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St Peter is represented as condemning the use of meat Clem. hom. 111 45. VIII 15 the giants, εν διατροφή επί την παρά φύσιν των ζώων βοράν τρεπόdevol, the first to taste flesh. ib. 16. XII 6. xv 7. can. apostol. 51 deposi. tion of the clergy, excommunication of laity, who abstain from flesh not for discipline, but as abominable (as the Eustathians did) conc. Gangr. c. 1 2. 21. Bingham xvII 5 19–20. Cotelier on constitut. apostol. vi 12 cites many fathers who held that no flesh was eaten before the deluge. Tert. cult. fem. II 9 numquid non aliqui ipsam Dei creaturam sibi interdicunt, abstinentes vino et animalibus esculentis, quorum fructus nulli periculo aut sollicitudini adiacent, sed humilitatem animae suae in victus quoque castigatione Deo immolant ? Clem. Al. paed. 11 1 § 11. str. VII 6 8 32. Among the sects which abstained from flesh were Ebionites (Epiphan. haer. xxx 15 p. 139o. 18 p. 142d. 19 p. 143b. 22 p. 146), Encratites (Iren. I 28=30 8 2 in Eus. IV 29 § 2. Aug. haer. 25), Aerians (acc. to Philastr. 72. not acc. to Epiph. 75 § 3 fin. cf. Aug. haer. 53), Tatians (Philastr. 48. some make them the same as the Encratites), Priscillianists (Aug. 70), Patricians (Aug. 61). Clem. Al. str. VII § 33 approves abstinence as a discipline of the body: táx’ áv tis των γνωστικών και ασκήσεως χάριν σαρκοφαγίας απόσχοιτο και του μη σφριγών περί τα αφροδίσια την σάρκα. ib. III 8 85 he asserts the law of Christian freedom επάναγκες μεν ούν ου κωλυτέον γαμείν ουδέ μην κρεοpayeiv ñ oivototeży. The Brachman (Strabo p. 712) abstains wholly from flesh and marriage for 37 years; after which he eats the flesh of such creatures as do not serve man, δριμέων και άρτυτών απεχόμενον. ib. 713 the Garmanes also live on leaves and wild fruits ; an inferior order on rice and barley. cf. Clem. Al. str. III § 60. Augustine, from his Manichean experience, is led to dilate on the point de mor. Man. § 30 one of the Manichean “elect' forfeits heaven if frusto pernae vel rancido labra unxerit, but may fare otherwise sumptuously, boletos orizam tubera placentas caroenum piper laser distento ventre ructantem without risk. ib. $$ 35–37. 51. 53—64 (e. g. 54 si arborem necare, ut vos dicitis, homicidium est, aut necare animalia. cf. c. Faust. v 6. haer. 46 VIII 510 Gaume). The pupils (auditores) among them ‘gathered fruit for the elect, and themselves ate meat, but might not kill (haer. 46); the 'elect' must abstain (ib. id. c. Faust. vi 1. 4—6. xvi 9. xxx 1. 5. c. Adim. 15 & 2 vill 2364). Reasons assigned for their abstinence c. Adim. 15 § 1. Why catholics abstained mor. Manich. § 31. c. Faust. xxx 3. 5. ep. 55= 119 § 36 those who regarded flesh as unclean contradict St Paul. C. Adim. 14 § 2. In the dietetic reformer. Manchester, Heywood' a monthly serial, a translation of the notices of vegetarianism in ancient writers is now appearing. Aristoxenus, on the other hand, states that beans were the usual food of Pythagoras (Gell. iv 11). The same absti. nence was found in Egypt, and in Rome it formed a part of the process of purification (Plut. quaest. Rom. 95). Hippolytus (philosophum. 1 2 p. 13 72—84 D) says that Zoroaster taught this abstinence to Pythagoras ; the grounds alleged are puerile, as all explanations have been. See Bayle n. I. Paus. VIII 15 g 4 the mystae of Demeter at Pheneae regarded the bean as un kabapov. Iambl. v. P. 8 191 Pythagoreans chose rather to die than to march across a bean-field. $ 193 when Dionysius asked the reason, Myllias replied: "They chose rather to die than trample on beans, I would rather trample on beans, than divulge their reason.' ib. § 194 (Menage on DL. VIII 8 50 cites a like story of Theano) Timycha, wife of Myllias, bit off her tongue to shew that no torture could extract the secret from her. In this they followed the example set by Pythagoras DL. VIII SS 39 40. schol. Salernit. c. 19 4 manducare fabam caveas, facit illa podagram. Moreau in his comm. (Par. 1672 pp. 3329) cites the opinions of the ancient physicians and speaks of Pythagoras. cf. Ael. v. h. IV 17 Periz. Lobeck Aglaoph. 251–5. Lucian gallus 4. 18. ver. hist. Il 28. vit. auct. 6. Paus. i 37 § 4. Iambl, adhort. ad phil. 21 symb. 37 pp. 317. 371 K. Beside beans mallows prohibited Iambl. adhort. ad phil. 21 symb. 38 pp. 316. 376 K. Artemid. 1 65.

