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could be brought together, of him, I say, nothing remained for the executioner to drag away.' Velleius Paterculus, whose history ends A. D. 30, attributes (11 127 § 3. 128 S 3) to the favorite every excellence of body and mind.

EX FACIE TOTO ORBE SECUNDA for the expression cf. Stat. 8. I 4 6-7 of the praef. urb. proxima cervix ponderis immensi. ib. v 2 47 ille secundus apex bellorum et proxima cassis. Symm, laud, in Val. sen. I § 5 'most emperors soon feared as rivals quos secundos creaverant.' Nep. Pelop. 4 § 3 Bremi haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda ita, ut proxima esset Epaminondae. AV. Caes. IX $ 11 Titus after his defeat of the Jews was made praef. praet. Thus honos is, ingens a principio, tumidior atque alter ab Augusto imperio fuit. On the praefectura praetorii as falling little short of imperial authority and power' (Herodian v 1) see Becker 11 3 289. Marcil. on Suet. Tit. 4. add Eunap. p. 490 39 Didot 'royalty without its purple. On the power of Seianus as praefectus see Tac. an. iv 2 he first made the office important by bringing the cohorts before dispersed through the city into one camp (cf. Burn Rome and the Campagna 61–2). ib. 7 Drusus, son of Tiberius, complained incolumi filio adiutorem imperii alium vocari et quantum superesse ut collega dicatur? ib. 40 Tiberius to Seianus I will only say, nihil esse tam excelsum, quod non virtutes istae tuusque in me animus mereantur.' Sen. ad Marc. 1 § 2 death the only escape from slavery inter Seianianos satellites. ib. § 3 subactis iam cervicibus omnium et ad Seianianum iugum adactis. Suet. Tib. 35 Seianus raised by Tiberius ad summam potentiam not from good will, but as an accomplice of his plots against the family of Germanicus. DCass. LvII 19 § 7 Tiberius made Seianus his counsellor and minister in all things. cf. LVIII 5 g 1 (cited on ver. 93). No wonder that portents (a ball of fire Sen. n. q. 11 § 3) were reported as announcing so great a fall. Macro enticed S. to thọ senate-house by the bait of the tribunicia potestas DCass. LVIII 9 $ 4, and he was received with plaudits by the senators on that account 10 $ 3.

64 FIUNT URCEOLI PELVES SARTAGO MATELLAE Plin. pan, and Suet. Ner. cited on 58. Tac. an. 111 70 A.D. 22 L. Ennius an eques was charged with treason quod effigiem principis promiscuum ad usum argenti vertisset. Tiberius interposed his veto on the prosecution, though Ateius Capito with mock freedom complained that the senate ought not to be deprived of its right of passing sentence, nor ought 80 great a crime to be unpunished. Prud. perist. x 299–300 from Iuv., speaking of idols quos trulla pelvis cantharus sartagines , fracta et liquata contulerunt vascula. The noble protests against idolatry in Is. 44 and Baruch 6 suggested the patristic common place, .vessels for dishonour' made into gods, or from gods. See the collections of Gataker adv. misc. 11 19 p. 370, Oehler, Haverc. and Herald on Tert, apol. 12. 13. cf. Arn, vi 14.

URCEOLI III 203. jugs or ewers, with one handle, to hold gelida or calda for drinking (Mart. xiv 105 u. ministratorii; ib. 106 an earthenware urceus, cf. Petron. 74); of copper (Cat. r. r. 13 § 1) or earthenware (ib. § 3 in both places urcéus. Petron. 95); used for preserving service-berries (Colum. XII 16 § 4), medlars (Pallad, iv 10 8 22), and melimela (ib. XIII 4 § 2); sometimes of silver (dig. xxXIV 2 21 pr. •decanters '); classed with paterae, calices, scyphi Paul. III 6 § 90 cf. $ 86. Becker Gallus 113 316. 11. 284. Many are preserved in the museo Borbonico (Rein in Pauly s. v.). Lob. paralip. 34 and Curtius derive the word from ópxn.

