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Sen. ben. v 16 § 1 ingratus Catilina: parum est illi capere patriam; nisi verterit, nisi Allobrogum in illam cohortes immiserit et trans Alpes accitus hostis vetera et ingenita odia satiaverit ac diu debitas inferias Gallicis bustis duces Romani persolverint. 231 CATILINA II 27. x 288 n. XIV 41. The Sergia gens was patrician (Sall.5 $11. Catilina nobili genere ortus. ib. 31 g 7 ne existima. rent, he exclaimed, sibi, patricio homini, cuius ipsius atque maiorum plurima beneficia in populum Romanam essent, perdita republica opus esse, cum eam servaret M. Tullius inquilinus civis urbis Romae. ib. 60 $ 7. Cic. p. Mur. § 17. Liv. IV 25. VIII 18. App. b. c. 11 2. Flor. iv 1 8$ 2–3 senatum confodere, consules trucidare, distrin. gere incendiis urbem,...et quicquid nec Hannibal videretur optasse, quibus, o nefas! sociis aggressus est? ipse patricius: sed hoc minus est; Curii, Porcii, Sullae, Cethegi...quae familiae! quae senatus insignia !), and claimed to be of Trojan descent. Aen. v 121 Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen. See Ben Jonson's Catiline,

NATALIBUS in the sense of birth,' .descent,' 'rank,' the word belongs to the Silver Age. Plin. ep. III 20 § 6 nonnumquam candidatus natales competitoris aut annos aut etiam mores arguebat. ib. x 12 (7) natalium splendor. ib. 4 (3)

CETHEGI x 288 n. Flor. supr. Sall. Cat. 17 & 3. Vell. 11 34 & 4. The Cethegi were a patrician family of the gens Cornelia. In the division of labour among the conspirators, C. Cethegus undertook to murder the senators Cic. Cat. 4 ss 11. 13. P. Sull. š 53 Cassius incendiis, Cethegus caedi praeponeretur: and it was in his house that arms were discovered Cic. Cat. 3 $$ 8. 10. Plut. Cic. 18 19.

233 FLAMMAS PARATIS Cic. de div. 18 21 (from the poem on his consulship book II) et clades patriae flam. ma ferroque parata. p. Flacco & 97 nos, qui P. Lentulo ferrum et flammam de manibus extorsimus. Plut. Cic. 18 • Lentulus...determined to kill all the senators and as many of the rest of the citizens as he could, and to burn the city...A night had been fixed for the attempt, one of the Saturnalia, and they took and hid in the house of Cethegus swords and tow and brimstone. They also appointed a hundred men and assigned by lot as many parts of Rome to each, in order that by means of many incendiaries the city might be in a blaze in a short time on all sides. Others were to stop up the water-conduits. Cic. Cat. 3 $S 14. 25. 4 SS 2. 13. Sall. Cat. 43 $ 2. A supplicatio was voted to Cicero. Cic. Cat. 3 § 15 et his decreta verbis est, quod urbem incendiis, caede cives, Italiam bello liberassem. Clodius also was suspected of plotting to burn the city Cic. p. Mil. $ 64. cf. § 63.

234 BRACATORUM a name given to what was afterwards the provincia Narbonensis, because the inhabitants wore bracae (u 169) or breeches Plin. III § 31 Narbonensis provincia...bracata ante dicta. Tac. b. 11 20 bracas, barbarum tegimen. Mel. 111 5 § 1 Tzschucke.

SENONUM the Senones were bounded by the Parisii on the north, and the Aedui on the south. Their name still survives in that of the town Sens. A branch of them settled on the Adriatic between Ravenna and Ancona. This was the nation which took and burnt Rome B.C. 390 (Liv. v 35. 41 $ 10 diripi tecta, exhaustis inici ignes. 42. 43 pr. 48 pr.). So entire was the devastation that it was proposed to desert the ruins for Veii (49—55), and few historical docu. ments were saved (v1 1). G. C. Lewis credibility c. 12 $$ 76. 78. Schwegler 11 253. 269–271. cf. Stat. s. v 3 195—8 subitam civilis Eri.. nys | Tarpeio de monte facem Phlegraeaque movit | proelia. sacrilegis lucent Capitolia taedis et Senonum furias Latiae sumpsere cohortes. Sen. apocol. 6 quod Gallum facere oportebat, Romam cepit.

