, and the people were exempted, before the time of Augustus, for a century and a half, from the pays ment of taxes. Augustus instituted the customs, and a general excise of one per cent.
5. Nero, the scourge of mankind, and most cruel of tyrants. Hence the name has been freely bestowed on all bis imitators. For the first five years indeed, he reigned with applause. His preceptors were Burrhus and Seneca, the one renowned for his skill in arms, the other for his wisdom and learning. Provoked to virtue by the perpetual admonitions of these men, he ruled at first with so much clemency, that when he was to sign an order for the death of any person, he used to say, I wish I could not write. But soon changing his manners, he put
preceptors to death, poisoned his brother Britannicus, and killed his mother Agrippina, and his wives Octavia and Poppea. He sunk into so great barbarity, and such foolish luxury, as to set fire to the city of Rome,-to fish with nets of gold, and never twice to wear the same clothes. At last, the provinces rising to assert their rights, he was forsakeu by all, and put an end to bis own life, in the 32nd year of his age, after having reigned rather more than 13 years, A. D. 68,
6. Galba, who was saluted emperor by the Spanish army, and soon after slain by the Prætoriaus, for exercising
too great severity upon the soldiers. He reigned eight months, and was 73 years old.
7. Otho, who being overcome by Vitellius, died by his own band. He was remarkable only for bis wickedness and the shortness of his reign ; this being only three months and seven days.
8. Vitellius, a man of incontinent gluttony; for during the short
of seven months, he consumed in eating at least six millions of our money. Cruelty was another prominent feature in his character; but his reigu was short. Vespasian being declared emperor by the Syrian legions, Vitellius, in the 57th year of his age, was dragged half naked into the forun, by the Roman people, and with exquisite tortures, torn to pieces, and thrown into the Tiber.
9. Vespasian. He was emulous of the virtues of Augustus, and was even grieved at the infliction of punishment, when justice demanded it. That hateful propensity avarice, however, counterbalanced these virtues. He reigned 10 years, and died A. D. 79, aged 69.
10. Titus, on account of his singular humanity, was callo ed the delight of mankind; he was so generous, that if he had passed a day without exercising his usual goodness, he used this niemorable saying; my friends, I have lost a day! Amici, diem perdidi! He destroyed Jerusalem in the life-time of his father. He reigned rather more than two years, and died A. D. 81, aged 41. He is supposed to have been poisoned by his brother, who succeeded him.
11. Domitian, brother of Titus, was both cruel and im. pious; and persecuted the Christians with the greatest ri. gour. At last, detested by all on account of his cruelty, he was put to death by his own guards. In the beginniug of his reign, he entertained himself with killing flies. He was killed A. D. 96, aged 55, after a reigu of 15 years.
12. Cocceius Nerva, a man of prudence and moderation, who acquired the dominion, when he was advanced in life. Having found the burthen of government tog heavy for bim, he adopted Ulpius Trajan for his successor. He reigned one year and four months, and died A. D. 9 aged 66.
13. Ulpius Trajan, a valiant man, well skilled in mili. tary affairs, was so wise and moderate, as to deserve the