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gisset. Sall. Iug. 114 per idem tempus adversum Gallos ab ducibus nostris Q. Caepione et Cn. Manlio male pugnatum ; quo metu Italia omnis contremuit... Romani sic habuere, alia omnia virtuti suae prona esse, cum Gallis pro salute, non pro gloria certaro...ea tempes. tate spes atque opes civitatis in illo [Mario] sitae. Cicero calls Marius p. imp. Pomp. $ 60 spes imperii. p. Sest. § 37 conservator patriae. cf. ib. § 38. de prov. cons. § 32. Liv. epit. LXVIII.

252 Diodor. exc. Vat. XXXVII p. 113 Mai (p. 125 Dind.) • The Cimbri, in form like giants, in strength unsurpassed." Plut. Mar. 11: "the most probable conjecture was, that they [the Cimbri] were Germanic nations belonging to those who extended as far as the North. ern Ocean, and this opinion was founded on their great stature,' etc. Sen. de ira 1 11 § 1 quid enim est aliud, quod barbaros tanto robus. tiores corporibus, tanto patientiores laborum comminuat, nisi ira infestissima sibi?... § 2 quid Cimbrorum Teutonorumque tot milia super. fusa Alpibus ita sustulit, ut tantae cladis notitiam ad suos non nuntius, sed fama pertulerit, nisi quod erat illis pro virtute ira? Flor, 1 37 =

=III 3 says of the Teuton king Teutobocchus who used to vault over four or six horses: insigne spectaculum triumphi fuit. quippe vir proceritatis eximiae super tropaea sua eminebat. [Quintil.] decl. 3 § 14 non enim nobis vehementiora corpora, quam vel his ecce Cimbris. ib. § 13 inusitata corporum magnitudo. So of the Germans Colum. III 8 Š 2. Tac. h. v 14. G. 4. Agr. 11.

253 LAURO Ov. tr. IV 2 51 52 tempora Phoebea lauro cingentur, 'io'que | miles, 'io,' magna voce · Triumphe canet. met. 1 560—5.

COLLEGA Plut. Mar. 14 .The many, seeing that the circumstances required a man of his energy and good fortune, voted for the fourth consulship of Marius [B.c. 102], and gave him for colleague Catulus Lutatius, a man who was esteemed by the nobility. Vell. 11 12 8 5 “Marius, in his fifth consulship (B.c. 101], in the plains called the Raudii Campi on this side the Alps, gained a decisive victory in conjunction with the proconsul Q. Lutatius Catulas. One hundred thousand men were killed or taken.' Plut. Mar. 27 • The whole eredit was given to Marius, both on account of his previous victory, and his superior rank. And, what was most of all, the people gave him the title of the third founder of Rome... and they thought that he alone ought to celebrate both triumphs. Marius how. ever did not triumph alone, but Catulus shared the honour, for Marius... was afraid of the soldiers, who were prepared not to let Marius triumph, if Catulus was deprived of the honour.' VM, ix 12 § 4 Q. Catulus, Cimbrici triumphi C. Mario particeps a senatu datus. Cic. Tusc. v § 56.

254258 The souls of the Decii were plebeian, plebeian their names, yet to mother Earth and the gods below their sacrifice was an atonement sufficient for all the legions of Rome, themselves more worth than all the host they saved.'

254 DECIORUM XIV 239. Before the great battle with the Latins near Vesuvius, B.c. 340, the two con. suls, P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Torquatus, having been warned in a dream (Liv. VIII 6 & 10) ex una acie imperatorem, ex altera exercitum dis manibus matrique terrae deberi, agreed that whichever of them should see his wing give way, should devote himself. The wing of Decius giving way, he devoted himself with these words ib. 9 § 8 'pro republica Quiritium, exercitu, legionibus, auxiliis populi Romani Quiritium, legiones auxiliaque hostium mecum dis manibus Tellurique. devoveo, ib. x 7 $S 3—4. Att. fab. praetext, 15 of