235 TUNICA MOLESTA a cruel jest 1 155 n. schol. vestis ex charta facta, pice illita, in qua ignibus in poenam addicti ardere solent. ausi estis id conari, quod hoc pacto debeat puniri. Sen. ep. 14 § 5 cogita hoc loco carcerem et cruces et eculeos et uncum et adactum per medium hominem, qui per os emergeret, stipitem et distracta in diversum actis curribus membra, illam tunicam alimentis ignium et illitam et textam, quicquid aliud praeter haec commenta saevitia est. Mart. X 25 5 6 nam cum dicatur tunica praesente molesta l'ure manum,' plus est dicere 'non facio.' Plut. de ser. num. vind. 9 some men are just like children, who often when they behold malefactors in the theatres in tunics of gold and purple shawls crowned and dancing the pyrrich admire and envy them as happy; until they are seen goaded and scourged and discharging fire from that fowered and costly attire πύρ ανιέντες εκ της άνθινής εκείνης kai Tolutelous éo Ostos.' Like the shirt of Nessus or Medea's fatal gift Friedländer 113 386. Marquardt v (1) 195. Tert. ad mart. 5 ad ignes quidam se auctoraverunt, ut certum spatium in tunica ardente conficerent. id. ad nat. I 18 incendiali tunica. cf. ad Scap. 4 fin. criminals were thus burnt to represent Hercules on Oeta. id, apol. 15 qui vivus ardebat, Herculem induerat. 236 VIGILAT on the night of the 1st of November B.C. 63, Catiline had planned an attempt upon Cicero, who however checked it Cic. Catil. 1 $ 8 intelleges multo me vigilare acrius ad salutem, quam te ad perniciem reipublicae. 237 novus Plut. Cic. 26 Metellus Nepos in a debate with Cicero often asked, Who is your father ? Vell. 11 34 3 M. Cicero ...vir novitatis nobilissimae. Cic. p. Planc. $ 67. in Pis. § 2. de leg. agr. 2 & 3 pauci nobiles in hac civitate consules facti sunt: novus ante me nemo. id. Cat. 1 § 28. Phil. 6 § 17. p. Cluent. § 111, Sall. Cat. 23 § 6 antea pleraque nobilitas invidia aestuabat et quasi pollui consulatum credebant, si eum quamvis egregius homo novus adeptus foret. Q. Cicero encouraged his brother to disregard this prejudice de pet. cons. C. 1 2. of. Drumann y 397 seq. Dudend. schol. in Cic. ep. p. 129. Liv. XXII 34 SS 7 8 (A.D. 216) id foedus inter omnes nobiles: ictum, nec finem ante belli habituros, quam consulem vere plebeium, id est, hominem novum creassent; nam plebeios nobiles iam eisdem initiatos esse sacris et contemnere plebem coepisse. Vell. II 128 SS 1–4 Boecler. Tac. dial. 7 non eum diem laetiorem egi, quo mihi latus clavus oblatus est, vel quo homo novus et in civitate minime favorabili natus quaesturam aut tribunatum aut praeturam accepi. id. ann. III 55 novi homines e municipiis et coloniis atque etiam provinciis in senatum crebro adsumpti. esp. Plut. Cat. mai. 1 g 3. App. b. c. II 2 p. 176. ARPINAS 245. Sall. cited 231 n. Arpinum, & Volscian town (infr. 245 n.) to the east of Rome, near the junction of the Liris and Fibrenus (Cic. legg. II C. 3, cf. c. 1. Drumann v 208. 212 seq.). Quid homini Arpi. nati cum Baiis, agresti ac rustico? asked Clodius (Cic. fragm. in Clod. 4 § 2 p. 101 Beier. cf. ad Att. 1 16 g 10). [Sall.] decl. in Cic. 1 81 reperticius, accitus ac paulo ante insitus huic urbi civis. ib. 3 § 4 homo novus Arpinas. ib. 4 § 7 (cited by Quintil. ix 3 § 89) o Romule Arpinas! L. Mariani Arpinum and its antiquities in the days of Cicero. Lond. 1871.

