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freedmen of Tiberius Tac. an. iv 7. Yet Agrippa bribed them Ios. ant. XVIII 6=8 8 1. ib. xix 1 § 10 Callistus, a freedman of Gaius (Caligula), ουδέν άλλο ή ισοτύραννος είχε την δύναμιν, φόβω τε των πάντων και Meyéb el xpnuárwv, árep éyéveto aútų. Plin. XXXVI § 60. Spartian. Hadr. 21 § 2 libertos suos nec sciri voluit in publico nec aliquid apud se posse, dicto suo omnibus superioribus principibus vitia imputans libertorum, damnatis omnibus libertis suis, quicumque se de eo iactaverant. § 3 seeing his slave walking between two senators, he sent one to give him & box on the ear with the warning noli inter eos ambulare quorum esse adhuc potes servus. Capitolin. Ver. 8 8 8 revels of Verus and his freed,

9 8 3 influence of his freedmen Geminas and Agaclytus. cf. SS 5 6. Mart. v 13 6 et libertinas arca flagellat opes. inscr. relating to Narcissus in Lehmann Claudius ir 24 n. 236—237. AV. epit. 4 § 6 li. berti eius potestatem summam adepti stupris exilio caede proscriptionibus omnia foedabant. $ 7 ex quibus Felicem legionibus Iudaeae praefecit, Posidae eunucho post triumphum Britannicum inter militarium fortissimos arma insignia tamquam participi victoriae dono dedit, Poly. bium inter consules medium incedere fecit. § 8 hos omnes anteibat Nar. cissus ab epistulis, dominum se gerens ipsius domini, Pallasque praetoris ornamentis sublimatus. Wallon II 427–430. Forbiger Rom I 139 n. 21–23. II 18 19 n. 20–25. Plin. pan. 88 § 1 plerique principes, cum essent civium domini, libertorum erant servi. cf. ib. 45 pr. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 23 § 3 servos suos semper cum servili veste habuit, libertos cum ingenuorum. § 4 eunuchos de ministerio suo abiecit et uxori ut servos servire iussit. § 5 et cum Heliogabulus mancipium eunuchorum fuisset, ad certum numerum eos redegit nec quicquam in Palatio curare fecit nisi balneas feminarum. Vell. II 73 § 1 Sex, Pompeius was libertorum suorum libertus servorumque servus, literally the papal title, Other parallels in Gebhard on Nep. XIV 5 & 4.

ADDENDA

5 BULLATUS Hesych. geanvis.

8 EODEM IURE Sen. ep. 95 § 28 'pariter sint, quae disponi solent, uno iure perfusa. nihil intersit: ostrea echini spondyli mulli perturbati concoctique ponantur.' non esset confusior vomentium cibus. 12 BARBATOS MAGISTROS Plut. II 352°. Lucian Icarom. 5. 29. Ath. 162a. Tatian 25. Chrys. II 223 Gaume. Schiller's Nero 565. Friedländer III 559.

17 G. C. Lewis on politics II 27.

20 ANTIPHATES Ov. Pont. II 9 41. 21 22 Cypr. ad Demetr. 8 fin.

24 INSCRIPTA ERGASTULA DS. XXXIV 2 $ 27. DL. IV 46 Bion describing his father, γένος Βορυσθενίτης, έχων ου πρόσωπον αλλά συγγραφήν επί του προσώπου, της του δεσπότου πικρίας σύμβολον. 35 LUTO DL. IX 22 Parmenides taught that men were made ilúos πρώτον. .

180 181 ['MARSUS VESTINUS Enn. ann. 280 Marsa manus Peligna cohors Vestina virum vis.' H. A. J. M.]

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TAE Egyptians, who would deem it sacrilege to taste an onion or a leek, have in our enlightened times been guilty of barbarity which equals that of the monsters of fable (1—32). A festival at Ombi was lately interrupted by the Tentyrites: one of whom, after his party had been put to flight, was overtaken, torn in pieces and devoured (33–92). Other nations are said to have fed on the flesh of man, but only when driven to it by famine: rage and hate move the Egyptians to crimes which others only commit in the madness of despair (93—131). Man is made for society and sympathy; yet man has been known to do what brute beasts will not do, to prey upon his own kind (131–174).

