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Crail, Kilrenny, Anstruther, East and West Pittenweem i Dysert, Kirkaldy, Kinghorn, Burut Island
1 Inverkeithing, Duinferline, Queensferry, Culross, Stirling i Glasgow, Renfrew, Rutberglen, Dunbarton
1 Haddington, Dunbar, North Berwick, Lauder, Jedburghi Selkirk, Peebles, Linlithgow, Lanark
1 Dumfries, Sanquhar, Annan, Lochmaban, Kirkcudbright i Wigtown, New Galloway, Stranraer, Whitehorn
1 Ayr, Irwin, Rothsay, Campbelltown, Inverary
Rivers.] The chief rivers of Scotland, are, 1. the Forth, which rises in Perthshire, and discharges itself into the German Ocean; 2. the Tay, between the Highlands and Lowlands; 3. the Tweed, between Scotland and England; 4, 5. the Dee, and the Don, both in Aberdeenshire; 6. the Spey, which rises in Inverness, and divides the counties of Elgin and Banff; and 7, 8. the Clyde and the Nithe, which fall into the Irish Sea.
Canals.] The Clyde and the Forth are now united together by means of a noble canal; which was undertaken a few years since, at a very considerable expense, by a society of public-spirited gentlemen. Thus a communication has been opened between the east and west seas, to the great advantage of the whole kingdom. This canal was entirely completed on the 20th of July, 1790, when a trackbarge sailed from the bason near Glasgow to the river Clyde, and a hogshead of the water of Forth was launched into the Clyde, as a symbol of the junction of the eastern and western seas. This canal, in its course from the Forth to the Clyde, a distance of 35 miles, passes over 10 large aqueducts or water bridges, and 33 small ones or tunnels; there are also 33 draw-bridges over the canal. Its medium width at the surface is 56 feet, at the bottom 27; its depth from sea to sea 8 feet.
Another canal of great importance is now forming, under the sanction of an act of Parliament, passed in June, 1803, extending from Fort William to the Murray Frith. This canal will insure, withont risk or uncertainty, the passage of the whole Baltic and North Sea traile to the Irish Channel in seven days, during the summer months. The present dangerous navigation round by the Shetland and Orkuey islands, cannot be effected in stormy weather in less than three months; and this with most imminent risk, and frequently immeuse loss, not only of valuable ships and cargoes, but of the invaluable lives of British seamen. The canal will also enable this country to carry on with little or no risk, and with extraordinary celerity, a conmerce which vow amounts to 4,000,0001. annually, as well as secure the most important expeditions to our naval operations, by opening from east to west a ready, safe, and rapid channel for our naval squadrons.
Lakes.] The principal lakes of Scotland are, Loch Tay, Loch Lomond, Loch Ness, Loch Au, and one or two more, which present us with such picturesque scenes as are scarcely equalled in Europe, if we except Treland. Near Loch Ness is a hill aloost two miles perpeudicular, on the top of which is a lake of cold fresh water, about thirty fathonis in length, too deep ever yet to be fathomed, and which never freezes; while lake Lochanwyn, or Green Lake, (only 17 miles distant) is covered with ice all the year round. Besides these rivers and lochs, and others too numerous to neution, the coasts of Scotlaud are in many parts indented with large, bold, navigable bays, or arms of the sea; viz. the bay of Glenluce, and Wigtown Bay; sometimes they are called Friths, as the Solway Frith, which separates Scotland from England on the west ; the Frith of Forth, Murray Frith, and those of Cromarty and Dornoch
Mountains.] The principal mountains are, the Grampian Hills, which run in the westward course, from Aberdeen. shire into Argyleshire ;-the Pentland Hills, wbich run through Lothian, and join those of Tweedale ;-Lammer Muir, in Berwick ;-and the Cheviot Hills, on the borders of England, between Roxburghshire and Northunberland,
Productions.] The chief productions of Scotland are, fish, in great abundance and variety; great numbers of cattle, hides, honey, tallow, iron, lead-ore, fir, coals, barley, rye, hemp, flax, which is manufactured into various sorts of cloth and linen, particularly their table linen, which is remarkably fine and beautiful. .
Religion, Manners, &c.] The religion, by law established, is Presbyterian; though the Episcopal church is tolerated, and also has titular bishops. The government is Learly the same as that of England, ever since the union
of the two crowns ;--but the laws and customs are peculiar to Scotland. The English spoken by the Scots, notwithstanding its provincial articulations, is written in the same manner in both kingdoms. At present the pronunciation in Scotland is greatly improving, and among the higher ranks is, daily, advancing nearer to the purity of the capital. The language, spoken in the Highlands, is called Erse, and is nearly the same as that spoken by the vulgar Irish.
Islands of Scotland. The Scottish islands may be arranged under three grand clusters; viz. the Hebrides, on the west ; on the north, the Orkneys, and further north beyond them, the Shetland Isles.
1. The Hebrides, or Western Isles, are very numerous, and some of them large. The principal are Ilay, Jura, Oransa, Colonsa, Mull, Lewis or Harris, Skey, Jona, and St. Kilda or Hirta. Tona was once the seat and sanctuary of western learning ; and the burying place of many kings of Scotland, Ireland, and Norway.
2. The Orkney Islands lie to the north of Dungsby Head, and are divided from the continent by a tempestuous strait, called Pentland Frith. The largest of the Ork. ney Islands, which are about thirty in number, is called Pomona.
