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Men pray for eloquence, strength, wealth, and thus invite their own ruin

upon themselves (1—27). Well might Democritus and Heraclitus in this vanity of human wishes find matter, the one for laughter, the other for tears (28–53). For what may we pray (54—5)? Vaulting ambition o'erleaps itself: witness Seianus, Crassus, Pompeius, Caesar (56—113). The schoolboy envies the eloquence of Demosthenes and Cicero; yet it had been well for Cicero, if he had only been known as the meanest of poets: for Demosthenes, if he had never left his father's smithy (114—132). How passing is military glory, and how uncertain military power, appears in Hannibal and Xerxes; Alexander, for whom the world was all too strait, found rest at last in an urn (133—187). Length of days does but bring decay of body and mind. Peleus and Nestor, had they died early, would not have mourned the loss of Achilles and of Antilochus. Priam, Hecuba, Croesus, Mithridates, Marius, Pompeius were spared to their own hurt (188—288). Beauty is dangerous even to the chaste ; example of Silius (289—345). Leave to the gods, who know what is best for you, to order your lot as they will : pray only for health of mind and body, that you may

bravely bear the worst (316—365). Cf. [Plat.] Alcib. 11. Pers. 11. VM. VII 2 E § 1. Sen. ep. 10 $8 4–5.

32 $$ 4–5. 60 § 1. 118 SS 4—9. Lucian. navig. 13 seq. id. Icaromen, 25. Max. Tyr. 11=30. Euseb. ap. Stob. flor. I 85. Fr. Jacobs verm. Schriften III 107–112. Lasaulx Studien d. class. Alterthums 137–158.

Döllinger Heidenthum u. Judenthum 199—202. Our satire is referred to by Chaucer Troilus and Creseide IV 25 0

Juvenall lord, true is thy sentence, / that little wenen folke what is to yerne, | that they ne finden in hir desire offence, | for cloud of errour ne lette hem discerne | what best is. Warton-Hazlitt hist. engl. poetry IV 414 • In 1617 one W. B. produced the earliest attempt at an english Juvenal...That which seems best is worst. Exprest in a paraphrastical transcript of Juvenal's tenth satyre.' A few verses are

borrowed by Hall. There is a fine version by Sir John Beaumont, Chalmers british poets VI 43—7; and another in Hen. Vaughan's works, ed. Grosart, 11 31–55. Johnson's · Vanity of human wishes' is an imitation.


1-11 In every land, from furthest west to furthest east, few only can discern true blessings from their counterfeits, clear from all mist of

For what do we with reason fear, covet with reason? what do you undertake with foot so right, with a start so lucky, but you rue your attempt and the success of your desire? Whole houses have fallen on their own petition, when indulgent gods have taken them at their word. In peace, in war, 'men crave what will only harm them; his flood of speech is often the orator's death-warrant; rash trust in his thews, the wonder of the world, made Milo a prey of wolves. VM. vıı 2 E § 1 (a passage which, as also Plat. Alc. II and Pers. I1, Iuv. had before him) mind of mortals, wrapt in thickest darkness [Iuv. 4 nebula), over how wide a field of error dost thou throw thy prayers broadcast: thou seekest wealth, which has been the destruction of many [12—27]: thou lustest after honours, which have ruined not a few [133—187]; thou broodest over dreams of sovereignty, whose issue is often seen to be pitiable [56—113]: thou graspest at splendid marriages (350—3]; but they, though sometimes they add glory to families, yet not seldom overthrow them utterly' [funditus domos evertunt. cf. 7].

1 GADIBUS XI 162. Cadiz, beyond the pillars of Hercules (Herodot. IV 8 $ 1), was the western boundary of the world, the ne plus ultra, to the ancients Pind. Nem. IV 69 Γαδείρων το προς ζόφον ου περατόν. Αnacreontic. XIII Bergk =XXXII 25-6 και τους Γαδείρων εκτός τους Βακτρίων TE kiv8W [cf. here 2 Gangen). Sil. 1 141 finem hominum Gades. Vell. I 2 & 4. Stat. s. III 1 183 solisque cubilia Gades. Solin. 23 & 12 extremus noti orbis terminus. Aristid. II p. 354 Jebb. Paroemiogr. ed. Leutsch in 661 n. 19. Avien, descr. orbis 98–100. St Paul (Clem. Rom. ep. 1 5) "went to the boundary of the west,'i.e. he fulfilled his declared intention of visiting Spain. On the alliteration in Gadibus usque see 122 n.

USQUE without ad before the names of towns usually, before other nouns in Plin. Stat. Iust. 2 AURORAM Ov. m. 1 61 Eurus ad Auroram Nabataeaque regna recessit.

