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with the parricide viper (etymol, magn. s. V. fxes) the ape that squeezes its young to death, and impious creatures that fight with their parents (Theophil. antecessor paraphr. inst. IV 18 § 6 pp. 921–3 Reitz. cf. Gothofr, on dig. I. c. cod. ex 17. DH, IV 62. VM, 11 § 13. Tzetzes on Lyk. 1778). The murderer of father or mother, grandfather or grandmother (Paul. sentent. v 25 adds of brother or sister or patron), were liable to this punishment Dig. 1. 1. § 1 (ib. 1. 1 a much wider definition of parricide is given). cf. Sen. contr. VII 2 3. Iuv. XIII 155–6. Suet. Aug. 33. Dosith. in div. Hadr. sent. § 16 (corp. iur. anteiust. I p. 212 [also in Valpy's HSt Viii 408—9, where see notes], who says, that the impious man, sewn into a sack with impious animals, was carried down to the sea on a wagon drawn by black oxen). Sen, de ir. 1 16 & 5. de clem. I 15 $ 7. 23 & 2 (addressed to Nero!) parricidae a lege coeperunt et illis facinus poena monstravit. pessimo vero loco pietas fuit, postquam saepius culleos vidimus quam cruces. Cic. de invent. II § 149. p. Rosc. Am. $ 70. Liv. periocha 68. Tert, de an. 33. ad nat. II 13 Oehler in duos culleos dividi Iovem decuit. Martian. Capella v § 465. Rein Criminalr. 457. Schrader on Iustin. inst. p. 767 seq. E. C. Clark early Roman law 45–6. Rudorff röm. Rechtsgesch. II 371 n. 6. 215 AGAMEMNONIDAE D Cass. LXI 13 § 3 when Nero attempted to drown Agrippina, the sea would not enduro την μέλλουσαν επ' αυτή τραγωδίαν čoeg bal. Cf. 11 § 3 uveologlav. Suet. 39 multa Graece Latineque proscripta aut vulgata sunt, sicut illa : Népwv 'Opéotns 'Adxualwe unτροκτόνοι. | νεόνυμφος ιδίαν μητέρ απέκτεινεν Νέρων (so Baumgarten-Crus.). cł. [Lucian] Ner. 10. So Apollonius in Philostr. iv 38 § 3 you cannot say of wild beasts, that they ever feasted on their own mothers, but Nero has battened on this food. If the same was the case of Orestes and of Alkmaeon, yet their fathers were an excuse for the deed, the one having been slain by his own wife.' So Vindex (in DCass. LXIII 23 8 6) ούτος δε δή θυέστης τε και Οιδίπους, 'Αλκμαίων τε και 'Ορέστης δικαιότατάν καλούτο τούτους γάρ υποκρίνεται. cf. ib. 9 8 4. Suet. Νer, 21 inter cetera cantavit... Orestem matricidam. In the schools of rhetoric the crime of Orestes was a hackneyed theme. Cic. de iny. I SS 1849 ratio est quae continet causam, quae si sublata sit, nihil in causa controversiae relinquatur, hoc modo, ut docendi causa in facili et pervulgato exemplo consistamus: Orestes si accusetur matricidii, nisi hoc dicat ‘iure feci; illa enim patrem meum occiderat,' non habet defensionem etc. ad Herenn. I § 26. Liban, decl. 5 an apology for Orestes (IV 110-137 R). Plutarch parallela 37 has an exact counterpart of Orestes in Fabius Fabricianus, who was saved by his sister, slew his mother and her paramour, and was acquitted by the senate. In Isae. 8 g 3 we find one 'surnamed Orestes.'

CAUSA Quintil. III 11 § 4 ratio autem est, qua id, quod factum esse constat, defenditur. et cur non utamur eodem, quo sunt usi omnes fere, exemplo ? Orestes matrem occidit: hoc constat. dicit se iuste fecisse : status erit qualitatis, quaestio, an iuste fecerit, ratio, quod Clytaemnestra maritum suum, patrem Orestis, occidit. ib. 8 5 11-12. VII 4 § 8 fortissimum est, si crimen causa facti tuemur, plead justification.'

