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δ' ου ράδιον πολλου του άνωθεν επικειμένου σώματος: το γάρ βάρος δυσκίνητον ποιεί την διάνοιαν και την κοινήν αίσθησιν. διο πλείονος γινομένου του βάρους και του σωματώδους ανάγκη ρέπειν τα σώματα προς την γην κ.τ.λ. Cie. 11. cc. Sall. Cat. 18 1. Sen. ot. Sap. 32 8 3. ep. 92 8 30 (cf. 8 7). Aetna 223—7. Pers. 11 61 o curvae in terras animae et caelestium inanes! Sil. xv 84—7. Mamertin. paneg. XI 23. Minuc. Oct. 17 § 3 with comm. Galen de usu part. III 2 3 (111 179. 182 K, cf. Sir T. Browne vulgar errors iv 1) notes that the spine of birds, as of quadrupeds, is at right angles with the legs, but in man alone επί μιάς ευθείας εκτέ

Yet he rejects the commonplace (p. 182) το δ' οίεσθαι διά τούτο ορθώς εστάναι τον άνθρωπον, ίν' εις τον ουρανόν ετοίμως ανα βλέπη και λέγειν έχη ανταυγέω πρός "Όλυμπον αταρβήτοισιπροσώποις,’ άνθρώπων μέν έστιν ουχ έωρακότων ουδεπώποτε τον καλούμενον ουρανοσκόπον ιχθύν: ώς ούτός γε, κάν ει μή βούλοιτο, προς τον ουρανόν αεί βλέπει, άνθρωπος δε εί μη τον τράχηλον ανακλάσειε εις τουπίσω, τον ουρανόν ουκ άν ποτε θεάσαιτο. Asses, he adds, and birds can also throw back their necks and look up to heaven. Euryphamus in Stob. 1. CIII 27 (Iv 10 19 Μ) το ορθώς από γας ανακεκλίσθαι και ες τον ουρανόν αποβλέπεν και θεών των ανωτάτω νοητικός ήμεν, ταύτα δε και τας εκ των θεών επικουρήσιος τέτευχε. Cypr. ad Demetr. 16. Lact. 11 1 88 13–19, where Bünem. cites many other passages from Lact. id. de ira Dei 20 8 10 cumque illos Deus artifex ore sublimi statu recto figuratos ad contemplationem caeli et notitiam Dei excitaverit, curvare se ad terram maluerunt et pecudum more humi repere. $ 11 humilis enim et curvus et pronus est, qui ab adspectu caeli Deique patris aversus terram, quam calcare debuerat, id est de terra ficta et formata veneratur. Prud. apoth. 202–3 Weitz. c. Symm. 11 260-4. Aug. de gen. C. Man. I $ 28 in, de gen. ad litt. vi $ 22 fin. de gen. ad litt. imperf. § 60 nisi forte quod ad intuendum caelum figura humani corporis erecta est, valet aliquid etiam ut corpus ipsum ad similitudinem Dei factum credatur ; ut quemadmodum a Patre illa similitudo non avertitur, ita corpus humanum a caelo non sit aversum, sicut aliorum corpora animalium aversa sunt, quia prona in alvum prosternuntur. Bernard in cantic, serm. 24 g 6. 148 149 INDULSIT COMMUNIS CONDITOR ILLIS TANTUM ANIMAS, NOBIS ANIMUM QUOQUE Non. p. 426 animus est quo sapimus, anima qua vivimus. Attius Epigonis : sapimus animo, fruimur anima: sine animo anima est debilis. Varro Andabatis : in reliquo corpore ab hoc fonte diffusa est anima: hinc animus ad intellegentiam tributus. 150 151 for rhythm cf. XI 110 111. for the thought I 142 n. Luc. ν 925--1457. Cic. p. West. 8 91. de rep. I c. 25. Hor. 8. p. 391-407, 8. 1 3 99-106. Aristot. eth. Ν. 15=7 p. 1097 b 11 φύσει πολιτικός άνθρωπος. id. pol. 12 p. 1253 8 7 διότι δε πολιτικόν ο άνθρωπος ζώον πάσης μελίττης και παντός αγελαίου ζώου μάλλον, δηλον. ούθεν γάρ, ως φαμέν, μάτην η φύσις ποιεί, λόγον δε μόνον άνθρωπος έχει των ζώων (Iuν. 143 seq.). ib. 1.15 τούτο γάρ προς τάλλα ζώα τους ανθρώπους ίδιον, το μόνον αγαθού και κακού και δικαίου και αδίκου και των άλλων αίσθησιν έχειν. G. C. Lewis observ. in politics II 275-284.

