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dvaîol cl. Lob. Aglaoph. 1325) or Vardaei (Cic. fam. v 9 82. Liv. perioch. 56. Plin. III § 143) a tribe inhabiting the Illyrian coast, opposite the island Pharos (Strabo 315 ’Apolaîoi), gave name to a military shoe. Mart. IV 4 5 lassi Vardaicus quod evocati [redolet]. Capitolin. Pertin. 8 § 3 cuculli Bardaici. Pape-Benseler Eigennamen 'Apola. Ovapdaiot. if the injured man of peace seek redress, a soldier's shoe and stout shanks sit in judgement on the bench.'

13 IUDEX VII 116—7 n. bubulco iudice. Tac. Agr. 9 credunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem deesse, quia castrensis iurisdictio secura et obtusior ac plura manu agens calliditatem fori non exerceat. Agricola naturali prudentia, quamvis inter togatos, facile iusteque agebat. 14 CALCEUS of the centurion 17.

cf. II 10 fossa. XIV 10 n. gula.

GRANDES SURAE III 247. XIV 194 n. Pers. III 86 torosa iuventus. v 189.

MAGNA to support the gigantic occupant.

SUBSELLIA 44. 15 16 MORE CAMILLI SERVATO who introduced standing army (Liv. V 2), before which time the soldiers might in winter at home prosecute their suits. Liv. v 19 9 9 in pushing on the siege of Veii a procurationibus, quae multae temere inter murum ac vallum fiebant, edicto, ne quis iniussu pugnaret, ad opus milites traducti. Soldiers were forbidden by a rescript of Hadrian to leave the camp in order to give evidence dig. XXII 5 3 8 6 multo minus milites avocandi sunt a signis vel muneribus perhibendi testimonii causa. On the other hand Honorius and Theodosius, A.D. 416, decreed cod. 1 46 2 ne quando curiales vel privatae condicionis homines ad militare exhibeantur iudicium vel contra se agentium actiones exhibeant vel litigare in eo cogantur.

17–22 the centurions then, let us suppose, try the soldier's cause with perfect justice, still etc. III 100 n. Munro on Lucr. III 935. Teles in Stob. XCVII 31 p. 215 27 M where παίς μεν ών, έφηβος δε γενόμενος, όταν δε ανδρωθή, are followed by πρεσβύτης γέγονε, πάλιν επιθυμεί τα εν νεότητι •••• οικέτης εστίν, ελεύθερος σπεύδει γενέσθαι κ.τ.λ.

17 CENTURIONUM proverbial for uncouth ignorance xiv 194 n. Lucil. in Cic. finn. 1 $ 9. Cic. Tusc. IV $ 55. Hor. s. 1 6 73. Pers. v 189.

19 IUSTAE CAUSA QUERELLAE Luc. VIII 511–2 iustior in Magnum nobis, Ptolemaee, querellae | causa data est. Petron, 15 iudex querellam inspiceret.

21 CURABILIS elsewhere.curable' Cael. Aur, tard. 11 137 Erasistratus facile curabiles succulentos homines dixit atque fortes . . difficile autem curari posse tenues ac debiles. $ 138 difficile curabiles. difficile curabilem. cf. $S 139. 143. IV $ 93. Ign. ep. Eph. 7. As plorabilis=plorandus, so here curabilis=curanda 'requiring medical treatment.' Plaut. aul. 625 verberabilissume. id. trin. 44 culpam castigabilem. Ov. Pont. 1v14 31 32 esset perpetuo sua quam vitabilis Ascra, | ausa est agricolae Musa docere senis. Plin. ep. vi 21 § 3 probitate morum, ingenii elegantia, operun varietate monstrabilis.

22 VINDICTA GRAVIOR QUAM INIURIA III 297-301. • that your revenge (as ultio 19) may cost you more pain than the original wrong. cf. viiI 91–97. Grang. cites Ambr. [ep. 18 § 20] quae autem aequitas, ut paucis sacerdotibus dolentes victum negatum, ipsi omnibus denegarent; cum inclementior essėt vindicta quam culpa.

23 MULINO CORDE VAGELLI the mulish rhetorician Vagellius xiii 119 n. Plaut. Cist. IV 12 2 mulo inscitior. Catull. 83 3 mule, nihil sentis.