ADDENDA

2 CROCODILON ADORAT Max. Tyr. VIII 5 after blaming the Egyptian law: • They honour an ox and bird and goat and the creatures of Nile, ων θνητά μέν τα σώματα, δειλοί δε οι βίοι, ταπεινή δε η όψις, αγεννής δε ή θεραπεία, αισχρά δε ή τιμή. αποθνήσκει θεός Αίγυπτίοις και πενθείται θεός και δείκνυται παρ' αυτούς ιερόν θεού και τάφος θεού ... παρα δε Αίγυπ. Tlous lobtimov &XEL Ociov thuñs kai dakpówv,' tells a story (Holyday) of an Ægyptian woman, which nourish'd a young crocodile : whereupon the rest of the Ægyptians thought her a most happy woman, and the nurse of their God, and not a few sought to please both Her and her Darling. He adds, that this woman had a young son about the age of her God, whose play-fellow he was; and that, whiles for tenderness of body the Godcrocodile seem'd tame, all was well: but that when strength came to him, his nature came to him, and [though he had spoil'd his own sport] he eat up his play-fellow: that the mother notwithstanding, though indeed wretched, rejoiced at the death of her child, as most happy, being so honoured as to be made the sacrifice of her house-God.'

7 AELUROS Sibyll. 111 30 TPOOKUVÉOYTES O DELS και αιλουροισι θύοντες. .

63 SAXA see the account of the Decian persecution in Alexandria Eus, h. e. VI 41 SS 3 4. 64 65 DOMESTICA SEDITIONI TELA Ov. m. VI 685—6 ira, ' quae solita est illi nimiumque domestica vento. 123 NOLENTI SURGERE NILO Lucr. vi 712—737. Amm. XXVIII 5 $ 14.

174 NON OMNE LEGUMEN Plin. XVIII $ 118 prisco ritu pulsa faba suae religionis dis in sacro est, praevalens pulmentari cibo et hebetare sensus existimata, insomnia quoque facere, ob haec Pythagoricae sententiae damnata, ut alii tradidere, quoniam mortuorum animae sint in ea, qua de causa parentando utique adsumitur. § 119 Varro et ob haec flaminem ea non vesci tradit et quoniam in flore eius litterae lugubres reperiantur.

XVI

SOLDIERS enjoy an almost entire exemption from punishment (1—34), are not harassed by protracted law-suits (35—50), and hold property in their own right, while their fathers yet live (51—60).

Schol. 'ista a plerisque exploditur, et dicitur non esse Iuvenalis. On the other hand it is quoted as Juvenal's by Servius (Aen. I 16 ver. 6. II 106 ver. 42) and Priscian (VIII 31 and 82 ver. 2). The opinions of modern critics are collected by Ruperti and Heinrich; add, in favour of the genuineness of the satire, K. F. Hermann, Düntzer, W. E. Weber, 0. Jahn. That the work is imperfect is evident: for we have no complete list of the communia commoda, which were but the beginning of the proposed theme (7): the instances of special good fortune, alluded to in verses 146, are not touched upon. The objections which have been taken to the language are frivolous in themselves, and easily outweighed by the excellence of 4 seq. 9 seq. 24—34 cet. F. Bücheler (Rhein. Mus. XXIX 1874 636. cf. Ribbeck der echte .. Juvenal 175 seq.) explains the abrupt termination of the fragment. nam in medio fere corpore saturarum codices Pithoeanus et Sangallensis triginta versibus (v11 129–158) quae olim adscripta fuere scholia omittunt. casu aliquo Iahnius ea in communi archetypo intercepta existimavit, ego librorum naturae non video quid sit magis consentaneum quam totum interiisse folium. tricenum igitur versuum foliis archetypum compositum puto. iam numera inde a vil 159, ut qui primus fuerit in aliquo folio, versus saturarum reli. quos, adice singulos praepositos saturis aliamque ab alia discernentes, praeterea duos quibus quarti libri et quinti exordia indicantur, neve unum illum neglexeris post ix 134 sublatum ab editoribus sed antiquitus traditum, et summam cognosces fieri versuum 2040 folia inplentium 68 sine ulla deductione aut accessione. itaque qui hodie saturis finem facit versus idem extremus fuit in archetypi folio, nec plures ad nos pervenerunt ideo quod sequentia codicis folia aut unum saltem perierant.'