216 DEIS AUCTORIBUS Quintil. 111 11 g 6 idem putant et sub una quaestione esse plures rationes, ut si Orestes et alteram adferat causam matris necatae, quod responsis sit inpulsus. Orestes acted by direction of Apollo (Εur. Or. 416 Φοίβος, κελεύσας μητρός εκπράξαι φόνον. ib. 28. 591 seq. id. El. 1246. Aesch. Eum. 465. seq. 579. 594 seq. Ch. 269 seq. 1030, JUV. IL

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Soph. El 32 seq.) speaking in the name of Zeus (Eum. 616 seq. 798 seq.). Cic. p. Rosc. Am. 88 66–7. ULTOR Oy. am. 17 9 vindex in matre patris, malus ultor, Orestes.

217 CAESI MEDIA INTER POCULA Agamemnon says in Homer Od. IX 400 seq. αλλά μου Αίγισθος τεύξας θάνατόν τε μόρον τε | έκτα συν ουλομένη αλόχα, οίκόνδε καλέσσας, | δειπνίσσας ώς τις τε KaTéktave Boûv éri pátvy. So Sen. Agam. 867 seq. In Aeschylus a bath is the scene of the murder Ag. 1128. Eum. 461. 633. 217 seq. imitated from Hor. 8. II 3 201—4 insanus quid enim Aiax| fecit, cum stravit ferro pecus ? abstinuit vim | uxore et gnato: mala multa precatus Atridis , non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum viola vit Ulixen.

218 Orestes did not kill Electra (from Hor. s. II 3 133 seq. e. g. 139–140 non Pyladen ferro violare a ususve sororem est | Electram), as Nero did Octavia and Antonia.

IUGULO Blomf. gloss. Aesch. PV. 888. SPARTANI Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen; this his Spartan wife Orestes did not kill, as Nero did Octavia and Poppaea.

219 CONIUGII=coniugis. add to lexx. Ambr. exhort. virg. 4 § 23 plur. So matrimonium, servitium. ACONITA 1 158 n. supr. 17 n., Paul. Aegin. V 45 (11 220 Adams). Sprengel Gesch. d. Arzn. 14 41. Ov. m. i 147 lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae. VII 407. Nero poisoned Britannicus, Domitia and Antonia (supr. 213 n.): he thrice attempted to poison his mother, but she was secured by antidotes (Suet. 34. Tac. xiv 3). cf. Suet. 35 fin, 36 fin. he thought of poisoning the whole senate ib. 43. 220 SCENA 188 n. 225 n. Suet. 20 blandiente profectu (quamquam exiguae vocis et fuscae) prodire in scenam concupivit: subinde inter familiares Graecum proverbium iactans, Soccultae musicae nullum esse respectum.' et prodiit Neapoli primum : ac ne concussO quidem repente motu terrac theatro ante cantare destitit quam absolveret võuov. ibidem saepius et per plures cantavit dies ; during the great fire (ib. 38) älwolv Ilii in illo suo scenico habitu decantavit. cf. Isidorus ib. 39. He vowed, if victorious over Vindex, to appear as a histrio ib. 54. Before singing on the stage in the public theatres, he practised in a private theatre Plin. XXXVII § 19. Tac. XIV 15. [Lucian] Nero 6. Suet. 21. DCass. LXIII 9. 10. 22. Cluvius Rufus, who had been consul, acted as herald Suet. 21. DCass, LXIII 14.

NUMQUAM CANTAVIT on this merit of silence Philostr. iv 44 Apollonius to Tigellinus: “I am better disposed towards Nero than you: you think him worthy to sing, I to be silent.'

CANTAVIT 198 n. At the time of Nero's fall Suet. 46 ascriptum et columnis ; iam Gallos eum cantando excitasse. He was compared to Apollo D Cass. LXI 20. LXIII 20. Suet. 53. Lucian Ner. 10. Sen, apoc. 4 15 seq.

221 on this humorous climax cf. III 9. VI 398 seq. where the gossip, 434 seq. where the blue-stocking, is gravior than the adultress or the drunkard. Aristoph. ran. 147 seq. εί που ξένον τις ήδίκησε πώποτε, ή παιδα κινών τάργύριον υφείλετο, Ι η μητέρ' ηλόησεν, ή πατρός γνάθον | επάταξεν, ή 'πίορκον όρκον ώμοσεν, ή Μορσίμου τις ρήσιν εξεγράψατο. Demosth. 371 aaνούργος ών και θεοίς εχθρός και γραμματεύς. TROICA on Nero's poems see Tac. XIII 3. XIV 16. xv 49. Suet. 10. Mart. VIII 70 8. ix 27 9 seq. Pers. I 121. Teuffels & 286 n. 8 who indicates fragments. Friedländer in 309. Sen. n. q. 15 & 6 ut ait Nero Caesar disertissime. 'colla Cytheriacae splendent agitata columbae. Plin. XXXVII 8 50 Domitius Nero in ceteris vitae suae portentis capillos quoque