The poet seems to have been led to choose this subject partly by the hatred and contempt which Romans, after the battle of Actium, entertained for the Egyptians (cf. 1 26. 130. Iv 24. Aen. VIII 685—713. Hor. C. 1 37. epod. 9. Prop. Iv=111 11 29–58. Ov. m. XV 826–8. Luc. VIII 541-550. x 58–80. anth. lat. 462 R), and partly by his own observation of their manners (45 quantum ipse notavi).

With the whole satire compare [Quintil.] decl. XII 'pasti cadaveris' (verses 20, 102, 122, with the notes).

On the Egyptian worship cf. x11 28 n. XIII 93 n. exodus 8 26. wisdom 11 15. 12 24 and 27. Rom, 1 23 Wetstein. Hdt. Il with Bähr and Rawlinson. Manetho in Ideler's Hermapion I, in Bunsen and in Müller's fragm. hist. II. Cic. n. d. 1 $S 81 82. 101. DS. 1 11—26. 83–90. Strabo p. 803. Mela 1 9 8 7. Plut. Is. et Os. ed. Parthey esp. 71–75. Max. Tyr. VIII 85. Philostr, Apoll. vi 19. Lucian astrol. 17. deor. conc. 10. Iup. trag. 42. Clem. Alex. paed. III 2 § 4. Minuc. Fel. 28 with Le Nourry's appar. p. 514 Migne. Orig. hom. in exod. 4 6. Epiphan. ancorat. 105. Iamblichus de mysteriis Aegyptiacis recogn. Parthey Berl. 1857. Harless das Buch der ägypt. Mysterien München 1858. Döllinger Heidenthum und Judenthum Regensb. 1857 406–456. Gutschmid de rerum Aegypt. scriptt. Graecis ante Alex. in Philolog x 522–542. 636-700, 712—723, XI 140—150. 779—782. For modern writers see Jolowicz

Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca. Leipz. 1858 (suppl. 1861); the description de l’Egypte? Par. 1820—30 (26 vols. 8vo text, 12 vols. fol. plates), and the works of Champollion, Denon, de Rougé, Quatremère, Ritter Erdbeschreibung 1, Rosellini, Heeren, Bunsen, Dümichen, Lepsius, Parthey, Brugsch, Birch, Kenrick, Sharpe. Reinisch in Pauly Real-Encykl. 12 241–326. Jablonski pantheum aegyptiacum Frankf. a. 0. 1750 seq. 3 vols. F. S. Zickler de Aegyptiis bestiarum cul

toribus Jena 1756. Klemm Culturgesch. 1 255—473. Prichard analy. sis of the Egyptian mythology? Lond. 1842. Gardiner Wilkinson, the Egyptians in the time of the Pharaohs 1857. manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians 1 ser.? 3 vols. 1842. 2 ser. 2 vols. and plates? 1841 (a new ed. by S. Birch announced, as also a history of anc. Egypt by G. Rawlinson in 2 vols.). M. Uhlemann Handb. der aegypt. Alterthumskunde Leipz. 1857-8 4 vols. Varges de statu Aegypti provinciae rom. Gött. 1842. Zoega nummi aegypt. imperatorii Rome 1787 253 seq. See R. S. Poole in dict. Bible 'Egypt.' Tiele in theol. Tijdschrift Leiden 1878 XII 261-278 de dierendienst der Egyptenaars.

Marquardt iv 84–89. VM. 1 2 & 3 the senate commands the temples of Isis and Serapis to be demolished; no workmen daring to touch them L. Aemilius Paulus the consul (either 182 or 168 B.c.) lays the axe to the doors. Tert. apol. 6 the consuls Piso and Gabinius B.c. 58 overthrow the altars of Serapis and Isis and Arpocrates cum suo cynocephalo (Anubis). id. ad nat. i 10. Arn. 11 73. Serv. Aen. VIII 698 Varro dedignatur Alexandrinos deos Romae coli. DCass. XL 47 3 calls the decree of the senate B.C. 53 for the destruction of temple of Serapis and Isis a tépas. ib. XLII 26 § 2 B.C. 48 they were again destroyed in consequence of prodigies; ib. xlvii 15 § 4 B.C. 43 the triumvirs built the first temple of Isis for public worship, the first solemn state recognition of it. Cf. Luc. VIII 831–3.