24 CUM DUO CRURA HABEAS 1 161 n, x 2 n. pauci. Caes. b. C. I 22 § 5 paucorum. 23 § 3 pauca. II 41 $ 3 ne militibus quidem, ut defessis, neque equitibus, ut paucis et labore confectis, studium ad pugnandum vir. tusque deerat; sed hi erant numero cc [' only 200'], reliqui in itinere substiterant. Kraner cites b. G. III 17 8 5 Sabinus idoneo omnibus rebus loco castris sese tenebat, cum Viridovix contra eum duum ['only two'] milium spatio consedisset. VII 81 § 1 uno die intermisso. • Having but two legs to stumble against so many soldiers' boots and so many thousands of hob-nails.'

CALIGAS III 322. leathern boots (Sympos. aenigm. 56) worn by the rank and file, whence caligatus=gregarius. [Quintil.] decl. II f 15 hoc dicis, cui parere caligatum lex iubet, qui non solum militibus sed centurionibus praepositus. ib. § 19 commendem tibi ordinem caligati militis. Suet. Aug. 25. Vitell. 7. Cal. 9 Caligulae cognomen castrensi loco traxit, quia manipulario habitu inter milites versabatur. Lips. on Tac. ann. I 41. DCass. LVII 5 8 6. Auson. monos. de Caes. 4 (cf. tetrast. de Caes. 4) Gaius, cognomen Caligae cui castra dederunt. Sen. cited viti 246 n. fin. Plin. VII § 135 many say that Ventidius iuventam inopem in caliga militari tolerasse. Capitolin. Maximin. 28 & 9 the elder Maximinus was 81 ft. in height; his shoe preserved in a grove near Aquileia was a foot longer than the normal length; unde etiam vulgo tractum est, cum de longis et ineptis hominibus tractaretur, caliga Maximini. ed. Diocl. ix 6 cáligae militares sine clabo. When Octavian B.C. 41 offered to make the senators and veterans um. pires in his dispute with Fulvia, the veterans set up a court at Gabii, but Fulvia and L. Antonius did not appear DCass. XLVIII 12 8 3 Boudny kalco γάταν από της των στρατιωτικών υποδημάτων χρήσεως αποκαλούντες. Τert. idol. 19 militia ... caligata. Marquardt Staatsverw. 112 525—6.

25 CLAVORUM III 248 in digito clavus mihi militis haeret. Augustin. in 1 ep. Ioh. tract. 10 & 8 forte caligis clavatis contereret pedes tuos. Plin. IX $ 69 and xxII 94 clavi caligares. xxxiv § 143 caligarii. from which passage it appears that they were of iron: the sole of the caliga was thickly studded with them Ioseph. bell. vı 188 tà gàp ÚTodńuata tetapuéva trukvois kai očéouv (cf. Plin. IX $ 69 crebris atque praeacutis) ήλοις έχων, ώσπερ των άλλων στρατιωτών έκαστος. Sympos. aenigm. 57. Greg. dial. 14 (1699) vir Dei clavatis calceatus caligis, falcem fenariam in collo deferens. Migne patrol. lat. xc 128a.

25 26 Who would venture so far from the city to accuse a soldier ? Besides what friend is so true a Pylades, as to devote his life for his friend?

26 PYLADES Ov. tr. 15 21 (=IV 4.71) exemplum veri Phoceus amoris. r. a. 589 semper habe Pyladen aliquem, qui curet Orestem. Mæt. vı 11 1 2 quod non sit Pylades hoc tempore, non sit Orestes, | mirariz ? Pylades, Marce, bibebat idem. 9 ut praestem Pyladen, aliquis mihi praestet Oresten. Stat. s. 11 6 54 55 dignus et Haemonium Pyladen praecedere fama | Cecropiamque fidem. v 2 155—6 unanimi comes indefessus amici ; | quo Pylades ex more pius. PapeBenseler Eigennamən.

MOLEM AGGERIS ['the agger of the praetorian camp; which makes the irony stronger. H. A. J. M.]

27 LACRIMAE SICCENTUR Grang. cites Ov. f. 111 509. her. 18 25 26. Prop. 1 19 23. Quintil. xi 1 § 6. Let us dry up our tears at once, and not importune our friends (who on one pretext or another vill certainly put us off), to bear us company in our hazardous enterprise.