Decius animam devoro [= devovero] hostibus. Luc. VII 360 De. cios que caput fatale voventes. VM. 1 7 § 3. 76 § 5. Orelli onomast. Tullian. 210. Plut. moral. 499 states that he devoted himself to Saturn. Again P. Decius Mus, the son of the foregoing, followed his father's example, when consul for the fourth time, B.c. 295, in a great battle with the Samnites and Gauls at Sentinum Liv. x 28 (seo Nieb. h. R. III 383). Cicero in two passages (fin. II § 61. Tusc. I $ 89) mentions a third devotion by the grandson of the first Decius, in a battle fought at Asculum with Pyrrhus, B.C. 279. Elsewhere however he speaks only of the father and son (Arnold h. R. II 509). Clason (röm. Gesch. II 240) rejects the story of the devotion. 257 DIS INFERNIS TERRAEQUE PARENTI AV. Caes. 33 cum irruens vulgus pari clamore terram matrem deosque inferos precaretur, sedes impias uti Gallieno darent. With the devotion of the Decii, considered as an expiatory sacrifice, compare those of Codrus, (Plut. parall. 18), of Menoeceus (sat. xiv 240 n.), of the daughters of Erechtheus (Cic. Tusc. iş 116 with which Plut. parall. 20 compares the immolation by Marius of his daughter Calpurnia in the Cimbric war), of Metioche and Me. nippe daughters of Orion, who thrice invoked the infernal gods (Antonin. Liberal. 25. Ov. m. XIII 692—6), of the maidens of Lacedaemon and Falerii (Plut. parall. 35), of M. Curtius (Schwegler 1 484 n. 2), of Iphi. genia (Cic. ib.), of the daughter of Aristodemus (Pausan. IV 9 § 2 seq. orac. ap. Euseb. p. 6. ν 27 8 4 παρθένον Αίπυτίδα κλήρος καλεί, ήντινα δοίης | δαίμοσι νερτερίοις, και κεν σώσειας Ιθώμης), of Palinurus (Aen. ν 815 unum pro multis dabitur caput) and of the old patricians when Rome was taken by the Gauls (Plut. Cam. 21, cf. Liv. v 41 § 3); also the ver sacrum (Schwegler 1 240—1. 11 254). See Winer Real-Wörterb. s. v. Sühnopfer, comm. on Petron. 1 fin. p. 9 Burm. Pauly vi 661, 669 n. esp. Lasaulx die Sühnopfer der Griechen u. Römer in his Studien des class. Alterthums, Regensb. 1854 233—82). Preller röm. Myth.2 466—9.

258 Markland 'totus versus mihi non admodum placet.' 259–268 A slave-girl's son, Servius Tullius, wore the crown of Romulus; the consul's sons suffered death as traitors; the slave who divulged their treason was honoured with a public mourning. 259 ANCILLA NATUS VII 199 n. Cic. rep. II § 37 Servius Tullius primus iniussu populi regnavisse traditur, quem ferunt ex serva Tarquiniensi natum. Hor. s. 1 6 9. Liv. 1 39 g 5 Tarquinius betrothed his daughter to Servius; a distinction which makes it incredible serva natum eum parvumque ipsum servisse. ib. 40 $$ 2—3 (cited on Quirini below). 47 8.10. 48 & 2. IV 3 8 12 Ser. Tullium..,captiva Corniculaná natum, patre nullo, matro serva, ingenio, virtute, regnum tenuisse. DH. iv 1 (called Servius because of the servile condition of his mother). VM. 1 6 8 1. III 4 § 3 unde processerit et quo pervenerit, statuae ipsius titulus abunde testatur, servili .cognomine et regia appellatione perplexis. Sen, contr. 1 6 § 4. Sen. ep. 108 $ 30. Plin. XXXVI § 204 calls his mother Tanaquilis reginae ancillam Ocresiam. Iustin XXXVIII 6 § 7. Paul. Diac. p. 345 M servorum dies festus erat Idibus Augusti, quod eo die Servius, filius ancilla e, aedem Dianae dedicavit. cf. Festus p. 343 a 7 M. Plut. qu. Rom. 74. 100. cod. VII 16 $ 9.