ADFECTUS Arist. ib. in 9 p. 1280 b 38 of social intercourse το δε τοιούτον φιλίας έργον. Sen. de ira 15 και 2 homo in adiutorium mutuum generutus est. Gataker on Anton, 11 8 1. G. C. Lewis ib. Ι 15--17.

151 DISPERSO8 TRAHERE IN POPULUM Cic. de inv. 18 2 dispersos homines in agris et in tectis silvestribus abditos ratione quadam compulit unum in locum et congregavit, cet. cf. Tusc. v 8 5.

152 VI 2 seg.

ser

Lucret. v 955–7.

153 Lucr. ib. 1108—9. 154 TUTOS SOMNOS Lucr. ib. 982—7. 157 DEFENDIER I 169 n. duelli. x 138 n, induperator. Pers. 1 28 dicier. 111 50 fallier. Sulpic. 51 defendier. 64 dignarier. 159 TAM SERPENTUM MAIOR CONCORDIA Quintil. cited 20 n. cet. Aesch. suppl. 226 Opuidos Opvis oủk åv å yvevol paráv. prov. in Varr. l. 1. vii § 31 canis caninam non est. Hor. epod. 7 11 12 neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus , numquam nisi in dispar feris. Sen. ep. 95 § 31 non pudet homines, mitissimum genus, gaudere sanguine alterno et bella gerere gerundaque liberis tradere, cum inter se etiam mutis ac feris pax sit. id. clem. i 26 § 3 quae alia vita esset, si leones ursique regnarent ? si serpentibus in nos ac noxiosissimo cuique animali daretur potestas ? § 4 illa rationis expertia et a nobis inmanitatis crimine damnata abstinent suis et tuta est etiam inter feras similitudo. id. de ira 11 8 3. Plin. VII § 5 cetera animantia in suo genere probe degunt. congregari videmus et stare contra dissimilia. leonum feritas inter se non dimicat. pentium morsus non petit serpentes. ne maris quidem beluae ac pisces nisi in diversa genera saeviunt. at, Hercule, homini plurima ex homine sunt mala. paroem. I 428 Leutsch KÚwv Kuvòs ούχ άπτεται. Ρlut. qu. Rom. 93 πετεινού γάρ ουδείς εώρακε γύπα γευόμενον, ως αετοί και ιέρακες μάλιστα τα συγγενή διώκουσι και κόπτουσι. Ambr. off. 111 $ 45. Truer descriptions of ‘Nature, red in tooth and claw' in Erasm. adag. 'pisces magni parvulos comedunt.' 'piscium . vita.' Hes. op. 276—280 the son of Kronos appointed this law for men ixdúol μεν και θηρσι και οιωνούς πετεηνοϊς | έσθειν αλλήλους, επεί ου δίκη εστιν εν αυτοίς, | ανθρώποισι δ' έδωκε δίκην, ή πολλών αρίστη | γίγνεται. Varro Marcopolis fr. 289 Bücheler qui pote plus urget, piscis ut saepe minu. tos | magnu' comest, ut aves enicat accipiter. Ael. n. a. IV 44 Egyptians tame cats, crocodiles, hawks, and they remain loyal, but man, a creature endowed with reason and prudence and reverence and en. trusted with a blush (épúonua mlotevév), becomes his friend's enemy, and on the slightest trivial occasion spits out (éğÉTT VOE) secrets committed to him. G. C. Lewis observ. and reasoning in politics i 27 who cites ib. 25 erroneous assertions of the instinctive abhorrence of incest in lower animals.