DCass. LIV 6 6 B.c. 21 of Augustus tá te lepà Alyúttla éteolóvta αυθις ες το άστυ ανέστειλεν, απειπών μηδένα μηδ' εν τώ προαστεία αυτά εντός öydbov ñucotadiou ToLEîv. Tac. ann. 11 85 A.D. 19 actum et de sacris Aegyptiis Iudaicisque pellendis. Sen. ep. 108 g 22 cited on xiv 98. Suet. Tib. 36 externas caerimonias, Aegyptios Iudaicosque ritus compescuit, coactis qui superstitione ea tenebantur religiosas vestes cum instrumento omni comburere. Ios. ant. XVIII 3 & 4 a Roman matron debauched in the temple of Isis by a lover disguised as Anubis. Tiberius crucified the priests, cast the statue into the Tiber, and overthrew the temple.

Of the emperors Otho, Domitian, Commodus, Caracalla, Alexander Severus, are known as devotees of Isis.

Plin. xxxIII & 41 iam vero et Harpocraten statuasque Aegyptiorum numinum in digitis viri quoque portare incipiunt.

Luc. x 17. 175—191 represents curiosity as a main motive for visiting Egypt (177–8 vulgique edissere mores I et ritus formas que deum).

The satire was rejected by G. I. Voss inst. poet. III 97 and D. Heins de sat. rom. 1 62. C. Kempf obss. Berl. 1843. Heinrich, who speaks doubtfully 11 22, acknowledges (498) that in detail, in the vividness of the painting, in wit and expression, it has entirely the character of Iuv. Kempf justly censures the redundance of 24–5. 33—4. 40. 47—8. 55. 95. 101. 129–30. 134–5. 151–2; and the menagery in 159—164; but this redundance appears everywhere in Iuv.

1-32 the Egyptians regard it as a sin to eat an onion or a leek, but feed without abhorrence on human flesh: of all marvellous stories told by Ulixes to the Phaeacians none are so strange as those of Cyclopes and Laestrygones, but deeds of horror not less atrocious have been witnessed in Egypt, not in a fabulous antiquity, but in our own civilised days.

1 VOLUSI BITHYNICE one Bithynicus in Mart. Vi 50 5.

2 AEGYPTUS PORTENTA COLAT Cypr. quod idola di non sint 4 Aegyptia portenta, non numina. Cic. Tusc. v § 78 Aegyptiorum morem quis ignorat ? quorum inbutae mentes pravitatis erroribus quamvis carnificinam prius subierint, quam ibim aut aspidem aut iaelem aut canem aut crocodilum violent, quorum etiamsi impru

POR

dentes quippiam fecerint, poenam nullam recusent. TENTA Aen. viii 698 omnigenumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis. Porph. abst. ΙΙ 26 fn. III 16 Αιγύπτιοι δε και θεούς ενόμισαν, είτε όντως θεούς ηγούμενοι, είτε εξεπίτηδες τα των θεών είδη βουπρόσωπα και ορνιθοπροσωπα και των άλλων ποιoύντες, όπως αυτών εξ ίσου και των ανθρώπων απέχoιντο. ΙV 9 pr. Prud. c. Symm. ΙΙ 353-5 quaedam victa dedit capitis Cleopatra canini | effigies, quasdam domitis Hammonis harenis Syrtica cornutas facies habuere tropaea. Hier. in Isa. c. 45 14 15 (IV 540°) nulla enim gens ita idololatriae dedita fuit et tam innumerabilia portenta venerata est, quam Aegyptus. Parthey on Plut. Is. et Os. pp. 260—8 has collected the evidence about sacred animals.