238 MUNICIPALIS Cic. Phil. 3 8 15 videte, quam despiciamur omnes, qui sumus e munis cipiis. quaero peregrinum cur me esse dixeris ......' hoc dico' inquit 'te esse ex municipio. fateor et addo etiam, ex eo municipio, unde iterum iam salus huic urbi imperioque missa est. Tac. an, IV 3 of Livia illa, cui avunculus Augustus, socer Tiberius, ex Druso liberi, seque ac maiores et posteros municipali adultero foedabat. EQUES p. Mur. § 17 non arbitrabar, cum ex familia vetere et illustri consul designatus ab equitis Romani filio consule defenderetur, de generis novitate accusatores esse dicturos. in Verr. II § 174. leg. agr. 1.§ 27. p. Cael. .§ 4 cl. Quintil. XI 1 § 28. p. Mil. & 18. Plut. Cic. 11.(Drumann v 212 n. 39). Plin. XXXIII § 34 who traces to Cicero's consulship the increased importance of the equestrian order. Seneca in Tac. XIV 53 fin, egone equestri et provinciali loco ortus proceribus civitatis adnumeror? inter nobiles et longa decora praeferentes novitas mea enituit ? Friedländer 14 221-4. GALEATUM etc. the Roman knights (Cic. ad Att. ii 1 § 6) under Atticus, were stationed by Cicero on the Capitol. Sestius also brought troops from Capua (p. Sest. § 11 seq. Drumann v 481). 239 ATTONITIS the bewildered citizens Sall. Cat. 31. MONTE VI 296. IX 131. 240 TOGA 49. x 8 n. As Cicero himself boasted in Pis. § 73 seq. cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi. off. I § 77. cf. id. Catis. 3 § 23. Brut. § 255. Drumann v 497 n. 21. Plin. VII § 117 salve primus omnium parens patriae appellate, primus in toga triumphum linguaeque lauream merite et facundiae Latiarumque litterarum parens atque, ut dictator Caesar hostis quondam tuus de te scripsit, omnium triumphorum laurea maior. quanto plus est, ingenii Romani terminos in tantum promovisse quam imperii. Cornelius Severus in Sen. suas. 6 § 26 13–14 ille senatus | vindex, ille fori, legum ritusque togaeque. Quintil. II 16 § 7 non divina M. Tulli eloquentia. Cati. linae fregit audaciam et supplicationes, qui maximus honor victoribus bello ducibus datur, in toga meruit? Stat. 8. V 2 58 imperium mulcente toga. Plin, ep. i 22 6 Döring. Liv. Iv 10 § 8 aequavit, quod haud facile est, Quinctius consul togatus armati gloriam collegae. Luc. VII 62—6 Romani maximus auctor | Tullius eloquii, cuius sub iure togaque | pacificas saevus tre. muit Catilina secures etc. The toga was worn by advocates in the courts Tac. XI 7 Gron. plebem, quae toga enitesceret. sat. XVI 45 n. 241 TITULI 69 n.

yıx K, F. Hermann's conj. PS have in (L. Müller de re metr. 311 omnino falsumst in), .p.w.non (so Jahna). Mr Munro's conj. quantum tum in is elegant and easy. Kiaer 83—7 shews that non cannot be understood from the first clause with the second (quantum non etc. would mean "the like of which 0. did not win at Actium, but did win at Philippi,' as xv 107—8 nec enim omnia, quaedam | pro vita facienda putant). Such a hiatus as quantum in has no parallel in Iuv. except ix 118 (6th foot) tum his. The negative is out of place, for Iuv. means to say : Cic., the man of law, won the same title to which 0. waded through seas of blood,-but, when Cic. was hailed parent and father of his country, Rome was free.

