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if I do not play a part on the stage, I shall lose my head. Away, and play your part, but I will not,' etc.” In the christian church charioteers and pantomimi were received only on renouncing their calling conc. Eli. berit. A.D. 305 can, 62.

PULPITA VII 93 2. 196 QUID=utrum Verg. XII 726—7 fata imponit diversa duo. rum | quem damnet labor et quo vergat pondere letum. ib. 719. Pers. II 20. Phaedr. IV 23 2. Tac. ann. 1 47 quos igitur anteferret ? MADVIG. add Hor. ep. II 1 41. Phaedr. 1 24 8. Luc. 1 126. VI 807. VII 260. So quisque ruterque 1 41 n. Madvig on Cic. fin. IV $ 16. Aug. de beata vita 6.

MORTEM estne quisquam qui dubitet? adeo mortis timidus, ut eius vitandae causa se in scena, ridi. cula suscepta persona, traducat? MadyIG. QUISQUAM Burm. on Aen. I 48.

197 ZELOTYPUS the part of the jealous husband of the mima Thymele 1 36 n. STUPIDI blockhead, the clown in a mime, Arnob. in v 171 n. Orelli inscr. 2645 Aurelius Eutyches stupidus greg. urb. (i. e. stupidus gregis scenicorum urbani: persona quae risum stupiditate quadam incitabat). ib. 2608. Capitolin. Antonin. phil. 29 cum Tertullum etiam prandentem cum uxore deprehenderit; de quo mimus in scena praesente Antonino dixit, cum stupidus nomen adulteri uxoris a servo quaereret, et ille diceret ter "Tullus,' et adhuc stupidus quaereret, responderit ille, «iam dixi ter, Tullus dicitur.' Cypr. de spect: 6 patresfamilias togatos modo stupidos, modo obscenos.

COLLEGA fellowactor of the mimus Corinthus. 198 cf. sat. vi 617.

CITHAROEDO to play on an instrument, to sing, or to dance, was thought unbecoming in a Roman of condition (Nep. 15 1 & 2 and praef. Macrob. III 14=11 10 $$ 4–10, 15). Subrius Flavius in Tac. xv 65 non referre dedecori, si citharoedus demoveretur, et tragoedus succederet:' quia (adds Tac.) ut Nero cithara ita Piso tragico ornatu canebat. cf. ib. XIV 14 15. XVI 4. DCass. LXII 24. Şuet. Ner. 20 statim ut imperium adeptus est, Terpnum citharoedum vigentem tunc praeter alios arcessit: diebusque continuis post cenam canenti in multam noctem assidens, paulatim et ipse meditari exercerique coepit: nec eorum quicquam omittere, quae generis eius artifices vel conservandae vocis causa vel augendae factitarent etc. ib. 21 nomen suum in albo profitentium citharoedorum iussit ascribi: sorticulaque in urnam cum ceteris demissa, intravit ordine suo simulque praefecti praetorii citharam sustinentes, etc. A lampoon posted about the city ib. 39 dum tendit citharam noster, dum cornua Parthus, | noster erit Puean ille èKamnBenétys. When his dethronement was predicted, he replied (ib. 40) 'TÉXVLOV nâoa yaia Tpédel,' quo maiore scilicet venia meditaretur citharoedicam artem principi sibi gratam, privato necessariam (cf. DCass. LXIII 27). ib. 41 nothing in the invectives of Vindex vexed him so much quam ut citharoedum malum se increpitum; he turned to one courtier after another, asking: nossentne quenquam praestantiorem ? ib. 43 he hoped to melt the rebel armies by going alone to meet them, weeping, and prepared epinicia to be sung the next day: almost his last words were ib. 49 qualis artifex pereo. id. Vit. 4 Neroni acceptior...peculiari merito, quod praesidens certamini Neroneo cupientem inter citharoedos contendere nec quamvis flagitantibus cunctis promittere audentem ideoque egressum theatro revocaverat. ib. 11 (cf. DCass. 1. c. 29). DCass. LXI 20 g 1 čoTY TE ÉTU σκηνής ο Καίσαρ κ.τ.λ. ib. 21. LXIII 1. 6. 8. 9. 14. 17 SS 5 6. 21. 22. 26. Philostr. Apoll. iv 39 g 1. v 7 § 2. 19. [Luc.] Ner. 2. Sibyll. v 141 seq.