TRABEAM X 35 n. Aen. VII 612 Servius Quirinali trabea. Plin. h. n. VIII § 195 trabeis usos accipio reges. id. ex § 136 purpurae. usum Romae semper fuisse video, sed Romulo in trabea, Ov. f. I 37 trabeati cura Quirini. ib. II 503—4 trabea que decorus Romulus. ib. VI 375. 796. met. XIY

828 trabeati forma Quirini. Suet. de genere vestium in Sery. Aen. VII 612 (reliq. 266 Reiffersch.) distinguishes three kinds of trabeae, the second regum, quod est purpureum, habet tamen album aliquid. Mommsen röm. Staatsr. 1* 414. Marquardt v (2) 119. DIADEMA XIII 39. DH. III 62. Lyd. de mag. 17. Wesseling on DS. 1 47. Hübner in Hermes 1 348 seq. Marquardt v (2) 292. Suet. Calig. 22 non multum afuit, quin statim diadema sumeret, speciemque princi. patus in regni formam converteret.

QUIRINI the name of Romulus as a god 111 67. Liv. I 40 SS 2 3 the sons of Ancus were indignant, si ne ab Tarquinio quidem ad se rediret regnum, sed praeceps inde porro ad servitia caderet, ut in eadem civitate post centesimum fere annum, quod Romulus, deo prognatus, deus ipse, tenuerit regnum, donec in terris fuerit, id servus serva natus possideat...commune Romani nominis...dedecus fore, si...servis etiam regnum Romae pateret.

260 Liv. I 48. § 8 Servius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor et quadraginta ita, ut bono etiam moderatoque succedenti regi difficilis aemulatio esset. ceterum id quoque ad gloriam accessit, quod cum illo simul iusta ac legitima regna occiderunt.

261 LAXABANT the im. perf., as in édidov, "offered, denotes the attempt. Liv. II 3 $ 7–48 1 de accipiendis clam nocte in urbem regibus colloquuntur. Vitelliis Aquiliisque fratribus primo commissa res est. Vitelliorum soror consuli nupta Bruto erat, iamque ex eo matrimonio adulescentes [iuvenes, 262] erant liberi, Titus Tiberiusque: eos quoque in societatem consilii avunculi assumunt.

PORTARUM CLAUSTRA Heins. on Ov. m. IV 86.

262 IUVENES III 158. X 310. XIV 121. CONSULIS Liv. II 5 SS 6–7 consulis liberi omnium in se averterant oculos; illos eo potissimum anno patriam liberatam, patrem liberatorem, consulatum ortum ex domo Iunia...induxisse in animum ut superbo quondam regi, tum infesto exsuli proderent.

264 COCLITE etc. Liv. 11 10. Verg. Aen. VIII 650—1 pontem auderet quod vellere Cocles, I et fluvium vinclis tranaret Cloelia ruptis. Schwegler 1 22 n. 4. II 52-3, 187. MUCIUS C. Mucius Cordus (schol. Bob. in Cic. p. Sest. § 48) Scaevola, Liv. II 12. Mart. I 21. Schwegler 11 54. 183–5, who derives the legend from the surname.

265 IMPERII FINES TIBERINUM cf. xiv 160. Prop. v = iv 1 8 et Tiberis nostris advena bubus erat. After the surrender of the city (Tac, b. 111 72 dedita urbe) to Porsena, the Romans lost territory on the right bank of the river Liv. II 13 § 4 de agro Veientibus restituendo impetratum, expressaque necessitas obsides dandi, si Ianiculo praesidium deduci vellent. In the poet's days Euphrates, Rhine and Danube were the frontier line supra 169 170 n. Tạc, 19 mari Oceano aut amnibus longinquis saeptum impe, rium.

VIRGO Verg. supr. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 16 § 2. Schwegler 11 56. 185–7, who derives the legend from the equestrian statue of Cloelia (i. e. of Venus Cluilia or Cloacina) on the via sacra ib. 1 22. NATAYIT with acc. as in English swam the Tiber,' Verg. g. III 260.