LEUCADE Leucas (formerly Neritum, now Hagia' Maura), a peninsula distant 240 stadia from Actium, yet often spoken of as the scene of the battle of Actium (2 Sept. B. C. 31) Aen. VIII 675—7 classes aeratas, Actia bella, | cernere erat, totumque instructo Marte videres lfervere Leucaton. Prop. Iv=III 11 69. Flor. žy 11, & 4. Luc. I 42. 479. VII 872. x 66, Leucas is åkti telpoto in Hom. Od. w 378; the Corinthians dug a canal through the isthmus (Strabo 452), which in the time of Thucydides and again in 197 B. C. was choked with sand; the Romans cleared it out, but it was once more filled in Pliny's days, and only made navigable again by the English (Bursian Geogr. V. Griechenl. 1 115 116). 242 THESSALIAE CAMPIS Merivale in? 214: 'Regarding the battle of Philippi (B.C. 42] a curious error was perpetuated among the Roman writers. They persisted in representing it as fought on the same spot as the battle of Pharsalia. The name of Macedonia was given by the Romans to the whole region between the Adriatic and the Hellespont, and such names as Aemathia, Haemonia, were applied very loosely by their poets. The mistake arose from an ambiguity in Virgil's lines, which became a locus classicus with succeeding writers g. I 489 seq. ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis | Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi: I nec fuit indignum superis bis sanguine nostro | Aemathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. The poet here refers to two distinct battles, one in Thessaly (Āemathia is not a correct term), the other in Thrace, but the words might very easily mislead. The site of the battles is accordingly confounded by Manil. 1 906. Ov. m. xv 824. Flor, IV 2 g 43. Luc. 1 680 seq. VII 854 seq. Ix 270. Iuv. h. l.' 244 PATREM PATRIAE this title was first given to Cicero in the senate by Catulus p. Sest. § 121. in Pis. § 6. ad Att. IX 10 me, quem nonnulli conservatorem istius urbis, quem parentem esse dixerunt. Cato was the first to salute him by it in the popular assembly Plut. Cic. 23. App. b. c. II 7. cf. Cic. ep. fam. xv 4 § 2. Plut. (1. 1.) and Pliny (supr. 240 n.) erroneously state that Cicero first received this honour. Livy ascribes to Romulus (1 16) and Camillus (v 49); Cicero himself (p. C. Rabir. perd. r. § 27 both pater and parens) to Marius. Caesar also (Cic. Phil. 2 $ 31. off. III 83. DCass. XLIV 4. Drumann 11 662 n. 7) was saluted by this title. It was conferred upon Augustus 5 Febr. B. C. 2 Ov. f. i 121 seq. dum canimus sacras alterno carmine Nonas 1 ... sancte pater patriae, tibi plebs, tibi curia nomen | hoc dedit: hoc dedimus nos tibi nomen eques. id. trist. II 39. 181. IV 4 13. Suet. Oct. 58. DCass. LIII 18. Flor. IV 12 § 66: to Livia also the name of mater patriae was given Tac. ann. 1 14. DCass. LVII 12. LVIII 2. The title was declined by Tiberius (Suet. 26. 50. 67. DCass. LVII 8. LVIII 12. Tac. ann. 1 72. IV 38), and Nero (Suet. 8 on his accession propter aetatem, yet Pliny says of him XXXVII § 20 memoranda res tanti imperatorem patremque patriae bibisse. Schiller 88). As regards the later emperors, cf. Becker röm. Alt. ¡I (3) 302 ; and for the import of the term, DCass. LIII 18. Sen. de clem. 1 14 § 2. Tac. XI 25 A. D. 48 the consul Vipstanus proposed that Claudius should be called 'father of the senate'; quippe promiscum patris patriae cognomentum. Tert. apol. .34 qui pater patriae est, quomodo dominus est ? The best account in Mommsen röm. Staatsrecht il 737—8, who points out that Pliny, App., Iuv. are mistaken in confounding the mere compliment paid to Cicero by partisans with the later imperial title. To his citations add Capitolin, Anton. Pius 6. Anton. phil. 9. 12. Cicero was also saluted as saviour and founder' Plut. 22 g 3. [Sen.] Oct. 444 servare cives maior est (virtus] patriae patri.