29 If when the judge calls on the accuser to produce his witnesses, the bystander, who chanced (nescio quis) to see the blow struck, dares to say “I saw it,' he may be ranked with the noblest worthies of the good old times. DA TESTEM 111 137. .exx, from Cic. and Quintil. in Mühlmann .docol. 506. 29 30 AUDEAT ILLE, PUGNOS QUI VIDIT, DICERE VIDI' VII 13 14 hoc satius, quam si dicas sub iudice 'vidi' | quod non vidisti. Cic. Verr. IV 8 55. v § 165.

31 ET I 155 n. VIII 171. Hand Tursell. II 485. Sen, ben. iv 18 3. ep. 4 § 8 recognosce ....et intelleges. 13 § 16 considera ... et intelleges. 16 § 7 excute illam et invenies. 26 8 8 exspecta me pusillum et de domo fiet numeratio. Plin. ep. Ix 11 § 1 circumfer oculos et occurrent. Pind. N. IV 37 Dissen. Plat. Theaet. 1539. Matt. 77. James 47. Lucian d. d. 2 2 ρυθμα βαίνε kaì opel. Without et Sen. ep. 13 g 17. 36 g 11. ad Helv. 6 S$ 3 4. Kühner gr. Gr. 112 201. Roby $ 1557. 31 32 DIGNUM BARBA DIGNUMQUE CAPILLIS MAIORUM I 103. DS. iv 5 & 2

the more ancient Bacchus is bearded, because all the ancients wore the beard long.' Varro r. r. 11 11 g 10 .barbers are said first to have come into Italy from Sicily A.U.C. 454 (B.C. 300), as is attested by public documents at Ardea, and to have been brought over by T. Ticinius Mena. That formerly there were no barbers appears from the statues of the ancients, which for the most part have long hair and beard.' Plin. VII $ 211 Scipio Africanus the younger (sequens) first adopted the practice of daily shaving.' Shaving the beard continued in use till the time of Hadrian, as we see from the coins Pauly 12 2262–5. When the Gauls took Rome B.C. 390, M. Papirius (Liv. v 41 $ 9) dicitur Gallo barbam suam, ut tum omnibus promissa erat, permulcenti scipione eburneo in caput incusso iram movisse. ib. XXVIII 35 6 the promissa caesaries of the elder Scipio. Cic. p. Sest. § 19 Halm unum aliquem te ex barbatis illis exemplum imperii veteris, imaginem antiquitatis, columen reipublicae diceres intueri. cf. id. fr. or. I p. Cornel. § 18 (in rhett. lat. 598 33 Halm) hic mos iam apud illos antiquos et barbatos fuit. p. Cael. § 33 illa horrida [barba), quam in satuis antiquis atque imaginibus videmus. finn. IV [ 62. Aen. Vi 808. Tibull. 11 1 34 Broukh. intonsis... avis. Hor. c. II 15 11 intonsi Catonis. i 12 41. Ov. f. vi 264. Mart. 1 24. ix 28. Lucian cynic. 14 túywva kai kóuno έχειν ήρεσκεν αυτώ, και ουκ εκείνω μόνη, αλλά και πάσι τοις παλαιούς K.7.1. Visconti iconogr. Rom. I pl. 1–3. Marquardt + (2) 199.

CAPILLIS V 30 capillato consule. 32 CITIUS XV 19 n.

33 PAGANUM opposed to miles (Plin. ep. x 86b=18 & 2), to armati (ib. VII 253 6). cf. dig. XXIX 13. Tac. h. 1 53 fin. II 14. 88. 111 24 (where Antonius Primus by way of taunt addresses his soldiers vos, nisi vincitis, pagini). 43. 77. IV 20. Suet. Aug. 27. Tert. pall. 4 p. m. paganos in miliaribus. dig. XLVIII 19 14. Dirksen manuale.

34 PUDOREM honour VIII 83. Sall. Cat. 16 § 2 ubi eorum famam atque pudorem adtriverat. Caes. b. G. 1 40 $ 14. Liv. v 16 8 7. Plin. XXXVI § 108 pudor Romani nominis proprius, qui saepe res perditas servavit in proeliis. Plin. ep. 11 4 8 2 famam defuncti pudoremque suscipere. v186 qui defunctae pudorem tueretur. dig. XLVII 10 18 5 iniuria, quae fit liberis nostris, nostrum pudorem pertingit. Dirksen minuale. Aurelian's charge to his vicarius (Vopisc. 7 8$ 5—8) on the theme manus militum contine ends qui litem fecerit, vapulet.