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Plin. xxx § 14. Zonaras xi 18. infr. 227 n. For the juxta-position citharoedo principe cf. vı 118 meretrix Augusta. DCass. Lxi 19 SS 2 3 (at Nero's iuvenalia Aelia Catella, a lady of high birth, 80 years of age, danced, and many other noble ladies; from some Nero, at the bidding of the spectators, plucked off the masks by which they sought to disguise their shame). 20 § 1. 21 § 2. LXII 6 $S 3–5. 18 s i. 24 g 2. LXIII 1 § 1. 6 $ 3.8 2 seq. 12 § 2. 17 ss 5 6. MIMUS 191 n. Aug. de magistro § 5 histriones totas in theatris fabulas sine verbis plerumque exponunt et aperiunt. Suet. Dom. 8 quaestorium virum, quod gesticulandi saltandique studio teneretur, movit senatu. Lamprid. Heliogab. 25 in mimicis adulteriis quae solent simulato fieri effici ad verum iussit. 199 HAEC ULTRA QUID ERIT NISI LUDUS what worse (than the noble actors in the pantomimes) remains, except the school of the lanista and the combats of the amphitheatre? Nor is this crowning disgrace wanting; Gracchus has entered the harena and chosen the equipment which leaves the face bare. cf. Tac. XIV 20 complaints of the better citizens on the institution of the quinquennale ludicrum : outlandish fashions were ruining morals patrios mores funditus everti...ut degeneret studiis externis iuventus...see more supr. 193 n. On the degraded position of gladiators see Quintil. decl. 9 8 5 inter debita noxae mancipia contemptissimus tiro. Calpurn. decl, 50 servum ex libero et gladiatorem ex viro forti...gladiator infamis in iudicio loquor...neque enim condicione gladiatoria quicquam est humilius in vulgo. Flor. 11 19 8 3 servilia bella...et, ne quid turpitudini desit, gladiatoria. id. III 20 g 1. Tac. h. I1 62 cautum severe [by Vitellius], ne equites Romani ludo et harena polluerentur. priores id principes pecunia ac saepius vi (supr. 193] perpulerant: ac pleraque municipia et coloniae aemulabantur (supr. 188 189] corruptissimum quemque adulescentium pretio illi

LUDUS XI 20 n. Madvig 'gladiatorius, in quo lanista magistro artem discebant: Cic. in Cat, 11 9. Caes. b. c. 1 14 $ 4. Suet. Caes. 31. Hor. ep. 113. Sen. ep. 87 § 9 hic [some trossulus of the day) sine dubio cultior comitatiorque quam M. Cato videretur, hic, qui inter illos apparatus delicatos cummaxime dubitat, utrum se ad gladium locet an ad cultrum. ib. 99 § 13 aspice illos iuvenes quos ex nobilissimis domibus in harenam luxuria proiecit.

ILLIC in the ludus. Freemen and even nobles contended in the harena iv 95. XI 8. Sen, de prov. 2 8 5. q. n. v 31 g 5. DCass. LVII 14 (knights). LIX 10. LXXII 19. Fronto ad M. Caes. v 22 p. 82 Naber consul populi Romani posita praetexta manicam induit, leonem inter iuvenes quinquatribus percussit populo Romano spectante. Didius Iulianus (Lamprid. vit. Did. c. 9). Commodus (id. vit. Comm. 11–3. 15). Tert. ad mart. 5. ad nat. 1 18. Markland conj. illud... habe cl. 111 187–8 illud fermentum tibi habe.