163 TIGRIDE XII 28 n. Iside. Serv. Aen. x 166 condemns this imparisyllabic form, though he cites Luc. v 405 for it.

165—171 man's rage can no longer be appeased with the sword, though the first smiths knew nothing even of that; now we see people who are not content with the death of their enemy, but must feast upon his body. NEFANDA Verg. g. 11 539 540 under Saturn necdum etiam audierunt inflari classica, necdum | inpositos duris crepitare incudibus enses. Sen. ben. vir 10 8 2. Plin. xxxiv § 138.

166 PRODUXISSE Cypr. ep. 69 8 8 turibula quoque ipsa ... conflata atque igne purgata in laminas ductiles producuntur.

PARUM EST [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 12 parum est quod (ter). Gron. on Plin. xxi c. 13 § 78. exx, from Liv. in Heerwagen xxi 44 § 7. Burm. on Ov. her. 3 25. Tert. idol. 7.

166 167 SARCULA MARRIS 111 311. The sarculum was a hoe, used for drawing the earth over the seed sown (Colum. 11 11 g 10 iaciunt semina et sarculis adobruunt), for stirring the ground about the roots of

FERRUM LETALE INCUDE

the crops (Plin. XVIII SS 184—6) and as a substitute, in shallow soils, for the plough (ib. § 178 montanae gentes sarculis arant): some were two-pronged (Pallad. 1 43 g 3 sarculos vel simplices vel bicornes). It appears to have been lighter than the marra Plin. XVIII § 146 protinus altitudine unciali herbis omnibus liberanda est, manu potius quam sar. culo...$ 147 ad trimatum (debet] marris ad solum radi. cf. xix & 109 sarculo leviter convelluntur radices. XVIII § 241 levi sarculo purgare verius quam fodere. The marra was a pick-axe, an indented hoe with a broad head Colum. x 72 penitus latis eradere viscera marris: the ground was first broken by it, before the sarculum was used ib. 88 seq. mox bene cum glaebis vivacem caespitis herbam | contundat mar. rae vel fracti dente ligonis, 1:... tunc quoque trita solo splendentia sarcula sumat | angustosque foros adverso limite ducens | rursus in obli. quum distinguat tramite parvo. Rich (companion) has cuts of what he supposes to be marrae and sarcula.

167 COQUERE Aen. vii 636 Forbiger recoquunt patrios fornacibus enses. Bentley on Hor. C. 1 35 39. Drakenb. on Sil, iv 12.

168 PRIMI FABRI the brazen race Arat. phaen. 131 of n pÔTol kakbepyov è xalketoavto páxaipav. Tibull. 1 3 47 48.

EXTENDERE Plin. XIII & 82 of paper extenditur malleo.

169-171 QUORUM NON SUFFICIT . . . SED CREDIDERINT Prop. II=III 16 29 30 adspice quid ...invenit...larserit et quantis.