266 SERVUS Liv. II 4 SS 5 6 cum ... coniurati...remotis arbitris multa inter se de novo, ut fit, consilio egissent, sermonem eorum ex servis unus excepit ; ... rem ad consules detulit;...5 g 5 damnati proditores ...§ 8 consules in seden processere suam, missique lictores ad sumendum supplicium nudatos virgis caedunt securique feriunt:...§ 9 praemium indici pecunia ex aerário, libertas et civitas data. Schwegler 11 44–5,

267. MATRONIS III, 212. When Brutus died,

ero.

Liv. 11 7 $ 4 matronae annum, ut parentem, eum luxerunt. Of like honour this slave shewed himself worthy; but the sons of Brutus died by public execution, after having been flogged like_slaves (v 173 n.). For Valerius also (Liv. II 16 $7) and Augustus (DCass. LVI 43), the matrons wore mot

nourning during a year. VERBERA Liv. 111 55 14 tergo ac capite puniretur.

268 LEGUM the first legal, as opposed to arbitrary (regni securis), execution. Liv. 1 1 $ 1 imperia legum potentiora quam hominum. Luc. vii 441–2 de Brutis, Fortuna, loquor. quid tempora legum | egimus aut annos a consule nomen habentes? IX 265—7. Sen. de ira i 16 § 5 etsi perversa induenda magistratui vestis et convocanda classico contio est, procedam in tribunal non furens nec infestus, sed vultu legis et illa sollemnia verba leni magis gravique quam rabida voce concipiam et agi iubebo non iratus, severus, et cum cervicem noxio imperabo praecidi,......sine ira...

269–275 Holyday “It were better to be the son of an unworthy Thersites, so that one's self were an Achilles, than to be a Thersites, though one were the son of an Achilles. But, says he, by way of jeer, to the noblest Roman, thou canst not properly derive thyself better than from the company which assembled at Romulus's Asylum.'

269 THERSITES ΙΙ. Ι 216 αίσχιστος δε ανήρ υπόΊλιον ήλθεν. cf. 212 seq. Achilles killed him Quint. Smyrn. 1 746 seq., alya 8 avaikus ånd μελέων φύγε θυμός | ανέρος ούτιδανοίο χάρη δ' άρα λαός 'Αχαιών | τους γάρ νείκεε πάμπαν έπεσβολίησι κακήσιν, | αυτος έων λωβητός ο γαρ Δαναών πέλεν aidus. Soph. Phil. 439 seq. Encomium of Th. (also of a quartan ague) school paradoxes by Favorinus Gell. XVII 12 g 2. cf. Quintil. x 1 § 47 1. 6 n. DUMMODO VII 222. 225.

270 AEACIDAE a Homeric (II. XVIII 221) name of Achilles, son of Peleus, the son of Aeacus. Achilles is contrasted with Thersites (xi 30 31 n. exc. rhet. in Halm rhet. ant. 588 2 ceterum ridiculum videtur, si Achilles in specie vel viribus Thersitae comparatur. cf. Theon progymn. 9 in Waiz rhet. gr. i 232. After death Luc. Char. 22 Θερσίτη δ' ίσος θέτιδος mais nükóuoco. cf. quom. hist. conscr. 14. Plotin. enn. III 3 to censure the whole from the parts is like taking a hair or toe as a sample of a man, or Thersites of humanity), as being not only the bravest, but the fairest of the Greeks Il. II 674. 769. VULCANIA ARMA when, after the death of Patroclus, the arms of Achilles had been borne off by the Trojans, Thetis besought Hephaestus to supply her son with a new suit Il. XVIII 369–616. Aen. XII 739 of the suit of Aeneas arma dei ad Vulcania. Cic. Tusc. II 33 Davies tectus Vulcaniis armis, id est fortitudine, Liban. ep. 125. 272 TAMEN UT x 240. Halm on Cic. p. Sest. § 140.

With 272–5 cf. Sen. ep. 44 3 Plato (Theaet. 175a] ait: neminem regem non ex servis oriundum, neminem non servum ex regi. bus.