35–50 the second privilege of the soldiery: civilians wait long for the decisions of their suits : soldiers meet with a speedy settlement.

36 SACRAMENTORUM schol. militiae quia iurabant.' Tac. h. 15 miles urbanus longo Caesarum sacramento inbutus. 38 SACRUM SAXUM Liv. XLI 13 § 1 sacrum lapiden.

EFFODIT MEDIO DE LIMITE SAXUM the land-mark or statue of the god Terminus. Hor. C. 11 18 23—26 quid quod usque proximos / revellis agri terminos et ultra | limites clientium | salis avarus ? Ov. f. 11 641–4 Termine, sive lapis sive es defossus in agro / stipes, ab antiquis tu quoque numen habes. | te duo diversa domini pro parte coronant | binaque serta tibi binaque liba ferunt. cf. ib. 639—684. Terminus can. not be 'evoked' nor his temple exaugurated' Liv. 1 55 SS 3–5. Cato in Fest. 'nequitum'p. 162 M (origg. 1 24 p. 59 Peter) fana in eo loco conpluria fure. ea exauguravit praeterquam quod Termino fanum fuit: id nequitum exaugurari. Lact. i 20 85 37–42. Aug. civ. D. IV 29. v 21. Sen. Hip). (Phaedra 536—7) nullus in campo sacer | divisit agros arbiter populis lapis. He who removed his neighbour's land-mark' was accused among the Romans (inscr. on a terminus in Orelli 4332 quisquis hoc sustulerit aut laeserit, ultimus suorum moriatur. Paulus Fest. 363 M. esp. grom. 350—1 L from Vegoia cum autem Iuppiter terram Etruriae sibi vindicavit, constituit iussitque metiri campos signarique agros. sciens hominum avaritiam vel terrenum cupidinem, terminis omną scita [fortasse saepta vel sancita L] esse voluit. quos quandoque ... ob avaritiam prope novissimi octavi saeculi (Iuv. XIII 28 n.] data sibi [fortasse lascivi L] homines malo dolo violabunt contingentque atque movebint. sed qui contigerit moveritque, possessionem promovendo suam, alteriis minuendo, ob hoc scelus damnabitur a dis. si servi faciant, domaio mutabuntur in deterius. sed si conscientia dominica fiet, celerius lomus extirpabitur gensque eius omnis interiet. motores autem pessimi. morbis et vulneribus afficientur membrisque suis debilitabuntur. tum tiam terra a tempestatibus vel turbinibus plerumque labe movebitur. fretus saepe laedentur decutienturque imbribus atque grandine, caniculis interient, robigine occident. erunt multae dissensiones in populo. fiei haec scitote, cum talia scelera committuntur. Rudorff ib. 11 236—250. dig. XLVII 21 de termino moto.' Preller röm. Myth.) 227—231. E. ( Clark Roman law 52 53) as amongst the Israelites (deut. 19 14 Grcius. 27 17. prov. 22 28. Job 24 2. Hos. 5 10. Sibyll. III 240) and Greks (Plato legg. 843a K. F. Hermann de terminis eorum. que religione apd Graecos. Gött. 1847. 4to).

39 CM PATULO PULS ANNUA LIBO originally it was forbidden to offer bloody oerings to Terminus Plut. qu. Rom. 15. DH. 11 74 meldνους δε Δήμητροςκαι άλλας τινάς καρπων απαρχάς. These were offered on the Terminali (ANNUA) Febr. 23 at the end of the ancient year.

PULS ANNUA XI 58. XIV 171 n. Varro in Non..mactat kalendis Iuniis et publice et privatim favatam pultem diis mactat. Plin. XVIII § 84 et hodie sacra prisca atque natalium pulte fritilla coriciuntur. Tert. spect. 12 fin. idem de apparatibus interpretabimur in ipsrum honorum suggestu deputandis, quod purpurae, quod fasces, quod vitte, quod coronae, quod denique contiones et edicta et pultes pridiana sine pompa diaboli, sine invitatione daemonum non sunt. Arn. II 2. ipse autem qui infertur cibus sit unus atque idem semper, nihil maria differens nec per varios redintegratus sapores, sed aut fitilla de mib aut sit panis ex farre, aut, ut saecula imitemur antiqua, ex cinere caldo gledes. VII 24 quid fitilla, quid frumen, quid africia, quid gratilla ? . . ex quibus duo, quae prima, sunt pultium nomina sed genere et qualitat diversa, series vero quae sequitur liborum signifo cantias continet .... non magmenta, non augmina, non mille species . fitillarum, quib3 nomina indidistis obscura vulgoque ut essent augustiora fecistis.