CROCODILON ADORAT Hdt. II 68 description of the crocodile. 70 its capture. 69 8 1 τοϊσι μεν δή των Αίγυπτίων ιροί είσι οι κροκόδειλοι, τοισι δ' ού, αλλ' άτε πολεμίους περιέπουσι. οι δε περί τε Θήβας και την Μοίριος λίμνην οικέοντες και κάρτα ήγηνται αυτούς είναι ιρούς. 8 2 εκ πάντων δε ένα εκάτεροι τρέφουσι κροκόδειλον, δεδιδαγμένον είναι χειροήθεα, αρτήματα τε λίθινα χυτά και χρύσεα ες τα ώτα ενθέντες και αμφιδέας περί τους προσθίους πόδας, και σίτια αποτακτά διδόντες και ιρήϊα, και περιέποντες ως κάλλιστα ζώοντας αποθανόντας δε ταριχεύοντες θάπτουσι εν ιρήσι θήκησι. 8 3 οι δε περί 'Ελεφαντίνην πόλιν οίκέοντες και εσθίουσι αυτούς, ουκ ηγεόμενοι τρούς είναι. Bodies of men killed by crocodiles sacred ib. 90. crocodiles buried in the vaults of the labyrinth ib. 148. Philo legat. ad Gai. 20 fin. p. 566 M κύνας και λύκους και λέοντας και κροκοδείλους και άλλα πλείονα θηρία και ένυδρα και χερσαία και πτηνά θεοπλαστούντες, υπέρ ών βωμοί και ιερά και ναοί και τεμένη κατά πάσαν Αίγυπτον ίδρυνται. Sen. in Aug. civ. Dei vi 10 'sacros inquit 'immortales, inviolabiles in materia vilissima atque immobili dedicant, habitus illis hominum ferarumque et piscium, quidam vero mixto sexu, diversis corporibus induunt; numina vocant, quae si spiritu accepto subito occurrerent, monstra haberentur.' Plut. Is. et Os. 50 the Apollinopolitans on a set day hunted and ate the crocodile. DS. 111 4 § 3 to the Ethiopians the crocodile was onuavtikos tréons kaklas. Plin. VIII 8 96 crocodiles exhibited at Rome by M. Scaurus in his aedileship. ib. 88 89-94 description of the crocodile. Strabo 817 city of crocodiles τιμώσα το θηρίον: city of Apollo πολεμούσα τους κροKodellous. 811 Arsinoe, formerly city of crocodiles;' for in this nome they exceedingly honour the crocodile, and in this lake they have a sacred one, fed by himself, which is tame to the priests; it is called Suchos : it is fed with bread, meat and wine, continually brought by strangers who come to the sight. 812 for instance our host, a man of distinction, as he shewed us the curiosities of the place (uvotaywywv ňuês) went with us to the lake, taking from dinner a cake and roast meat and jug of honey-and-water (μελικράτου). We found the creature lying on the brink. The priests went up to it, and some opened its mouth, while one put in the cake, then the meat, and then poured in the μελίκρατον. The crocodile then plunged into the lake and hastened to the other side. When another visitor came, likewise bearing an offering, the priests ran round and came up to it and again in like manner presented the gifts. Plut. Is. et Os. 75 fanciful reasons for the worship of the crocodile. Lucian de sacr. 14 (cf. 15) ήν δ' ες την Αίγυπτον έλθης, τότε δή όψει πολλά τα σεμνά και ως αληθώς αξια του ουρανού, κριοπρόσωπον μεν τον Δία, κυνο πρόσωπον δε τον βέλτιστον Ερμήν, και τον Πάνα όλον τράγον, και ιβίν τινα και κροκόδειλον έτερον και πίθηκον. DS. I 35 88 1–6. 89 39 1-3. Steph. Byz. Χηνοβοσκία. Διόσπολις tame crocodiles