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Poppaeae coniugis suae in hoc nomen adoptaverat quodam etiam carmine sucinos appellando. Suet. Vit. 11. Dom. 1. Some affirmed that he was not the author of the works which went by his name, but Suet. (52) had seen some originals, with erasures and corrections, all in his handwriting. The Troica was an epic. DCass. LXII 29 ó de Νέρων άλλα τε γελοία έπραττε και επί την του θεάτρου ορχήστραν εν πανδήμω τινι θέα κατέβη, και ανέγνω Τρωϊκά τινα εαυτου ποιήματα κ.τ.λ. Tac. XVI 4 and Suet. 10 mention such a public recitation. The älwois Inov which Nero sung during the great fire of Rome (64 A. D.) was probably an extract from it (DCass. LXII 18 § 1. Suet. 38. Tac. xv 39). The poem was known to Servius (g. III 36. Aen. v 370). QUID etc. ‘For what crime, of all that Nero committed in his cruel tyranny, more called for vengeance than this ?' 'Madvig cites Cic. Phil. XIII § 34 quid non aut probavistis aut fecistis, quod faciat, si reviviscat Cn. Pompeius ipse ? i. e. what is there, of all that Pompeius would do, if he were to come to life again, that you have not either applauded or performed ?

VERGINIUS L. Verginius Rufus, consul A.D. 63 was governor of upper Germania A. D. 68, when C. Iulius Vindex, propraetor of his native Gaul, rose against Nero, and (finding the provincial levies insufficient to found a Gallic empire) offered the crown (Plut. Galba 4) to Ser. Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who declared himself 2 Apr. 68 (Suet. G. 10. Plut. G. 5. Schiller 278–9). Verginius marched against Vindex. In the battle of Vesontio (Besançon) Vindex was slain with his whole army (Tac. h. 1 51. IV 57). Verginius repeatedly refused the empire; he lived until A. D. 97, when his funeral oration was pronounced by Tacitus, consul that year (Plin. ep. 11 1 § 6). Pliny the younger, his neighbour and ward (ib. § 8), speaks of him in the highest terms of praise. He left directions for this epitaph to be inscribed on his tomb. ib. vi 10 § 4 hic situs est Rufus, pulso qui Vindice quondam | imperium asseruit non sibi sed patriae. An inscription Iovi • 0 •M | PRO . SALVTE ET VICTORIA • 1 | VERGINI • RVFI set up by his slave Pylades at the critical time, when Verginius had been saluted imperator by his troops, is in CIL V 611 n. 5702. See Mommsen in Keil's Plin. ep. p. 429. On the attempt of Vindex to establish a national kingdom (Tac. h. IV 17 cl. 57) in Gaul see Schiller 261–278, who corrects the errors of Xiphilinus and modern writers ; on Galba's revolt ib. 278—284.

223 SAEVA C. Fannius wrote exitus occisorum aut rele. gatorum a Nerone (Plin. ep. v 58 3); three books only were completed and greedily devoured by the public. CRUDA Mart. 1v 49 4 cenam, crude Thyesta, tuam. 224 seg. cf. 11 104 seq.

225 FOEDO CANTU 188 n, x 315 n. ad fin. Nep. Epam. 1 & 2 scimus enim musicen nostris moribus abesse a principis persona, saltare vero etiam in vitiis poni: quae omnia apud Graecos et grata et laude digna ducuntur. Sen. contr. i praef. § 8 cantandi saltandique obscena studia effeminatos tenent. Yet even Thrasea (Tac. xvi 21) habitu tragico cocinerat in his native town Patavium, at the games instituted by the Trojan Antenor.