172 QUO NON FUGERET I 1. 153 seq.

173 CUNCTIS ANIMALIBUS ABSTINUIT QUI TAMQUAM HOMINE XIV 98 n. DS. xx 58 § 5 certain African barbarians worship apes τοϊς δ' αποκτείνασι τούτο το ζώον ώς ή σεβηκόσι τα μέγιστα θάνατος ώριστο πρόστιμον it became a proverb επί Tôv åvarì KTELVOMÉvwv tl mionkov asua åtotidelav. Zeller 14 292–4 on the age of these prohibitions. Ov. m. xv 72–82. According to Aristoxenus · (DL. VIII § 20=fragm. 7 Müller. cf. Gell. iv 11 § 6 porculis quoque minusculis et haedis tenerioribus victitasse idem Aristoxenus refert. Ath. 4189) Pythagoras enjoined abstinence only from the wether and the ox used in ploughing: according to Aristotle (Gell. 1. c. § 12. DL. VIII g 19. cf. ib. 33. Porph. vit. Pyth. 34. abst. i 19—24, 26 27. Iambl. vit. Pyth. $S 85. 98. 106-9), only from certain parts of animals and some kinds of fish: according to others, from every kind of flesh DL. VIII SS 8. 13. 20. 22. Iambl. vit. Pyth. SS 54. 68. 85. 107—8 (where he speaks of it as an esoteric doctrine). 150. Eudox. in Porphyr. vit. Pyth. 7. Onesikritus about 320 B. c, in Strabo 716. Mnesimachus in DL. VIII § 37 ús i vayoριστί θύομεν τω Λοξία, και έμψυχον ουδέν έσθίοντες παντελώς. Αristophon ib. 8 38 έσθίουσι δε | λάχανά τε και πίνουσιν επί τούτοις ύδωρ. Antiphanes Korykos in Ath. 1614 πρώτον μεν ώσπερ πυθαγορίζων εσθίει | έμψυχον ουδέν, της δε πλείστης τουβολου | μάζης μελαγχρή μερίδα λαμβάνων. Alexis Tarentini ib.5 οι πυθαγορίζοντες γάρ, ως ακούομεν, | ούτ' όψον εσθίουσιν ούτ' άλλ' ουδε εν | έμψυχον, οινόν τ' ουχί πίνουσιν μόνοι. | Β. 'Επιχαρίδης μέντοι κύνας κατεσθίει, | των πυθαγορείων είς. Α. αποκτείνας μεν ούν· | ουκ έτι γάρ έστ' έμψυχον. further jests on their diet (figs, cheese, olives, leeks, onions, capers) ib. 161–1624, Aristophon Pythagorista ib. 1614 sets down their abstinence to poverty—the grapes are sour-έπει πάραθες αυτοίσιν ιχθύς ή κρέας, | κάν μή κατεσθίωσι και TOUS daktúlovs, | 0 w kptuaobal deráxis. Serv. Aen. x 564. Orig. Cels, v 49. Iamblichus myst. vi 1 2. Porphyr, abst. Clem. Al. strom. vii 32. Xeno. krates in a special treatise on animal food and Polemo in his treatise on

the natural life taught (Clem. Al. str. VII g 32 fin.) ús doúupopbv čotiv των σαρκών τροφή ειργασμένη ήδη και εξομοιουμένη ταϊς των αλόγων ψυχαίς. . Cic. n. d. III § 88 Pythagoras would not stain altars with blood. cf. Macr. 111 6 § 2. DL. VIII SS 20. 22. Plut. de esu carn. I § 1 p. 9934. Strabo 298. Sext. Emp. Ix 127. Iambl. myst. 5 § 1 priests. adhort. ad philos. 21 symb. 39 pp. 317. 379 K. v. Pyth. § 187. Porph. abst. 1 15. 23. vit. Pyth. in Phot. p. 438b. Philostr. Ap. 11 1. Lobeck Aglaoph. 190—2. Tert, apol. 48 pr. age iam si quis philosophus affirmet, ut ait Laberius de sententia Pythagorae, hominem fieri ex mulo.