LONGE REPETAS Cic. fam. XIII 29 & 2 exspectare te arbitror, haec tam longe repetita principia quo spectent. de legg. I § 28. Luc. 1 94 nec longe fatorum exempla petantur. Quintil. v7 17 longius interrogatione repetita. Plin. ep. 18 g 8 ne lon. gius exempla repetantur. So rep. alte etc. cf. Klotz repeto i A b, and uakpódev. Aus. grat. act. p. 1115 b Walker deductum ab heroibus genus ad deorum stemma replicare. REVOLVAS Sen. contr. 1 6 8 4 quemcumque volueris revolve nobi. lem; ad humilitatem pervenies. quid recenseo singulos [he had named Marius, Servius), cum hanc urbem possim tibi ostendere ?

273 ASYLO Liv. I 8 locum, qui nunc saeptus descendentibus inter duos lucos est, a sylum aperit: eo ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discrimine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum profugit. Strab. v p. 230“ having established an asylum between the aru and the Capitol.' DH, 11 15 • the place between the arx and the Capitol, which is now called between the two groves.' Vell. I 6 § 8 asylo facto inter duos lucos. Becker 1 386-7. 410. II 19. Schwegler i 459—60. 464–8. Pauly 1? 1948. Preller röm. Myth. 237. Winer Realwörterbuch s. V. Freistatt. On the right of sanctuary and its abuses Höck 13 94 5. in Ephesus Strabo 641. On the asylum itself, cf. Liv. 11 1 4 illa pastorum convenarumque plebs, transfuga ex suis populis, sub tutela inviolati templi aut libertatem aut certe impunitatem adepta. August. c. Crescon. 11 16=13 non igitur, sicut conviciaris,, tamquam in asylum Romuli vestros nocentes recipimus. id. de cons. ev. I § 19 in primordia sua recolant, facinorosorum asylum...asylum constituerunt Remus et Romulus, ut quisquis cuiuslibet sceleris reus eo confugisset, inultum haberet commissum. Plut. Rom. 9. DCass. XLVII 19. Flor. I 18 9. Verg. Aen. VIII 342. esp. Ov. f. 111 431 seq. Iustin XXXVIII 7 § 1 conluvie convenarum. That the Romans were (DH. 1 5) εκ των φαυλοτάτων εθνών συνεληλυθότες, Rome's founders (ib. 4) ανέστιοί τινες και πλάνητες και βάρβαροι, Rome's original population (ib. VΙΙ 70) έθνη βάρβαρα και ανέστια, and ancient Rome itself (ib. Ι 89) και καταφυγή βαρβάρων και δραπετών και άνεστίων ανθρώπων, are to DH. slanders 1 89. II 8. IV 26. Minuc. Fel. 25 & 2 asylo prima plebs congregata est. confluxerant perditi facinerosi incesti sicarii proditores.

275 PASTOR schol. quos collegit Romulus.' Iustin XXVIII 2 $ 8 quos autem homines Romanos esse? nempe pastores, qui latrocinio iustis dominis ademptum solum teneant. DCass. LX 29 8 3 βασιλείς εγένοντο χοι πρίν όντες αιπόλοι, QUOD etc, schol. .servus aut infamis vel latro.'

6

NOTE ON X 1 2

A GADIBUS USQUE GANGEN The following was accidentally omitted in 8. x n. 1 after 'to the ancients.'

Sen. n. q. I pr. § 13 quantum enim est, quod ab ultimis litori. bus Hispaniae usque ad Indos iacet? paucissimorum dierum spatium, si navem suus ferat ventus, implebit. Plin. II § 242 pars nostra terrarum...longissime ab ortu ad occasum patet, hoc est ab India ad Herculis columnas Gadibus sacratas. $$243—4 two measure. ments are given, each starting from the Ganges. He gives many other measurements always reckoning from Gades to the west, Ganges to the east (Sillig's ind.) and places Gades v § 76 extra orbem. Claud. names Gades as the furthest west Iv cons. Hon. 43. bell. Gild. 159. in Eutr. 1 353. Sidon, c. 5 286—7. Ambr. de Abraham II § 40 ab Indiae quoque litoribus ad Herculis, ut aiunt, columnas.

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