PELVES 111 277 schol. vi 441, a foot-pan, one of Corinthian bronze in Orelli inscr. 3838. one of silver, contain: ing ointment for the feet, in Petron. 70. Varr. l. 1. v 8.119 PELVIS,

SARTAGO

pedelvis, a pedum lavatione. It was also used for washing up cups Non. xv 4 sinus aquarius, in qua vasa perluuntur. a frying-pan, such as has been found at Herculaneum, of the same shape as those now in use (Rich s. v.); dig. xxxiv 2 19 § 12 of silver; used for melting rosin Plin. Ivi $ 55. Sidon. ep. VIII 14 compares the full habit of body reduced by mortification to corn parched in quadam conscientiae sartagine.

MATELLAE cf. 1 131 n. Teuffel in Pauly 14 12 858. iv 1636. Plut. praec. ger. reip. 27 p. 820% of the 300 statues of Demetrius Phalereus none suffered from rust or mould, but all were overthrown in his life-time; the statues of Demades they melted down eis ápidas.' What fate would have befallen one who should have done such indignity to a likeness of S. but a few hours before, appears from Sen. de ben. III 26 Paullus, an expraetor, wore at dinner a ring bearing a head of Tiberius. It happened that he sumpsisse matellam. Maro a bloodhound, vestigator, of the day, calling the company to witness admotam esse imaginem obscenis, began to draw up an information. But a slave, watching the plot, had drawn off his master's ring, and displayed it on his own hand.

65 DCass. LVIII 12 &$ 4–5 • as though they had been freed from some despotism, they voted that no one should

mourn for him [Seianus) and that a statue of Liberty should be set up in the forum, and (a thing wholly without precedent) that a festival should be celebrated by all the magistrates and priests, and (which was no less unprecedented) that the anniversary of his death should be kept as a day of rejoicing both with horse races and baiting of beasts, by the members of the four colleges of priests and the flamens of Augustus.' ib. 13 $S 2–3 Tiberius refused to receive the deputation sent to congratulate him, and even denied himself to the consul. Suet. Claud. 6 Claudius represented the equestrian order when it congratulated the consuls on Seianus' fall.

PONE DOMI LAURUS as at a wedding vi 79 ornentur postes et grandi ianua lauro. ib. 227–8. or on any occasion of rejoicing ib. 51-2 (cf. 47–8). Ix 85. x11 91 n. Greg. Naz. or. 5 g 35 (i 170) 'let us keep the feast, .. not festooning the streets with flowers, .... for so the gentiles keep holy day.' ib. 38 8 5 (1 665) élet us not crown our vestibules, nor decorate the streets.' Socr. h. e. 11 1 § 29 when Iulian was entering a town, a crown (one of those with which they decorate streets), slung from pillars by ropes, alighted on his head. MAGNUM CRETATUMQUE BOVEM VI 47 (cl. 51–2). From Lucret. [? Lucil.] ap. schol. cretatumque bovem duci ad Capitolia magna. Ov. ex P. iv 9 49–50 ‘now to decree thanksgivings to the gods for Caesar, albave opimorum colla ferire boum.' Arr. Epict. 1 19 24 Has a man been honoured with the tribunate? all who meet him congratulate him: one kisses his eyes, another his neck, the slaves his hands. He comes home, and finds lights burning; he goes up to the Capitol and offers victims.' cf. the rejoicings on Nero's fall DCass. LXIII 29 § 1. 66 CRETATUM tauntingly said; the napkin dropped by the praetor as a signal for starting in the circus was also cretata Mart. XII 299: so too the toga of a candidate. Dark spots in the victim were rubbed over with creta ['creta seems to have been a kind of pipe-clay, as our chalk appears to be quite unknown in Italy, as well as our flint.' H. A. J. M.). SEIANUS DUCITUR UNCO ducitur: απάγεται Staveren on Nep. ΧΙΧ 4 8 3. Sen. ad Helv. 13 § 7 ducebatur Athenis ad supplicium Aristides. Iuv. XIII 245 nigri patietur carceris uncum. Aug. civ. D. III. 27 Bebius et Numitorius unco tracti sparsis visceribus interirent. Uncus is the hook or drag, fastened under the chin, by which the corpses