3. The Shetland Isles lie to the north-east of the Or. cades, or Orkney Islands, and form part of the shire of Orkney. The largest of the Shetland Islands, which are forty-six in number, is Mainland.
ARMY, NAVY, ETC.
6,262,716 | 12,596,803
Select Books on the Topography of Scotland. Grose's Antiquities of Scotland, 2 vols. 8vo. Forsyth's Beauties of Scotland, 5 vols. 8vo. Pennant's Tour in Scotland, 3 vols. 4to. Heron's Journey in Scotland, 2 vols. 8vo. Tourist's Guide in Scotland, 12mo. Denholm's Account of Glasgow, 8vo. Stark's Picture of Edinburgh,8vo. Martin's Description of the Western Islands, 8vo. Johnson's Tour to the Hebrides, 8vo. Boswell's Tour, 8vo. or 12mo.
This island is situated on the west side of England, between the 6th and 10th degrees of west longitude, and 51 and 551 degrees of north latitude. Its antient name is Erin, concerning the origin of which numerous conjectures have been made; but it is probably a Phenician or Gaelic term, implying the country of the west. Ireland is bounded on the east by St. George's Channel
, or the Irish Sea, which divides it from Great Britain; its other shores are washed by the Atlantic. This island is about 800 miles in length, and about 160 at its greatest breadth. The contents in square miles liave been computed at 27,457 ; and the population at about 4,000,000,
Divisions.] Ireland is divided into four large provinces, which are subdivided into thirty-two counties, viz.
Ulster, (on the north) contains nine counties. Counties.
Principal Towns and Cities. 1. Down ......
Downpatrick, Newry, Dromore, Kellileagh. 2. Armagh Armagh, Charlemont, Lurgan, Portadown. 3. Monaghan .... Monaghan, Glaslough, Castleblaney. ! 4. Cavan.
Cavan, Kilmore, Belturbet, Cootehill. 5. Antrim ....... Carrickfergus, Belfast, Lisburn, Antrim. 6. Londonderry.. Londonderry, Colerain, Newton Limavaddy, 7. Tyrone. Omagh, Dungannon, Augher, Strabane, Cloguer. 8. Fermanagh.. Enniskillen, Newtownbutler, Liniskea. 9. Donegall..
...... Donepal, Ballyshannon, Johnstown, Killybegs.
Munster, (on the south) contains six counties. 1. Clare ..... · Ennis, Killaloe, Bryansbridge, Kilfenora.
Cork, Candon, Cloyne, Mallow, Ross, Kinsale. 3. Kerry Tralee, Dingle, Iceuch, Ardfert, Aghadoe. 4. Limerick ..... Limerick, Killmalloch, Askeaton, Rathkeal. 5. Tipperary .... Clonmell, Cashell, Tipperary, Carrick-on-Suire. 6. Waterford
.... Waterford, Dungarvan, Lismore, Tallagh.
2. Cork ...
Leinster, (on the east ) contains twelve counties. Counties.
Principal Towens and Cities. 1. Dublin ...... Dublin, Swords, Newcastle. 2. Louth ....... Droghé la, Dun jalk, Carlingford, Ardee.! 3. Wieklow Wicklow, Arkiow, Cary's Fort. 4. Wexford ....Wexford, Enniscorthy, New Ross. 5. Longford .... Longford, Granard, Lanesborough, Johnstown, 6. East Meath .. Trim, Kells, Athboy, Navan, Dunleck, Ratoah. 7. West Meath.. Mullingar, Athlone, Kilbeggan. 8. King's Connty.Philipstown, Birr, Tallamore, Banagher. 9. Queen's County.. Maryborough, Mountinellick, Portarlington. 10. Kilkenny ....Kilkenny, St. Canice, Thomastown, Callan. 11. Kildare...... Naas, Athy, Kildare, Castledermot, Kilcullen. 12. Carlow ...... Carlow, Old Leigbliu, Leigulin-bridge, Tullogh.
Connaught, (on the west) contains five counties. 1. Leitrim ...... Leitrim, Jamestown, Carrick. 2. Roscommon Roscommon, Abbey boyle, Tulsk, Elphin. 3. Mayo,
Castlebar, Ballinrobe, Foxford, Killala Ninola."
. Sligo, Coloony, Achonry. 5. Galway
Galway, Loughrea, Athenry, Tuam, Clonfert. Rivers.] The principal are, 1. the Shannon, which rises in Leitrim, and serves as a boundary between Connaught and the three other provinces ;-2. the Blackwater, and the Suire which run through Munster.p3, 4, 5, 6. The Barrow, the Noire, the Boyne, and the Liffey, which all run through Leinster;—and 7, 8, the Bann, and Derg, in Ulster.
Canals.], There are several canals cut through different parts of the kingdom, for the convenience of inland navigation; particularly that between the Shanuon and Liffey, which is carried through an extent of sixty miles. '
Lakes.] The Lakes, or Loughs, of Ireland, are very numerous ; the chief among them are, those of Earn, Neagh, Killarney, Foyle, Swilly, Corbes, and Derg.
Mountains.] The chief mountains are those of Mourne, and Iseah, iu the county of Down.
The principal articles of commerce are, cattle, hides, tallow, butter, cheese, salt, boney, wax, hemp, wool, frieze, and great quantities of excellent linen and bread. But Ireland is also rich in mineral treasures. A fine mine of native gold was discovered a few years since in the county of Wicklow, which is now beneficially worked for govern