worshipt in caves and tanks. Clem. Al. paed. III § 4 p. 252 e compares ladies of fashion to Egyptian temples, solemn and stately, glittering with gold and silver and precious stones and curtains : if you ask for the god, with grave face and chanting a paean, lifting a corner of the veil, πλατύν ημίν ενδίδωσι γέλωτα του σεβάσματος» instead of a god there will be found a cat or a crocodile or native serpent, or some such beast ανάξιον μεν του νεώ, χηραμού δε ή φωλεού ή βορβόρου αντάξιον ο θεός Αίγυπτίων επί στρωμνής αλουργής καταφαίνεται κυλιόμενον θηρίον. cf. Lucian imag. i 11, an exact parallel. Wilkinson anc. Eg. 2 ser. II 229—237. cf. 36 37 on Savak the crocodile-headed deity of Ombos. 1 ser. III 74—81 e. g. p. 76 at Maabdeh, opposite the modern town of Manfaloot, are extensive grottoes, cut far into the limestone mountain, where numerous crocodile mummies have been found, perfectly preserved and evidently embalmed with great care.' Porph, abst. iv 9 fin. of the Egyptians και περί κριου τι φιλοσοφούσι και άλλο τι περί κροκοδείλου περί τε γυπός και ιβεως και όλως καθ' έκαστον των ζώων. 10 holding that the Soul of every animal is rational είκότως ετίμησαν και ως οίόν τε έστιν απέσχοντο αυτών. πολλού δε όντος λόγου δι' ήν αιτίαν διά των ζώων οι Αιγύπτιοι τους θεούς εσέφθησαν. Ael. η. 8. ΧΙΙ 5 Αιγύπτιοι μεν ούν σέβοντές τε και έκθεoύντες γένη ζώων διάφορα γέλωτα οφλισκάνουσι παρά γε τοις πολλοίς. Philo decalog. 16 (II 193- 4 Μ) enuinerates most the sacred animals. provid. 11 108. Ios. Ap. I 28. 11 6 (religious feuds in Egypt). 7. 13. Winer Real-Wörterb. Krokodil. 3 PAVET veretur.

SATURAM SERPENTIBUS IBIN Hdt. I 75 8 2 λόγος δε εστι άμα το εαρι πτερωτούς όφις έκ της 'Αραβίης πέτεσθαι επΑιγύπτου, τάς δε ίβις τάς όρνιθας απαντώσας ες την έσβολήν ταύτης της χώρης ου παριέναι τους όφις, αλλά κατακτείνειν. 8 3 και την έβιν διά τούτο το έργον τετιμήσθαι λέγουσι 'Αράβιοι μεγάλως προς Αίγυπτίων' ομολογέoυσι δε και Αιγύπτιοι διά ταύτα τιμάν τους όρνιθας τούτους. 76 81 είδος δε της μεν ίβιος τόδε μέλαινα δεινώς πάσα, σκέλεα δε φορέει γεράνου, πρόσωπον δε ες τα μάλιστα επίγρυπον, μέγαθος όσον κρέξ. 8 2 an account of the tame ibis. The voluntary slaughter of any sacred animal was punished by death, the involuntary by a fine; but even the involuntary slaughter of ibis or falcon entailed death without hope of reprieve (ib. 65 § 5). Cic. n. d. 1 g 101 ipsi qui irridentur Aegyptii nullam beluam nisi ob aliquam utilitatem, quam ex ca caperent, consecraverunt; velut i bes maximam vim serpentium conficiunt, cum sint aves excelsae cruribus rigidis corneo proceroque rostro : avertunt pestem ab Aegypto, cum volucres angues ex vasti. tate Libyae vento Africo in veotas interficiunt atque con. sumunt. Timokles cited on 7. Plin. x $ 75 in vocant et Aegyptii ibis suas contra serpentium adventum. § 134 visam in Alpibus ab se peculiarem Aegypti et ibim Egnatius Calvinus praefectus earum prodidit. Amm. XXII 15 g 25 inter Aegyptias alites . . . ibis sacra est et amabilis et innocua ideo, quod nidulis suis ad cibum sug. gerens ova serpentum, efficit ut rarescant mortiferae pestes absumptae. § 26 occurrunt eaedem volucres pinnatis anguibus qui ex Arabicis emergunt paludibus venena malignantes eosque, antequam finibus suis excedunt, proeliis superatos aeriis vorant, quas aves per rostra edere fetus accepimus. $ 27 list of Egyptian serpents, including basilisks and asps. cf. Ael. n. a. II 38 fin. x 29. Strabo 812. 823. A town Ibin itiner. Antonin. 157 3 Wess. An immortal ibis exhibited in Hermopolis Apion in Ael. n. a. x 29, where they were buried Hdt. II 67. Mummies in Thebes, Abydus, Hermopolis, Memphis Wilkinson v 217—224. Savigny

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