DUC IN CAPITOLIA

of convicts were drawn from the neighbouring carcer, where they had been strangled, to the scalae Gemoniae, Prop. v = iv 1 141 bene cum fixum mento discusseris uncum. Suet. Tib. 61 every one executed under Tiberius was cast out uncoque tractus; in one day twenty, in. cluding women and boys. ib. 75 some threatened the corpse of Tiberius with the uncus and the Gemoniae; some who had been left for execution on the day of his death, were strangled by their guards and exposed at the Gemoniae. Sen. de ira III 3 8 6 cadavera quoque trahens uncus. id. ep. 82 & 3 he who lies on perfumes is no less dead than he who rapitur unco. ib. 92 35 the sage fears no threats of outrage to his lifeless limbs; non conterret, inquit, me nec uncus, nec proiecti ad contumeliam cadaveris laceratio foeda visuris. DCass. LVIII 5 & 6 A. D. 31 when S., after sacrificing in the Capitol, went down to the forum, his guard, not being able to follow him for the press, turned by the road leading to the carcer, and slipt and fell down the steps down which convicts were thrown; a bad omen for 8. ib. 11 g 4–6 in the first instance, after the reading of the verbosa epistula, S. was led to the carcer: the same day the senate met in the temple of Concord near the carcer, and seeing the temper of the people, and the quiescence of the praetorians, sentenced him to death; so he was executed and cast down the steps. . His children also were slain in accordance with a decree, the daughter, who was betrothed to the son of Claudius, having first been violated by the executioner, because a virgin could not without impiety be killed in the prison [cf. Suet. Tib. 61. Tac. an. vi 1 § 4). His wife Apicata was not indeed condemned, but when she heard that her children were dead, and saw their carcases on the steps, went home, and put an end to her life. cf.

DCass. Lx 35 3 a ghastly jest of L. Iunius Gallio, Seneca's brother: 'as the executioners used to drag those who were sentenced to death in the carcer with certain great hooks to the forum, and thence hauled them to the river, he said that Claudius had been drawn up to heaven by a hook.' M. Sen. contr. 25 & 2 reliquiae praetoris unco trahebantur. VM. vi 3 g 3 M. Claudius [Glicia B. c. 237] was executed by order of the senate: spiritum extinxit, corpus contumelia carceris et detestanda Gemoniarum scalarum nota foedavit. ib. 9 & 13 of Q. Caepio pontifex max. corpusque eius funesti carnificis manibus laceratum in scalis Gemoniis, iacens magno cum horrore totius fori Romani conspectum est. Iul. Obs. 116 B.C. 87 the people rified the bier of Cn. Pompeius the father, corpus unco traxit. Tac. an. 11. 14 A. D. 20 statues of Piso dragged to the Gemoniae. ib. vi 25 death of Agrippina, 18 Oct. 33, on which day two years before S. had died; the senate decreed a yearly offering to Iuppiter Capitolinus on the day, and Tiberius boasted that he had forborne to strangle her and cast her out on the Gemoniae cf. Suet. Tib. 53. Tac. ib. 29 many suicides to avoid confiscation and to secure burial, which was denied to those who were executed. Suet. Tib. 54 Nero, son of Germanicus, driven to commit suicide, when an executioner, professing to be sent by the senate, dangled before him laqueos et uncos. DCass. Lx 16 § 1 A. D. 42 men and women executed, and their bodies thrown down the steps; where were also exposed the heads of those who were executed out of Rome. Suet. Ner. 24 (quoted above 58). Tac. h. 111 74 A.D. 69 Flavius Sabinus was mutilated and beheaded, and his trunk thrown on the Gemoniae. Plut, Galb. 28 A.D. 69 the headless corpses of Vinius, Piso and Galba, in consular attire, were left lying in the forum; the head of Galba, after being paraded on a piko (27 § i) was insulted by slaves and cast into the Sessorium, where the heads of those who were executed by