PULPITA VII 93 n. Ios. b. I. II 13 g 1 Nero's murder of his brother, wife, and mother, his extension of his cruelty to the noblest of the land, και ως τελευταίον υπό φρενοβλαβείας εξώκειλεν εις σκηνής Kal Béarpov. The tribune Subrius Flavus, when Nero asked why he had forgotten his oath of allegiance Tac. xv 67 «No soldier was more loyal, while you deserved love : odisse coepi, postquam parricida matris et uxoris, auriga et histrio et incendiariús extitisti.' The same Subrius Flavus ib. 65 declared that there was small choice between Nero and Piso: non referre dedecori si citharoedus demoveretur et tragoedus succederet, quia ut Nero cithara, ita Piso tragico ornatu canebat. Plin. pan. 46 populus ille, aliquando soaenici imperatoris spectator et plausor nunc in pantomimis quoque aversatur et damnat effeminatas artes et indecora saeculo studia. DCass. LXIII 17 § 5. He erg II 99-108. In the year 64 Tac. XV 33 acriore in dies cupidine adigebatur Nero promiscas scaenas frequentandi. nam adhuc per domum aut hortos cecinerat iuvenalibus ludis, quos ut parum celebres et tantae voci angustos spernebat. non tamen Romae incipere ausus Neapolim quasi Graecam delegit : inde initium fore, ut transgressus in Achaiam insignes et antiquitus sacras coronas adeptus maiore fama studia civium eliceret. To the last he retained his passion for the stage Suet. 44.54; he had imbibed the taste in childhood from a dancer his paedagogus ib. 6. 20. Schiller 69, 133—4, 137–8, 180—1, 198–200, 225, 245—7, 258–9, 282 n. 4. Friedländer 113 429--30, 463–4.

226 GRAIAE Suet. 22 nec contentus harum artium experimenta Romae dedisse, Achaiam, ut diximus, petiit [A. D. 66), hinc maxime motus. instituerant civitates, apud quas musici agones edi solent, omnes citharoedorum coronas ad ipsum mittere. eas adeo grate recipiebat, ut legatos qui pertulissent, .. familiaribus epulis interponeret. a quibusdam ex his rogatus, ut cantaret super cenam, exceptusque effusius, solos scire audire Graecos, solosque se et studiis suis dignos ait. cf. ib. 23 24. 53. Vespasian (Suet. Vesp. 4) incurred the extreme displeasure of Nero, so that he was banished from his court, and feared for his life, because, having been in his suite in his musical tour, cantante eo aut discederet saepius aut praesens obdormisceret. [Lucian] Nero 2 seq. Νέρωνα τοίνυν ες 'Αχαΐαν ωδαι ηγον και το σφόδρα αυτόν πεπεικέναι μη)' αν τας Μούσας αναβάλλεσθαι ήδιον, κ.τ.λ. Philostr. Apollon, IV 24 8 2. 36. v 7 8. DCass. LXIII 8 seq. Tac. xv 33. APIUM DCass. LΧΙΙ 9 8 3 τίς δέ νίκη ατοπωτέρα, εν ή τον κότινον ή την δάφνην ή το σέλινον ή την πίτυν λαβών, απώλεσε [ο Νέρων] τον πολιτικόν; Plin. xix § 158 honos (apio] in Achaia coronare victores sacri certaminis Nemeae. Lucian Anach. 9 'Ολυμπίασι μεν στέφανος εκ κοτίνου, Ισθμοι δε εκ πίτυος, εν Νεμέα δε σελίνων πεπλεγμένος. epigr, incert. auct. 453 (Brunck III 247, translated by Aus. eclogar. p. 430 Par. 1730 quattuor antiquos celebravit Achaïa ludos, serta quibus pinus, malus, oliva, apium). Meineke's Euphorion 105 seq. Diphil. futropos fr. 1 23. Plut. Timol. 26 § 3. Themist. p. 186*. Plut. qu. conv. v 3 2 3 cites several authorities to shew that parsley was at one time employed at the Isthmian games; thus Callimachus said of it (3 83) θήσουσιν νίκης σύμβολον Ισθμιάδος | ζήλο των Νεμέηθε. cf. Procles ib. § 4. Pind. Olymp. 13 33 (46), where the schol. (p. 270 Böckh, cf. p. 5) says that the olivov used at Nemea was green, that at the Isthmus dry: id. Isthm. 2 16=24 schol. p. 527. 7 64=136. Nem. 4 88 (142). Nicandr. alexiph. 605 (618) schol. id. ther. 649 schol. (cf. Eutecn. metaphr.). DS. xvi 79. Greg. Naz. or. 24 g 19. 227 seq. Suet. 25 sacras coronas in cubili circum lectos posuit : item statuas suas citharo edico habitu: qua nota etiam nummum percussit. ib. 22. 32. An Achaean coin (Eckhel vı 276) Neroni Apollini. He returned in triumph from Greece, having the catalogue of his victories borne before him, wearing his Olympian, and bearing in biş hand his Pythian crown (ib. 25). He hung his crowns (1808 in number) on the Egyptian obelisk in the circus maximus D Cass. LXIII 21 § 1.