200 MIRMILLONIs a gladiator equipped in Gallic fashion, with a fish (see below) on his helmet (ver. 203. schol.) When the retiarius fonght with the myrmillo, he cried in Ionic a maiore verse' non te peto, piscem peto, quid me fugi', Galle ?' (Festus, see Forcellini). See Friedländer 113 516 myrmillones (or murm Henzen 6174 seq.) were not quite identical with the Galli, for the two classes appear separately in the list. in Mommsen IRN 736. The myrmillo appears as the opponent of the retiarius also in VM. 1 7 $ 8. Quintil. vi 3 $ 61 Pedo de myrmillone, qui retiarium [quem --us ?] consequebatur nec feriebat, vivum' inquit capere vult'; generally of the Threx Suet. Dom. 10 Threcem myr:

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milloni parem, munerario imparem. Aus. monosyll. (idyll. XII) quis myrmilloni componitur ? aequimanus Threx. Cic. Phil. VII § 17 (where observe the contrast: Gracchorum potentiam maiorem fuisse arbitramini, quam huius gladiatoris futura sit ?) Suet. Cal. 55. His armour completely covered him Amm. xvi 12 g 49 seque in modum myrmillonis operiens. ib. XXIII 6 $ 83 pedites enim in speciem myrmillonum contecti. Tac. an. III 43 gladiaturae destinati, quibus more gentico [he is speaking of Gauls; and myrmillones were called Galli, Festus. Plut. Crass. 8] continuum ferri tegimen. The name myrmillo is derived from a fish, uópurpos or ubpuulos (Aristot. etc.), Lat. mormyr (Ov.) On a Thasian inscription (Böckh 2164) the word popuídlwves occurs. Rich mirm. 201 Gracchus does not appear as a Threx. Paul. Diac. p. 156 Lind. Threces gladiatores, a similitudine parmularum Thraciarum. Friedländer 113 517—9. Plin. h. n. XXIII § 129 parmae Threcidicae. Artem. II 32 they were well defended (kateoke áo Dal toes a los), rose upon their enemy (étriBalvelv), and bore a scimitar (un ópôdy čxeLV TO žipos). cf. Suet. Cal. 32 myrmillonem e ludo rudibus secum battuentem et sponte prostratum confodit ferrea sica ac more victorum cum palma discucurrit. Clem. Al. str. 1 16 § 75 •the Thracians first invented the so-called ápan, a bent sword, and first used targets on horseback.' The Thracians on Trajan's column are armed in the same manner. FALCE SUPINA 'a reversed sickle', a sabre bending backwards instead of forwards. Labbe gloss. sica Opękikòv čipos étiKau Trés. Respecting this Gracchus cf. 11 14449 vicit et hoc monstrum tunicati fuscina Gracchi, Ilustravitque fuga mediam gladiator harenam et Capitolinis generosior et Marcellis et Catuli Paulique minoribus et Fabiis et | omnibus ad podium spectantibus, his licet ipsum | admoveas, cuius tunc munere retia misit. cf. Hier. ep. 107=7 ad Laetam § 2 propinquus vester. Gracchus, nobilitatem patriciam nomine sonans, cum praefecturam gereret urbanam.

202 DAMNAT ET ODIT Ov. tr. III 1 8.

203 GALEA VM. 17 § 8 incidit deinde ut...retiarius cum myrmillone introduceretur: cuius cum faciem vidisset, idem dixit ab illo se retiario trucidari putasse. Suet. Claud. 34 prolapsos iugulari iubebat: maxime reti. arios, ut exspirantium faciem videret. Quintil. decl. 9 § 9 a friend bids farewell to a gladiator suprema per galeam dederam oscula. The helmets had vizors (see the cuts in Dict. Ant. or in Rich). TRIDENTEM the three-pronged spear (harpoon, fuscina), with which the retiarius dispatched his opponent, after entangling him in his net. He is equipped as a fisherman spearing thunnies (Hom. Od. x 124 n.) Prud. c. Symm. 11 1109 seq. spectant aeratam faciem quam crebra tridentil impacto quatiant hastilia, saucius et quam | vulneribus patulis partem perfundat harenae, | cum fugit. Mart. of a gladiator v 24 12 Hermes aequo. reo minax tridente. A retiarius named Aequoreus in Mommsen IRN 2872. Arn. vi 12 cum fuscina rex maris, tamquam illi pugna sit gladiatorii obeunda certaminis. cf. Isidor. XVIII 54. DS. XVII 43 the besieged Tyrians used nets and harpoons against the Macedonians. From VM. (1. 1.) and from the story of Pittacus (Strabo p. 600 when challenged by Phryno to single combat, he equipped himself as a fisherman, caught Phryno in a casting-net, speared him with a trident and dispatched him with a dagger. DL. I $ 74 Menage. Festus p. 238 Lind. Polyaen. I 25) it appears that a dagger was also used by the retiarius. This dagger is seen in the cut (fig. 4889) in Guhl und Koner (114 338). The best account, with references to works of art, in Friedländer 113 511--5.