Tac. 1. c.

imperial order were thrown. cf. DCass. LXIV° 6 3. Lamprid. Comm, 18—9 frantic litany chanted by the senate after the death of Commodus 31 Dec. A. D. 192 qui senatum occidit, unco trahatur. qui innocentes occidit, unco trahatur. · qui sanguini suo non pepercit, unco trahatur. qui te occisurus fuit, unco trahatur. carnifex unco trabatur. carnifex senatus more maiorum unco trahatur. parricidae cadaver unco trahatur. gladiatoris cadaver unco trahatur perroga, perroga. omnes censemus unco trahendum. qui omnes occidit, unco trahatur. qui omnem aetatem occidit, unco trahatur. qui utrumque sexum occidit, unco trahatur, etc. Hence the curse in Ov. Ibis 163—4 carnificisque manu populo plaudente traheris | infixusque tuis ossibus uncus erit. A barbarous nickname was invented for the executioners Fest. p. 102 M. HAMOTRAHONES alii piscatores, alii, qui unco cadavera trahunt. The red-hot (?) hook, used to torture the living (Arn. 11 6 fin. Prudent. perist. v 73-—4 of Vincentius stridentibus laniatur uncis), appears to be different from that in the text. Cf. the anxiety of Nero that his whole body should be burnt to escape outrage (Suet. 49), the threat of Goliath, the ends of Ahab and Jezebel etc.; the treatment of Hector's corpse etc.; the heads of traitors on Temple Bar and London Bridge; corpses of English criminals hung in chains (as of old on the cross, e.g. in the story of the Ephesian matron Petron. 111). 67 SPECTANDUS DCass. Lyı 11 g 2 (cited on 99). Plin. pan. 33 g 3 con. trasting Trajan's reign with Domitian's nemo e spectatore spectaculum factus miseras voluptates unco et ignibus expiavit. DCass. lxv 20–1 A.D. 69 the soldiers dragged Vitellius out of the dogs' kennel, where he was hidden, pinioned him, put a rope about his neck, and dragged him to the forum of Augustus, buffeting him, plucking his beard, and mocking him; as he hung down his head they pricked him under the chin, to force him to look up. he and his statues were drawn to the prison; thence to the Gemoniae, where he was hacked to pieces; his head was cut off and carried through the town. Tac. h. 111 84—5. Suet. Vit. 17 Casaub.

GAUDENT OMNES cf. the scenes at the execution of Robespierre and other chiefs of the Terror.

QUAE LABRA, QUIS Bentl. on Phaedr. IV 6 3 seems rightly to understand labra of the scorn habitual to S. in his greatness (Iuv. XIV 325). Quis as in quis furor est etc.

68 NUMQUAM AMAVI HUNC HOMINEM 81 n. Tac. an, IV 74 A, D. 28 those whom S. condescended to notice were male alacres, quibus infaustae amicitiae gravis exitus imminebat. vi 1 § 1 A.D. 31 a friend of S., on the point of dying by his own hand, says: he [Tiberius], who had taken S. as his colleague and son-in-law, forgives himself; ceteri, quem per dedecora fovere, cum scelere insectantur. miserius sit ob amicitiam accusari, an amicum accusare, haud discreverim. ib. 8 M. Terentius in like manner confessed his friendship for S. ea tempestate qua Seiani amicitiam ceteri falso exuerant. ib. 10. 19 many executed for mourning friends or relations who had fallen. DCass. LVIII 10 § 4 when the verbosa epistula was read, some of those who sat near S. rose up, not caring to share the same seat with him, whose friendship they had but just before prized. $ 7 after the whole was read they railed at him, some from fear and to cloke their friendship. ib. 12 $$ 243 the soldiers seeing themselves suspected in regard of their devotion to S., fell to arson and pillage...... Nor was the senate calm; they, who had courted S. were sore troubled for fear of punishment; they who had accused or borne witness against some, whose ruin they suspected was due not to T. but to S.,. were filled with dismay. Very few felt assured. ib. 14 hiş