GANGEN ib. iv 20–1 oriens tibi victus ad usque decolor extremo qua tinguitur India Gange. Luc. II 229-234. Stat. Th. 1 686. Here were the pillars of Bacchus Avien. descr. orbis 824—8. supra p. 63. PAUCI 19. 112. 337. II 53' only few.' To limit pauci, unus, Cic. either uses modo (sometimes solus) or has no particle ; Liv, and the writers of the silver age (e.g. Quintil. i 12 & 2) often add tantum (Krebs-Allgayer Antibarbarus 706. 969). Caes. b. c. II 43 § 3 horum fuga navium onerariarum magistros incitabat : pauci lenunculi ad officium imperiumque conveniebant.

DINOSCERE In other compounds the initial g of the second member is preserved, ignosco, cognosco etc. See Corssen über Aussprache u. 8. W. 12 82. 437. Pers. v 105, 107 veri speciem dinoscere calles . ...quaeque sequenda forent, quaeque evitanda vicissim. DL. VI § 42 • Diogenes blamed men for their prayers, saying that they asked for what they thought good, not for the true goods.' Sen. ep. 45 SS 6. 7 res fallunt: illas discerne. pro bonis mala amplectimur: optamus contra id, quod optavimus. pugnant vota nostra cum votis...adulatio quam similis est amicitiae !...doce quemadmodum JUV. II.


hanc similitudinem possim dinoscere...vitia nobis sub virtutum nomine 'obrepunt. ib. 1 10 SS 5. 7 nemo nostrum, quid veri esset, excussit...nihil videmus, nec quid noceat, nec quid expediat. ib. 32 $$ 4–5. 118 $$ 5—9. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 10 29. Arrian. Epict. II 3 SS 1. 5. 3 ILLIS i.e. veris bonis dat. as in VF1, iv 157–8 diversa que regi | corda gerens. So Hor. Vell. Luc. Curt. and Quintil. often (Mühlmann col. 459). So the dat. is found with differre, distare, abhorrens. ILLIS MULTUM DIVERSA i. e. mala. So recte an secus, recte secusne, bene αη secus, τα καλά και τα μή, τα χρηστά ή τα έτερα (Wytt. ad Ρlat. Phaed. 114. cited by Heinrich).

4 ERRORIS NEBULA from [Plat.] Alc. II 150de • as Homer (E 127 seq. cf. P 643—9] says that Athena removed the mist [axlúv] from the eyes of Diomedes, that he might well distinguish a god and a man, so you too, as it seems to me, must first remove the mist from the soul, which is now upon it, and then apply the means whereby you are to distinguish the good and the bad.' See Max. Tyr. DCass. Eus. in HSt. áxảús ad fin. Theodoret. gr. aff. cur. 1 4 p. 4 1. 48 we must discover every method to dispel the fog sóuixanv] that weighs them down, and to shew them the brightness of the intel. lectual light.' Lact. v 10 & 5 tenebrarum et errorum nubes hominum pectora obduxit. Prud. hamart. 88 sunt animis etiam sua nubila crassus et aer. cf. the context.

RATIONE 'on principle,' 'by reason's rule.' Plin. ep. IX 7 $ 1 aedificare te scribis. bene est: inveni patrocinium; aedifico enim iam ratione quia tecum. Generally cum is prefixed to the abl. modi, when not accompanied by pron, or adj.; a few substantives however are used almost adverbially without cum, as vi, more, modo, iure, dolo, silentio Zumpt § 472 n. 1. Madvig $ 258 n. 2. TIMEMUS AUT CUPIMUS Obbar on Hor. ep. I 6 9, 10. Munro and Lach. mann on Lucr. vi 25. Sen. ep. 82 § 6 sciat, quo iturus sit, unde ortus, quod illi bonum, quod malum, quid petat, quid evitet, quae sit illa ratio, quae adpetenda ac fugienda discernat, qua cupiditatum mansuescit insania, timorum saevitia compescitur. ib. 88 SS 3–4. Philosophy teaches us to discriminate true from false pleasures and pains, xalpelv kal Autrci obal ois dei Aristot. eth. Nic. 289— 3 $ 2. Berkeley minute philos. VII 34. Sen. ep. 123 § 13 debemus itaque exerceri ne haec [labour, death, pain, reproach, spare. diet] timeamus, ne illa [riches, pleasures, beauty, ambition] cupiamus. ibid. 121 & 4.