LIBO III 187 n.

ITES TOTIUS

Verg. ecl. 7 33 34 haec te liba, Priape, quotannis I expectare sat est.

40 XIII esp. 135 seq.

PERGIT NON REDDERE Cic. in lexx. Fabri on Liv. XXI 22 & 9.

41 =XIII 137. cf. XIV 315 316 n.

42 43 The civilian cannot, like the soldier (49), choose his own time, he must wait until, among the suits of the whole people, his turn comes. Actions between vilians (before the centumviri) were heard in the order in which application had been made to the praetor.

42 EXPECTANDUS ERIT ANNUS Cic de prov. cons. g 17 hoc tempore amisso annus est integer vobis exspectandus. The courts are so choked with business, that we must wait a year for the beginning of the hearing—not of our own individual suit, lut of the whole nation's litigation. Serv. Aen. 11 102 'suo ordine uno reatu et est de antiqua tractum scientia, quia in ordine dicebantur causae propter multitudinem vel tumultum festinantium, cum erat annus litium, luvenalis exspectandus ... annus.' Iuv. however does not warrant the trm annus litium. Ter. haut. 240 dum moliuntur, dum conantur, annusest. Sen. apocol. 12 22 23 quis nunc iudex | toto lites audiet anno?

LITES INCHOET dig. XLII 1 54 11 si litem inchoatam deseruit. POPULI how long the settlement of a cause might be defered, appears from Suet. Vesp. 10 iudicia centumviralia, quibus vix suffctura litigatorum aetas videbatur. 44 TAEDIA Neue 12 424.

VRAE properly Plin. ep. 1 18 6 iudicium centumvirale differri nullo mdo ... potest. Yet a whim of the praetor (ib. v 9=21 § 1 descenderar in basilicam Iuliam, auditurus quibus proxima comperendinatione respadere debebam. § 2 sedebant iudices, decemviri venerant, obversabantur dvocati, silen. tium longum, tandem a praetore nuntius. dimittuntur cetumviri, eximitur dies, me gaudente, qui numquam ita paratus sum ut non mora laeter. § 3 causa dilationis Nepos praetor, qui legibusquaerit), or the want of the full number of iudices, might cause delays.

SUBSELLIA 14, 45 STERNUNTUR the apparitores put the cushions on thebench. • When the pleader Caedicius is already laying aside his lacerna111 148 n. Suet. Cl. 6 lacernas deponere solebat, a compliment to aprince), and preparing to address the court in the toga:' IX 28 29 laernas, muni. menta togae. Sen. contr. x pr. § 2 p. 460 K=21 B of Scaurus dicebat neglegenter ; saepe causam in ipsis subselliis, sepe dum amici. tur discebat. Plin. ep. 11 3 § 2 surgit amicitur icipit. so of an exiled orator ib. iv 11 § 3 cum Graeco pallio amictu intrasset (carent enim togae iure, quibus aqua et igni interdictum est) postquam se composuit circumspexitque habitum suum, 'Latine' inqit 'declamaturus sum.' dices, tristia et miseranda. Quintilian's directin to pleaders XI 3 g 156 leniter est consurgendum, tum in componenda ga.... paulum commorandum. The toga was worn in court as the atinctive dress of Romans III 127 n. cf. 11 66—82. VIII 240 n. Liv. xx, 26 g 1 is iuvenis, ut primum ... pecunia a patre relicta animos ad spem leralioris fortunae fecit, toga que et forum placuere, $ 2 proclamando proordidis hominibus causisque adversus rem et famam bonorum primum i notitiam populi, deinde ad honores pervenit. Suet. Claud. 15 illud qoque a maioribus natu audiebam, adeo causidicos patientia eius solito abuti, ut descendentem e tribunali non solum voce revocarent, sed et lacria togae retenta,

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