ILLI VULTUS ERAT

relations and friends and all oihers who had flattered him and moved the votes of honours for him, were put on their trial. Most of them were convicted for what had made them envied before, and the others sentenced them for measures which they themselves had before supported. Many who had been tried and acquitted, were accused again and con. demned, as having owed their former escape to his favour. In default of any other charge, it was enough to secure a man's punishment that he had been a friend of S., as though T. himself had not loved him and so been the occasion of the devotion of the others to him. The very. creatures of S. turned informers; for they had no difficulty, from their exact knowledge of those like themselves, in discovering and convicting them etc. ib. 16 8 6 after a while a kind of amnesty was proclaimed; T. declared that all were free to mourn S. or any one else who had suffered. cf. Suet. Tib. 61 interdictum ne capite damnatos propinqui lugerent. Con. trast the flattery of Velleius A. D. 30 with the execrations of Valerius Maximus A. D. 32. Vell. 11 127 § 3 virum severitatis laetissimae, hilaritatis priscae, actu otiosis simillimum, nihil sibi vindicantem eoque adsequentem omnia, semperque infra aliorum aestimationes se metientem, vultu vitaque tranquillum, animo exsomnem. ib. 128 9 3. VM. ix 11 8 4 Seeing all crimes outdone by the design of one single parricide, I hasten with affection more loyal than powerful ad id lacerandum. Who can execrate as he deserves one who essayed, abolishing every bond of friendship, to bury in bloody darkness the human race? More savage than Brennus and Hannibal, S. aspired to seize the reins which our prince and father holds in his saving right hand. But the gods' eyes were awake, the stars maintained their influence, altars and temples were fenced by a divine presence, nor did aught, that was bound to keep guard for that august head and the country, allow itself to slumber; above all the author and guardian of our safety by his divine wisdom provided that his most surpassing merits should not be overwhelmed in the general wreck of the world. So peace stands fast, the laws prevail, the even course of private and public duty is maintained unharmed. But he who, in violation of the covenants of friendship, plotted the overthrow of this happy state, omni cum stirpe sua obtritus, by the might of tủe Roman people, pays the penalty he has deserved in hell, if indeed he has found admittance even there. Sen. ep. 55 § 3 Vətia, though rich and an ex-praetor, lived to old age, and was counted happy: Nam quotiens aliquos amicitia Asinii Galli, quotiens Seiani odium, deinde amor merserat, aeque enim offendisse illum quam amasse periculosum fuit, exclamabant homines: "0 Vatia, solus scis vivere.

SI QUID MIHI CREDIS Cf. 246. Iv 53. found also in prose Plin. ep. ad Trai. 26=11 § 2. Fronto ep. ad Ver. II 7 p. 135 Naber.

69 SED QUO CECIDIT SUB CRIMINE Suet. Tib. 61 Tiberius in his autobiography said that he punished S., quod comperisset furere adversos liberos Germanici filii sui: though one son of G. was killed when S. was already suspected, and the other after his fall. Accord. ing to Ios. ant. XVIII 6 § 6 Antonia, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Germanicus and Claudius, sent Pallas (Iuv. I 109 n.) to Capreae, with intelligence of the plot, when S. had already won many senators and the army. cf. DCass. LxvI 14 SS 1–2, where observe the caution of Antonia. CECIDIT SUB CRIMINE cadere often = to lose one's cause, be cast in a suit )( stare. IV 12 caderet sub iudice morum. Suet. Oth. 5 nihilque referre ab hoste in acie an in foro sub creditoribus caderet. Burm. on Quintil. decl. 379 pp. 776–7 cites exx, of sub crimine with occidere, vincire, luere poenam; reum sub hac culpa esse. For the phrase cadere causa

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