204 RETIA technically called iaculum (Isid. origg. XVIII 51). gloss. Labbe retiarius SLKTVopópos ÖLKTVOBódos.

205 NUDUM DCass. LXI 19 (cited 198 n.) SPECTACULA the benches of the amphitheatre ; cf. Liv. 1 35.

206 FUGIT Artemid. 11 32 if a man dreamt that he fought with a retiarius, it was a sign that his wife would desert him Ariyeral yuvalka... Quyáda. While he is engaged in combat, and turned towards his foe, he may remain unknown, but when he flies along the rows of spectators and lifts his face to them, there is no room for doubt.

207 CREDAMUS incredible as it may be, let us believe our eyes, as he runs barefaced before us. Kiaer 43-48 rightly makes spira subject to porrigat (cf. vi 248—50. vii 20 21. 63–5. x 287—8. 326—7. xiv 125. Pers. IV 11 12) and reads credamus, tunicae de f..ag. noscimus faciem Gracchi; credamus igitur eum tunicam retiarii nobili Romano indignam sumpsisse’.

TUNICAE the retiarius wore the tunic alone, sat. II (supr. 201 n.). Suet. Cal. 30 retiarii tunicati quinque numero gregatim dimicantes sine certamine ullo totidem secutoribus succubuerant: cum occidi iuberentur, unus resumpta fuscina omnes victores interemit. AUREA his lasso is of gold lace; this foppery and the size of his armlet make him the more conspicuous.

208 LONGO in the Bignor mosaic (archaeologia XVIII 203 Friedländer) the shoulder-plate stands out like a wing.

IACTETUR dangles as he runs. SPIRA schol. huiusmodi aliquid, quo citius sparsum funem vel iactatam retiam colligat, a kind of amentum (aykúln), a band passing round the body from the left shoulder to the right hip, and attached to the net (Friedländer).

GALERO schol. galerus est umero impositus gladiatoris the technical name for a guard, of leather or metal, worn on the left arm and reaching over the shoulder, which served as a shield to the retiarius (see Rich and Guhl und Koner's cut 488b). Some found at Pompeii are figured by Garrucci in bullet. Nap. nuova ser. I 101 seq. 103 pl. 7. cf. rev. archéol. v 8 pl. 165 (Friedländer).

209 ERGO since Gracchus is recognised by his features and his dress, the gladiator by trade, the slave, blushes to be pitted against so degraded a foe, smarts at the disgrace of meeting Gracchus. How are the mighty fallen ! Sen. de provid. 3 § 4 ignominiam iudicat gladiator cum inferiore componi et scit eum sine gloria vinci qui sine periculo vincitur. cf. ib. 4 g 4. ep. 78 § 16 (of athletes). Cic. Tusc. II § 41.

210 SECUTOR matched with the retiarius also in Suet. Cal. (207 n.) and in the cut referred to 204 n. ad fin. 208; therefore called contra rete in inscriptions (Wilmanns 2605 n. 6=CIL VI 631–2. ib. 2616=Henzen 6174). Commodus fought as secutor with sword (cf. Prud. c. Symm. 11 1100 altius impresso dum palpitat ense secutor) shield and helmet (DCass. LXXII 19. 22. Lamprid. Comm. 15). Friedländer 113 516–7, who cites for the helmet Philogelos 87 Eberhard. schol. Iuv. vi 108. His name is derived from his following the retiarius in his flight (cf. Artem. II 32).