5 DEXTRO PEDE Petron. 30 .after we had been sated with these pleasures, as we were about to enter the dining-room, one of the slaves, appointed to the express function, cried out dextro pede.' Sil. VII 171—2 attulit hospitio...pes dexter et hora Lyaeum. Prudent. c. Symm. 11 79 feliciter et pede dextro. Vitruv. III 3 § 4 the steps to a temple should always be odd in number, that the worshipper may mount the first step dextro pede, and also enter the temple right foot foremost. cf. Iambl. vit. Pyth. $ 156 : [Eur. Bacch. 943—4 ļv dežzę xp xảua ốek Toội | apeup vip (the thyrsus) J. E. S. Apul, Met. I 5 p. 27 having set out left foot foremost (sinistro pede profectum), I was, as usual, disappointed.' Cf. Ov. Ibis 101 ominibusque malis, pedibusque occurrite laevis. The gods are entreated to come pede secundo (i. e. Serv. Aen. VIII 302 omine prospero) Aen. x 255. Aug. ep. 17=44 & 2 • What does Namphanio [a Punic word] mean but a man of good foot, i.e. one who brings luck with him; as we commonly say that he has entered secundo pede, whose entrance has been followed by some prosperity ? Cf. Prop. III=IV 1 6 quove pede ingressi? Ov. fast. i 514 felici pede. heroid. XXI 69, 70. Plin. XXVIII § 28 some spat into their right shoe before putting it on, others on crossing a place where they had encountered danger. Augustus (Suet. 92) regarded it as of evil omen to put the left shoe on the right foot.

CONCIPIS plan. cf. conc. fraudes.

6 PERACTI Ov. ibis 97 peragam rata vota sacerdos. Here accomplished,' as Nep. 25 22 8 8 propositum...peregit. Stat. Th. XI 671 spes longa peracta est.

7 seq. 111. 346 seq. From [Plat.] Alc. II 138 bo. 141. many call down ruin upon themselves, not wittingly, as Oedipus, but mistaking it for a blessing. 1420d. 1436 Ignorance makes us pray for what is worst for us. Any one would think himself able to pray for the best for himself, not the worst; for that is more like a curse than a prayer.

EVERTERE DOMOS 108. cf. VM. above p. 65. Cic. p. Cael. § 28 nullius vitam labefactent, nullius domum evertant. The gods have overthrown,' they have been known to do 80; e. g. Midas, Semele, Phaethon, Theseus (Eur. Hipp. 44 seq.).

OPTANTIBUS IPSIS abl. Sen. ep. 22 § 12 rise to a better life by the favour of the gods, but not as they favour those, on whom with good and kind look they have bestowed mala magnifica, ad hoc unum excusati, quod ista, quae urunt, quae excruciant, optantibus data sunt. cf. Fronto de nepote amisso II p. 233 Naber.

8 FACILES compliant, gracious. Ov. m. v 559. Mart. 1 103 4 riserunt faciles et tribuere dei. cf. the whole epigr. XII 6 10. Luc. 1 505—6 o faciles dare summa deos, eademque tueri | difficiles.

NOCITURA Sen. ep. 110 $ 10 quidquid nobis bono futurum erat, deus et parens noster in proximo posuit...nocitura altissime pressit.

TOGA' by the arts of peace,' in the forum and the senate VIII 240. Cic. in Pis. & 73 pacis est insigne et otii toga; by the words cedant arma togae, he meant bellum ac tumultum paci atque otio concessurum. Plin. paneg. 56 & 7. DCass. XLI 17 3 1 εσθήτα την ειρηνικήν.

9 TORRENS DICENDI COPIA 128 n. III 74, Quintil. I 8 $ 60 torrens... dicentis oratio. Hence Auson. prof. 1 17 dicendi torrens tibi copia. The repetition in torrens dicendi copia and facundia is characteristic of Iuv. Lupus (22, 23) cites II 80, 102. III 26. 135–6. 287. IV 152. VI 25. 139. 200, 237. 268. 286. 311. 359. 493. 658. VII 3. 48–9. 53–5. 845. VIII 50. 71--2. 80-1. IX 43, 71–2. 106. X 112--3. 188. 348. XIII 28. 189--90. 240. XIV 16—7. 31. 42. 56. 188. 281-2. XV 26. 79. 129–30. XVI 35. Ribbeck (der unechte Iuv. 42) adds x 29—30. 88–9. 104–5. etc. 10 MORTIFERA 114-132.

ILLE 171 n, the Pythagorean (Iambl. vit. Pyth. $$ 104. 249. 267. Porph. vit. Pyth. § 55) Milo of Croton,

wedged in the timber which he strove to rend' (Roscommon, in Gifford), and there eaten by wolves schol. h. 1. VM. 1x 12 E $ 9. Gell. xv 16. Strab. vi 1 § 12 p. 263. Paus. vi 14 2 8 8. He lived at the time of the Persian war (Herodot. 11 137 § 4) and his Olympian victories first were celebrated by Simonides (Anth. Plan. III 24, 11 p. 631 Jacobs). Testimonies to his prowess in Aristot. ap. schol. Theocr. IV 6. Cic. de fat. & 30. Cat. mai. 8 33. Plin. VII S 83. XXXVII S 144. Paus. ib. &S 5—7. Ael. v. h. II 24. XII 22. Philostr. Apoll. iv 28. anthol. Pal. II 230-240. Ioann. Antioch. in Müller fragm. hist. IV 540. He led (A.D. 510) the army of Croton against thrice the number of Sybarites, wearing 'it is said, his Olympic crowns, and equipped in the fashion of Hercules with a lion's skin and club' (DS. XII 9 SS 5, 6). His voracity Athen. x 412-413". Ov. Ibis 609, 610 utque Milon, robur diducere fissile temptes, 1 nec possis captas inde referre manus.