VOCIS III 91 n. Plin. pan. 2 § 6. Suet. 21 flagitantibusque cunctis caelestem vocem. it was one of the charges against Thrasea Paetus (DCass. LXII 26), that he had not sacrificed to the emperor's lepa pwr. On Nero's return in triumph from Greece, the multitude exclaimed ib. LXIII 20 8 5 ουά Ολυμπιονίκα, ούα Πυθιονίκα, Νέρωνα το 'Απόλλωνα. ως εις περιοδονίκης, είς απ' αιώνος... ιερά φωνή μακάριοι ol oou åkoúortes. ib. 8 § 3. 10 § 1. 14. 18 g 2. 21. 22 88 4—6.26 SS 1--2. ef. Philostr. Ap. IV 39 & 2. 44 8 1. v 7 g 3. He brought sectivum porrum into fashion (Plin. xix $ 108) vocis gratia ex oleo statis mensum omnium diebus nihilque aliud ac ne panem quidem vescendo. Cf. XXXIV § 166. Suet. 20. See the criticisms of [Lucian] Nero 6 7 and DCass. LXI 20 8 2 και βραχύ και μέλαν... φώνημα. cf. LXTI 26 88 3-4. 228 DOMITI Nero was son of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. Suet. 1 functi autem [Ahenobarbi] consulatibus septem, triumpho censuraque duplici et inter patricios allecti ... ita degenerasse a suorum virtutibus Nero, ut tamen vitia cuiusque, quasi tradita et ingenita, rettulerit.

THYESTAE Vindex also (DCass. supr. 215 n.) charged Nero with appearing in this character. cf. id. infr. 229 n. other characters are named (somewhat at random, as Friedländer thinks 113 430 n. 1) by Philostr. v 7 & 2. Suet. 21.39. DCass. LXIII 10. 22. 229 SYRMA Xv 30 n. Hor. a. p. 215.

ANTIGONAE Nero himself wrote a tragedy Antigone Philostr. IV 39 & 2. PERSONAM Suet. 21 tragoedias quoque cantavit personatus, heroum deorumque item heroidum ac dearum personis effictis ad similitudinem oris sui et feminae, prout quamque diligeret. inter cetera cantavit Cana. cen parturientem, Orestem matrícidam, Oedipodem excaecatum, Herculem insanum. cf. ib. 46 fin. DCass. LXIII 9 S$ 4--5 TO προσωπείον υποδύνων απέβαλλε το της ηγεμονίας αξίωμα, εδείτο ως δραπέτης, επoδηγείτο ως τυφλός, έκύει, έτικτεν, έμαίνετο, ήλάτο, τόν τε Οιδίποδα και τον θυέστην τόν τε Ηρακλέα και τον 'Αλκμαίωνα τόν τε Ορέστης ως πλήθει υποκρινόμενος. και τα γε προσωπεία τοτε μεν αυτοίς εκείνους τοτε δε και εαυτώ εικασμένα έφερε. τα γαρ των γυναικών πάντα προς την Σαβίναν εσκεύαστο.

MELANIPPES Melanippe, daughter of Aeolus and Eurydice, bore to Poseidon twins, Aeolus and Boeotus. Two of the tragedies of Euripides bore her name, Melavatn Ý Oopń, imitated by Ennius ; and M. vi deouwres, imitated by Accius. The various legends are collected in Welcker Griech. Trag. II 840 seq. cf. Cic. off. I § 114. 230 DE MARMOREO CITHARAM SUSPENDE COLOSSO 198 n. Suet. 12 citha. ram autem a iudicibus ad se delatam adoravit, ferrique ad Augusti statuam iussit.

COLOSSO not the colossal statue (120 feet high) of Nero himself, which stood in the vestibule of the golden house Suet. 31; for this was of brass Plin. XXXIV § 46. Pro. bably the statue of a Domitius is meant.

231-244 The nobles Catilina and Cethegus plotted Rome's ruin, fierce against their native city as the Gallic hordes their allies, but the consul, an upstart from a provincial town, is on the alert. of peace won for him that title for which Octavius steeped his sword in continual slaughter; but when Cicero was called · father of the country,' the voice of Rome was still free. Cornelius Severus in Sen. suas. 6 8 26 447 tunc redeunt animis ingentia consulis acta | iurata e que manus de. prensaque foedera noxae | patricium que nefas extinctum : poena Cethegi | deiectusque redit votis Catilina nefandis. .

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