LIBERA Luc. IX 60144 of Cato ecce parens verus patriae, dignissimus aris, | Roma, tuis, per quem numquam

iurare pudebit, I et quem, si steteris um quam cervice soluta,? nunc olim factura deum es.

245–253 Another rustio from Arpinum, Marius, was once a day-labourer, then a private in the army; yet he repelled the invasion of the giant Cimbri, and his high-born colleague Catulus was fain to reap but the second laurels. 245 ARPINAS ALIUS Cicero often names Marius as his fellow-townsman x 276—7 n. de legg. II § 6 quod ex eo [Arpino] duo sui conservatores exstitissent. p. Sull. § 23. p. red. ad Quir. $S 19 20. p. Sest. $$ 50. 116. VM. VI 9 § 14 C. Marius ... Arpinatibus honoribus iudicatus in. ferior quaesturam Romae petere ausus est. ... ex illo Mario tam humili Arpinate, tam ignobili Romae, tam fastidiendo can. didato ille Marius evasit, qui Africam subegit, qui Iugurtham regem ante currum egit, qui Teutonorum Cimbrorum que exercitus delevit. anthol. lat. 843 R. The father of M. unknown Ael. v. h. XII 6.

VOLSCORUM Sil. XII 175 clarum Volscorum Tulli decus. schol. Cic. p. Sull. § 22 notissimum est autem fuisse Ciceronem natione Vols cum, Arpino municipio, unde illi quaedam peregrinitatis ab invisoribus concinnabatur

infamia. 246 MERCEDES 1 108. Hor. 8. II 2 115 Heindorf fortem mercede colonum. Plut. Mar. 3.Marius was the son of obscure parents, who gained their living by the labour of their hands, and were poor. It was late before he saw Rome, and became acquainted with the habits of the city, up to which time he lived at Cirrheaton (?), a village in the territory of Arpinum, where his mode of life was rude when contrasted with the polite and artificial fashions of a city, but temperate and in accordance with the old Roman discipline. He first served against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus was besieging Numantia.' Cic. p. Font. § 33. p. Balb. & 47. Sall, b. I. 63 g 3. VM. 11 2 $ 3. Plin. XXXIII § 150 ille arator Arpinas et manipularis imperator. Fronto princ. hist. p. 205 Naber omnibus Arpinati pa upertate aut Nursina duritia ducibus bellicosior extitit. Ael. v. h. XII 6 Periz. Sen. de ben. v 16 § 2 C. Marius ad consulatum a caliga perduct'us, qui nisi Cimbricis caedibus Romana funera aequaverit etc. 247 NODOSAM Apul. met. Ix 40 sed ubi nullis precibus mitigari militem magisque in suam perniciem advertit efferari, iamque inversa vite de vastiore nodulo cerebrum suum diffindere. FRANGEBAT VI 479. hic frangit ferulas.

VITEM XIV 193 n. Marquardt III (2) 282.

248 DOLABRA see Rich. Maecenas, in the speech put into his mouth by DCass. LII 25 $$ 6–7, warns Augustus to exclude those who have served èv TỘ TETAyuévy from the senate. τούτων μεν γάρ τών και φορμοφορησάντων και λαρκοφορησάντων και αισχρόν και επονειδιστόν έστιν εν τω βουλευτικώ τινας εξετάjeo bal. Plutarch Mar. 13 gives two explanations of a slang term 1) he trained the soldiers to such drudgery, races, long marches under heavy burdens, cooking for themselves, etc. that willing and hardworking sol. diers were thenceforward called Marius' mules. 2). Scipio in the siege of Numantia was so pleased with the condition of the horse and mule groomed by M. that he often spoke of them: otws åpa tous OKÚTTOVTAS έν επαίνω τον ενδελεχή και τλήμονα και φιλόπονον Μαριανόν ημίονον προσαγορεύειν. .

250 Flor. I 37=III 3 § 4 sed nec primum impetum barbarorum Silanus [cons. B. C. 109], nec: secundum Manlius [cons. B.c. 105], nec tertium Carpio (proc. B.C. 105], sustinere potuerunt: omnes fugati, exuti castris. actum erat, nisi Marius illi saeculo conti

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