1–6 Fortune (1 felicis, 2 prospera, 3 secundo, 4 benigni) can shower countless prizes on the soldier; if she befriend him, he need not pray to Venus or Īuno to make interest with Mars on his behalf. The theme of the satire, as of xv, is proposed in a question. FELICIS VII 190—202. IX 33. XII 62–66. epithet of Sulla and of certain legions.

PRAEMIA the pay (Tac. ann. 1 17 two denarii a day for praetorian soldiers), bounties on special occasions, as on IUV. II.

26

an accession, a lump sum (5000 denarii for praetorians) on discharge Marquardt röm. Staatsverw. 112 94. 464. 524. 545. The competition for admission to the guards was great, and only the tallest candidates were accepted Dosith. Adr. sent. 2 Hadrian asked a recruit • Tôs Dédels otpaTEÚEO ac;' he replied “els mpactúplov'. 'How tall are you?' '51 feet'. Hadrian replied - εν τοσούτω εις την πολιτικών στρατεύου', i.e. the cohortes urbanae had a lower standard. GALLI SO P, not Galle : the name Gallius occurs in Cic.

2 NAM felicis I say, for I could be content myself, if sure of fortune's favour, to enter the camp. 34 ME PAVIDUM EXCIPIAT TIRONEM PORTA SECUNDO SIDERE VII 194—5 distat enim, quae | sidera te excipiant. Tac. h. III 24 quae castra alia excipient? "Mühlmann 'excipio' col. 918. PORTA dig. XLIX 16 12 8 2 officium tribunorum est vel eorum, qui exercitui praesunt, . . . . claves portarum suscipere. On the four gates of the camp, the side-gates porta principalis dextera and p. p. sinistra, one at each end of the via principalis or cardo maximus, and the gates at the ends of the decumanus maximus, porta praetoria in front, p. decumana in the rear, see Marquardt röm. Staatsverw. 112 400—2. 4 SIDERE VI 569–581, x 314. XIV 248 n. Philo de provid. 1 77–88.

HORA Pers. v 48 nuta fidelibus hora. 5 VENERIS COMMENDET EPISTOLA MARTI II 30 31 leges revocabat amaras | omnibus atque ipsi Veneri Martique timendas. x 313. On the Luci. anic tone i 84 n. XIII 38—52. Lucr. 1 38—40 hunc [Martem] tu, diva, tuo recubantem corpore sancto | circumfusa super, suavis ex ore loquellas | funde petens placidam Romanis, incluta, pacem. cf. ib. 31–37.

6 SAMIA GENETRIX QUAE DELECTATUR HARENA VII 32 n. x 171 n. Aen. 1 15 16 quam Iuno fertur terris magis omnibus unam | posthabita coluisse Samo. The Heraeon at Samos was Hdt. III 60 $ 6 MéYLOTOS TÁVtwv vnWv Tv ñuels iDuev. See a Samian coin in Müller Denkm. Heft 1 n. 8. Priap. 75 2. Lact. i 17 g 8 insulam Samum scribit Varro prius Partheniam nominatam, quod ibi Iuno adoleverit ibique etiam Iovi nupserit. itaque nobilissimum et antiquissimum templum eius est Sami et simulacrum in habitu nubentis figuratum et sacra eius anniversaria nuptiarum ritu celebrantur. ib. 15 g 9. Spanh. on Callim. Dian. 228. Del. 48. Aug. civ. D. Vi 7 sacra sunt Iunonis et haec in eius dilecta insula Samo celebrabantur, ubi nuptum data est Iovi. Ath. 655ab and 67220 quotes a monograph on the temple by Menodotus. The statue of the Samian Here, by Lysippus and Bupalus, removed to Constantinople Cedren. I 564 Bonn. Westermann in Pauly vi 735. Cic. Verr. I § 50. § 184. Tac. ann. iv 14. The temple contained many pictures and statues and was plundered by Verres and by Antonius Strabo 637. Apul. m. VI 4. A Samian inscription in honour of Lollia priestess of Here Archegetes και θεάς Ιουλίας Σεβαστής Rhein. Μus. 1867 314. GENETRIX Hera mother of Ares by Zeus Il. v 896;.or without a father Ov. f. v 233-260.

HARENA Tert. pall. 1 p. 921 Dehler nulla iam Delos, harenae Samos, owing to the earthquake of A.D. 178. Sibyll. III 363 čotal kai Sános öre pos. IV 91.

VIII 166. 7434 The first privilege common to all ranks in the army alike : they hold so fast to one another, that no civilian dare accuse them or give evidence against them.