11 VIRIBUS CONFISUS VM. 1. c. fretus viribus accessit ad eam [the oak which he saw in a field split with wedges) insertisque manibus divellere conatus est. Paus. I. c. (and thence


Suid. Μίλων. φρόνημα) υπό φρονήματος. Strab. 1. c. (who doubts the story) τη δε αυτη ρωμή πεποιθότα είκός και την ιστορουμένην υπό τινων ευρέσθαι KataOtpop nu toù Blou. Confisus, though perf, in form, is here pres, in sense : cf. fisus, diffisus, ratus, solitus, usus, veritus. PERIIT in early inscriptions we find redieit, venieit.etc. See Lachmann and Munro on Lucr. 111 1042. corp. inscr. lat. 1 601 col. 3. Corssen üb. Aussprache u. s. w. 12 608—9 and ind. 11 1064 col. 1 (where is the Oscan and Umbrian perf. in -eit) Ritschl opusc. philol. 11 642. Heinsius on Ov. m. 1 114. Ovid esp. lengthens the final i. ADMIRANDISQUE LACERTIS VM. 1.c. eumque cum tot gymnicis palmis lacerandum feris praebuit. DS. I. C. 6 he was admired among his fellow-citizens as the author of the victory.' the arm from the shoulder to the elbow. Cic. Cat. mai. $ 27 Milo in his old age, seeing athletes training, aspexisse lacertos suos dicitur, saying with tears: at hi quidem iam mortui sunt. Ov. m. xv 229–31 fletque Milon senior, cum spectat inanes | illos, qui fuerant solidorum mole tororum | Herculeis similes, fluidos pendere lacertos. On lac. as the seat of strength see the lexx. For the thought cf. DS. 1x 14 $ 1'not the possession, but the right use, of power is the great thing: for what profit had Milo of his bodily strength?'

12–27 Still more numerous are the victims of money; the fortune piled up with endless pains, towering among all other incomes, as a British whale among dolphins, chokes its master. In Nero's reign of terror it was the rich who were singled out for slaughter, the full sponge was squeezed: Longinus and the wide park of wealthy Seneca were invested by a whole cohort; the sumptuous mansion Lateranus was beset: seldom does a soldier come to ransack the garret of the poor. Though you carry but a few small pieces of plain silver plate, you will fear the sword and pike as you set out on your journey before dawn; the shadow of a reed quivering in the moon will set you quaking. The wayfarer who has no such dangerous load will sing unconcerned before the footpad's face. The first prayer, most familiar to every temple, is for riches, that our funds may grow, our coffer be the best-filled in all the exchange. Yet no poison is drunk from earthen bowls; then fear it, when you put a jewelled cup to your lips, costly Setine wine sparkling in a broad beaker of gold.

12 seq. XIV 265 seq. 303 seq. Prop. IV = 111 7. Lucian Saturn. 26. Maxim. Tyr. XI=xxx $1.Midas bemoans his wealth, and recants his prayer;' an allegory, the fool's prayer turns to his own hurt, he prays that he may win, and when he has won repents. Palladas anth. Pal. Ix 394 'gold, father of Aatterers, son of pain and care, to have thee, is fear, and to want thee, pain.' Hor. C. III 16 17. Sen. ep. 115 $S 16. 17. 13 STRANGULAT Shakespeare 'choked with ambition. Sen. de tranq. an.2 10 in angusto inclusae cupiditates sine exitu se ipsae strangulant. cf. ep. 51 § 13 voluptates ... latronum more . . . . in hoc nos amplectuntur, ut strangulent. Ov. tr. 1 63 strangulat inclusus dolor. Lubin cites Diog. ep. ad Chrysen 'like Midas, you starve amidst your wealth, strangled as it were with a rope of gold.' 14 QUANTO without tanto (which occurs e. g. VIII 140—1) cf. III 125. Plat. apol. 39d xaletturePOL 60W veutepot. 30a. Burm, on Ov. m. IV 64. Schwarz on Plin. pan. 73 § 3. Liv. Xxi 53 § 10 segnius . . ., quanto longius. Tac. an. 111 43 maior ..., quanto ... opulentior. DELPHINIS with the double form delphin, -is, or -us, -i Priscian (vi 25) compares elephas, elephantus, Arabs, Arabus. Strange fables are reported of the dolphin by Aristot. Plin. Opp. in Lenz Zoologie der Alten

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