.... nonne consensum movebit et fidem infiget etiam ab animalibus abstinendi? proptereaque per. suasum quis habeat, ne forte bubulam de aliquo proavo suo obsonet ? Minuc. Fel. 34. Seneca (cited xiv 98 n. p. 306) ep. 108 g 17 non pudebit fateri, quem mihi amorem Pythagorae iniecerit Sotion. dicebat, quare 'ille animalibus abstinuisset, quare postea Sextius. .. § 18 hic homini satis alimentorum citra sanguinem esse credebat et crudelitatis consuetudinem fieri, ubi in voluptatem esset adducta laceratio adiciebat contrahendam materiam esse luxuriae. colligebat bonae valetudini contraria esse alimenta varia et nostris aliena corporibus. § 19 at Pythagoras omnium inter omnia cognationem esse dicebat et animorum commercium in alias atque alias formas transeuntium .. interim sceleris homini. bus ac parricidii metum fecit, cum possint in parentis ani. mam inscii incurrere et ferro morsuve violare, si in quo cognatus aliqui spiritus hospitaretur. § 20 Do you not believe in this transmigration' asked Sotion. § 21 "Great men have believed it. si vera sunt ista, abstinuisse ànimalibus innocentia est. si falsa, frugalitas est. quod istic credulitatis tuae damnum est ? alimenta tibi leonum et volturum eripio.' § 22 his ego instinctus abstinere animalibus coepi et anno peracto non tantum facilis erat mihi consuetudo, sed dulcis. agitatiorem mihi animum esse credebam nec tibi hodie adfirmaverim, an fuerit. He was reported to have escaped poison intended for him by Nero Tac. xv 45 fin. dum persimplici victu et agrestibus pomis ac, si sitis admoneret, profluente aqua vitam tolerat. Gell. XVII 8 § 2 the philosopher Taurus often invited us to supper at Athens. frequens eius cenae fundus et firmamentum omne erat aula una lentis Egyptiae et cucurbitae inibi minutim caesae. An Egyptian vegetarian Heliod. II 23. Use of leather forbidden Lobeck Aglaoph. 245. Proklus (Marinus vit. Procl. 12) abstained from flesh, but was urged by his master Plutarch son of Nestorius μηδε τούτων πάντη απέχεσθαι, , όπως αν και το σώμα υπηρετούν έχοι ταϊς ψυχικαίς ενεργείαις. .

174 VENTRI INDULSIT NON OMNE LEGUMEN III 229. Hor. cited on 9. Daniel 1 8. 12. 16. 10 3. 2 Esdr. 9 24–26. Enoch 7 4 5 Dillmann. Hdt. II 37. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. 111 $ 224 čviol de θάττον άν τας κεφαλάς φαγείν φασί των πατέρων ή κυάμους. Ρlut. Symp. qu. VIII 8 2 2. 3 g 15. Chrys. hom. in Io. II 2 p. 104. dellol, Trávdellol, κυάμων απο χείρας έχεσθε» | τσόν του κυάμους τε φαγείν κεφαλάς τε τoκήων (verses ascribed to Pythagoras or to Orpheus, whose school in this as in some other points agreed with the Pythagorean Didymus in geop. II 35 p. 183. Plat. legg. 7824. Lobeck Aglaoph. 246—251). This prohibition is attested by Aristot. in DL. VIII § 34 cf. 19. 33. Callim. in Gell. iv 11 8 2 και κυάμων απο χείρας έχειν, ανιόντος έδεστούς, | κάγώ, Πυθαwópas is ékéleve, kdyw. Cic. divin. 1 § 62 iubet ... Plato sic ad somnum proficisci corporibus adfectis, ut nihil sit quod errorem animis perturbationemque adferat. unde Pythagoricis interdictum putatur ne faba vescerentur. cf. II § 119, Hor. 8. II 6 63 Pythagorae cog