7 COMMODA Tac. ann. 1 26 the mutinons soldiers A.D. 14 exclaim novum id plane, quod imperator sola militis commoda ad senatum reiciat. 27 quo pergeret ? ad imperatorem an ad patres ? ut illic quoque commodis legionum adversaretur ? DCass. LX 24 § 3 rois te otpaτευομένοις, επειδή γυναίκας ουκ έδύναντο έκ γε των νόμων έχειν, τα των γεγαunkóTwv dikaisuara & dwke. Oud. schol. on Cic. epp. pp. 84. 303—4.

COMMUNIA XIII 140 where, as here, it ) ( special luck.

8 NE used because Hand Tursell. IV 42 “subest notio impediendi vel prohibendi.'

TOGATUS VIII 240 n, x 8 n. 9 it was not uncommon for a defendant to enlist as a means of evading justice cod. XII 34 1 qui litis causa militiam appetierunt. dig. XLIX 16 4 8 8 qui eo animo militiae se dedit, ut sub obtentu militiae pretiosiorem se adversario faceret. cf. ib. 16 16. Spartian. Pescenn, Niger 3 g 6 re vera in re militari vehemens fuit. numquam sub eo miles a provinciali lignum oleum operam extorsit. ETSI PULSETUR, DISSIMULET dig. XLVII 10 11 § 1 iniuriarum actio .... dissimulatione aboletur.

DISSIMULET supply ut from ne, as XIII 36. so quisque from nemo vi 17 18. Plaut. aul. 30 scit out of nescit. Enn. fr. trag. 277 V (in Cic. rep. I § 30) quod est ante pedes nemo spectat, caeli scrutantur plagas. Cic. Brut. § 259 sciebat understood from a following nesciebat (cf. Tac. XII 64). Cic. p. Cluent. § 6 scit out of nescit. finn. II SS 25 Madvig. 88. Nep. 5 1 § 4 Bremi. 14 6 8 4 Heus. 18 6 8 3=2 Heus. (ut from ne, as 8 2=1. 8 3 8 1. 23 12 8 2. 25 10 $ 4). Ov. m. IV 470-1 quod vellet, erat, ne regia Cadmi 1 staret, et in facinus traherent Athamanta sorores. Phaedr. Iv 17=18 31 Burm. Rutil. Lup. I § 13 Ruhnken. Tac. h. i 84 ne centurio tribuno obsequatur, [ut] hinc confusi pedites equitesque in exitium ruamus. id. ann. XIII 14. Hand Turs. IV 56 and on Gron. diatr. in Stat. I 253. Benecke on Iust. XXXI 1 § 8. Munro on Lucr. II 1038. Obbar in Schneidewin Philol. VI 151.

Vahlen in Ztschr. f. d. österr. Gymn. XXII 25—27. Sen. ben. IV 8 $ 2 qui te negas deo debere, sed naturae. Ruddiman 11 361. Heindorf and Fritzsche on Hor. 8. 1 1 3. Hdt. VII 104. Matthiä $ 634 3. Madvig lat. Gr. § 462 b and gr. Synt. § 213. Kühner gr. Gr. 11° 1072. Sir T. Browne vulgar errors i 10 fin. p. 32 ed. 1650 some denying his humanity, and [supply affirming] that he was one of the Angels, as Ebion . . . Some denying his Divinity ; [affirming] that he was begotten of humane principles, and the seminall sonne of Joseph.'

9 10 AUDEAT AUDEAT X 359—361 n. XIV 48 n.

10 111 300 301. Lucil. 1x 75 M dentesque advorsos discutio omnis. Apul. m. 1x 39—42 a Macedonian gardener is riding on his ass, when quidam procerus et, ut indicabat habitus et habitudo, miles e legione factus nobis (the ass is historian) obvius superbo atque adroganti sermone percontatur quorsum vacuum duceret asinum. Not understanding Latin, the gardener passes on. The soldier belabours him with his vitis and pulls him off his ass, and takes possession of it. The gardener begs for mercy, but seeing the soldier preparing inversa vite de vastiore nodulo cerebrum suum diffindere, trips him up, beats him with fists and elbows, bites him, pounds his face, hands and sides with a stone. The soldier threatens to make mincemeat of the gardener, who again cudgels him till he feigns death, carries off his sword, and hides himself in a friend's house. The soldiers charge the gardener with stealing a piece of the governor's plate: he is sentenced to death. cf. c. 41 vindictae sedulam darent operam.

PRAETORI urbano II 213. XIII 4 n. Gaius III 224.

11 OFFAM II 33. 'a bruise'; one raw lump'. Plin. xv § 26 nucibus arefactis et in offam contusis.

12 RELICTUM given over, abandoned. 13 14 BARDAICUS CALCEUS Bardiaei (Plut, Mar. 43 & 4 Bap

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