211-230 The people if free to choose would prefer the Spaniard Seneca to Nero the scion of Iulus, but yet a parricide worthy of

• Orestes also slew his mother'; true, but at Apollo's behest, to avenge the treacherous murder of his father; and it was his single sin; he laid no finger on his sister or on Hermione, mixed no poison for his kinsfolk,-never sang on the stage, wrote no Trojan epic:

many deaths.

for what of all Nero's crimes called louder for the avenging sword of Verginius, of Vindex or of Galba? Behold the exploits, the accomplishments of your high-born emperor; it is his pride to sing on a foreign stage, to win the parsley-wreath in Greek concerts. Fix the trophies of his voice on the family statues, the flowing train of Thyestes or Antigone at the feet of Domitius, and hang up his guitar from a marble colossus. On Nero see especially Herm. Schiller Gesch, des röm. Kaiserthums unter...Nero Berlin 1872, and for his progresses in Greece G. F. Hertzberg Gesch, Griechenlands unter der Herrschaft der Römer II Halle 1868.

211 SUFFRAGIA X 77 seq. n.

212 SENECAM the philosopher (v 109. x 16), Nero's teacher. Tac. XV 65 fama fuit (A.D. 65) Subrium Flavum cum centurionibus occulto consilio neque tamen ignorante Seneca destinavisse, ut post occisum opera Pisonis Neronem Piso quoque interficeretur tradereturque imperium Senecae, quasi ... claritudine virtutum ad summum fastigium delecto. See on the Stoic opposition under the empire Schiller's Nero 666–705. W. A. Schmidt Gesch. d. Denk- u. Glaubensfreiheit Berl. 1847. 213 Nero deserved, not once alone (non una III 151, vi 218), but many times, to die the parricide's death. For he was privy to, and afterwards jested on, the murder of Claudius (v 148). Early in A.D. 55 he poisoned, by the help of Locusta (1 71 72 n.), Britannicus, son of his step-father Claudius (Tac. XII. 15–18: Agrippina was alarmed because, ib. 17 parricidii exemplum intellegebat). Among his other victims were his father's sisters Domitia Lepida (A.D. 54, before the death of Claudius, ib. XII 64) and Domitia (shortly after the murder of Agrippina D Cass. LXI 17. Suet. Ner. 34), his mother Agrippina (March A.D. 59 Tac. XIV 3–13. she had long looked forward to such an end, ib. 9 consulenti super Nerone responderunt Chaldaei, fore ut imperaret matremque occideret:' atque illa

occidať inquit dum imperet.' DCass. LXII 18 a Sibylline oracle was fulfilled in Nero, the last emperor of the Julian line, čoxatos Alveadwv untpoktóvos viveuoveúpel. cf. LXI 2 & 1 the crime foretold by an astrologer. After the murder he was filled with guilty fears Tac, ib. 10, 11. DCass. LXI 14. Suet. 34 saepe confessus exagitari se materna specie verberibus furiarum ac taedis ardentibus. cf. Stat. s. 1 7 116–9 as emended by Haupt [noscis... nocentem]. The indignation of the people, amidst great outward rejoicings, still found some vent: e.g. a child was found exposed in the forum, and with it a tablet inscribed, DCass. ib. 16 "I rear thee not, lest thou shouldst kill thy mother.' Verses were posted about the city, such as Suet. 39 'quis negat Aeneae magna de stirpe Neronem? | sustulit hic matrem, sustulit ille patrem. cf. Tac. xv 67. Namatian. II 57—60), his wives, Octavia the daughter of Claudius (June A.D. 62 Tac. XIV 64. DCass. LXII 13. Suet. 57), and Poppaea (Tac. XVI 6. DCass. LXII 27 & 3); Antonia daughter of Claudius, and Rufius Crispinus son of Poppaea (Suet. 25). 214 ULLEUS a skin (wine-skin dig. XXXIII 6 3 § 1): a bag was hung round the neck of one of Nero's statues, with the inscription Suet. 46 ego quid potui ? sed tu culleum meruisti. DCass. LXI 16. dig. XLVIII 9 9 pr. poena parricidii more maiorum haec instituta est, ut par. ricida virgis sanguineis verberatus deinde culleo insuatur cum cane, gallo gallinaceo et vipera et simia: deinde in mare profundum culleus iactatur. hoc ita, si mare proximum sit: alioquin bestiis obicitur secundum divi Hadriani constitutionem. Excluded from the air of hea. yen and from burial in earth the criminal was shut up, like with like,

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