nata faba. Plut. educ. 17 p. 12e Wytt. Iambl. vit. Pyth. &S 61. 259. Plut. qu. Rom. 95 διά τί νενομισται τους αγνεύοντας οσπρίων απέχεσθαι και πότερον, ώς οι Πυθαγορικοί τους μεν κυάμους αφωσιoύντο διά τάς λεγομένας αιτίας, τον δε λάθυρον και τον ερέβινθον ως παρωνύμους του ερέβους kai tñs anons; id. qu. conv. II 3 1 8 1 Plutarch had several times dreamt that he ought to abstain from eggs, and resolved to do so, in order to test, kabátep èv Kapl, the authority of dreams. § 2 at a dinner party some suspected that he had become a convert to Orphic and Pythagorean doctrines, and abominated eggs, as others heart and brain, as the principle of birth. $ 3 Alexander the Epicurean in jest quoted the verse loov του κ.τ.λ. ως δή κυάμους τα ωά διά την κύησιν αινιττομένων των ανδρών, διαφέρειν δε μηδέν οίομένων το εσθίειν ωα του χρήσθαι τοις τίκτουσι τα ψά svols. § 4 not to argue with an Epicurean on dreams Plut. did not deny the charge, and the conversation passed to the question which is first, the hen or the egg.' id, de esu carnium (see both speeches, a vegetarian apology) și 38 2 Pythagoras and Empedokles teach us to be just to other kinds of creatures also. § 3 you laught at him who abstains from mutton. qu. conv. VIII 7 1 8 2 at a Roman dinner Philinus abstained from meat, which brought on a Pythagorean discussion. ib. qu. 8 why the Pythagoreans abstain from fish. § 2 some Pythagoreans would occasionally eat meat, but not fish. Porph. abst. Iv 16 charge at Eleusis to abstain from domestic birds and fish and beans. The priests of Zeus in Crete Eur. Cretes fr. 475 18 19 Nauck (in Porph. abst. iv 19) Tņu q? εμψύχων | βρώσιν εδεστών πεφύλαγμαι. id. Ηipp. 952-5 ήδη νυν αύχει και δι' αψύχου βοράς | σίτους καπήλευ', 'Ορφέα τ' άνακτέχων | βάκxeve, mollw ypauuátwv Tiu ởv kárvous. Aristoph. ran. 1032. Plat. legg. 782o. epinom. 795a. Hor. a. p. 391–2 silvestris homines sacer interpresque deorum | caedibus et victu foedo deterruit Orpheus. Plut. VII sap. conv. 16 p. 159° makes Solon say that it is an injustice to take life to support our own life: το δε απέχεσθαι σαρκών έδωδής, ώσπερ Ορφέα τον παλαιόν ιστορούσι, σοφισμα μάλλον ή φυγή των περί την τροφήν αδικημάτων eorí. Sext. Emp. math. II 31 32. Spartian. Did. Iul. 3 8 9 Iulianus was so frugal, that often nulla existente religione holeribus leguminibusque contentus sine carne cenaverit. Lucian dial. mort. 20 3 Pythagoras to Menippus : 'let me see what there is to eat in your scrip.' Beans, my good friend; so that this is not for you to eat.' 'Only give them to me: άλλα παρά νεκρούς δόγματα έμαθον γάρ ως ουδέν ίσον κύαμοι και κεφαλαί τoκήων ενθάδε.' A vegetable diet commended by Philo in Eus. p. e. viii 14 88 69 70. Iosephus vita 2 spent three years, aet. 15—18, with the vegetarian Banun. The Essenes vegetarians Ios. bell. 11 8 8 5. cf. $ 8. ant. xviii 1 5. Philo quod omn. prob. liber 12 (11 457 M), the Therapeutae (Philo vit. contempl. SS 5. 9), the Jewish sect of Nasaraeans (Epiphan. haer. XVIII 1 p. 38). Philo animal. 62 (VIII 130 Richter) the ancients seeing that virtues extended even to brute beasts, abstained from eating flesh; as temperance declined, they took to a meat diet and disease ensued. Hence men of education, emulating the wisdom of Pythagoras, do not touch flesh, even in case of necessity, from religious sobriety and to avoid disease. The apostle Matthew (Clem. Al. paed. II 8 16) σπερμάτων και ακροδρύων και λαχάνων άνευ κρεών μετελάμβανεν. cf. (and also for James) Epiphan. haer. xxx 23. James the just (Hegesippus in Eus. h. e. 11 23 § 5) was holy from his mother's womb, olvov kai σίκερα ουκ έπιεν, ουδε έμψυχον έφαγε. cf. Aug. 0. Faust. XXII 3. Aug. civ. Dei 1 20 rejects the interpretation which extends the prohibition non occides to beasts and cattle, quia nulla nobiscum ratione sociantur.

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