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AD OMNIA FULGURA PALLENT X 230. Cicero does not use ad thus, to denote the occasion of fear etc. Hand Turs. I 101. Suet. Cal. 51 qui deos tanto opere contemneret, ad minima tonitrua et fulgura conivere, caput obvolvere, at vero ad maiora proripere se e strato, sub lec: tumque condere solebat. DCass. LIX 28 & 4 lightning destroyed the vessel which was to have conveyed the image of Olympian Zeus to be turned into a likeness of Caligula; but when the workmen approached the pedestal, they were affrighted by a loud laugh. § 6 Caligula's mock thunder and lightning. Sen. n. q. 11 59 $ 11 pavescis ad caeli fragorem et ad inane nubilum trepidas. id. de ira 11 2 § 1. III 35 § 3. Luc. v 766 Corte. vi 11. Quintil. decl. 9 § 16 p. 204 sunt qui ad omnium sanguinem pallescant. ib. tremit ad. ib. 258 p. 474 ad omnes terreor strepitus. Tert. ad Scap. 2 nos unum Deum colimus, quem omnes naturaliter nostis, ad cuius fulgura et tonitrua contremiscitis. Wagner (or Forbiger) on Verg. ecl. 8 3. FULGURA Cic. divin. II SS 149 seq. Sen. n. q. VI 2 $8 4–6. Plut. II 555a. Suet. Aug. 90 tonitrua et fulgura paulo infirmius expavescebat, ut semper et ubique pellem vituli marini circumferret pro remedio, atque ad omnem maioris tempestatis suspicionem in abditum et concamaratum locum se reciperet, consternatus olim per nocturnum iter transcursu fulguris.

224 QUOQUE even at the first rumbling in the air.

225 FORTUITUS possibly trisyllabic, cf. Manil. I 182. Stat. Th. VII 449. Petron. 135 9. L. Müller de re metr. 258 and Mühlmann make the i here short, as in gratuitum in hendecasyllables Stat. s. 1 6 16. pituita (Hor. ep. 1 1 108. S. 11 2 76. Pers. Il 57) undoubtedly suffers synizesis. Cf. Voss. de arte gramm. II 37.

On the question whether thunder be accidental (fortuitum) (divinum Cic. fam. vii 5 § 2), cf. Lucr. 11 1100—4. VI 83—422. Hor, s. 1 5 101—3. Plin. II SS 112 113 e.g. posse et conflictu nubium elidi, ut duorum lapidum, scintillantibus fulgetris. sed haec omnia esse fortuita. hinc bruta multa fulmina et vana, ut quae nulla veniant ratione naturae; his percuti montes, his maria, omnesque alios irritos iactus. illa vero fatidica ex alto statisque de causis et ex suis venire sideribus. Sen. n. q. vi 3 § 1 proderit praesumere animo nihil horum deos facere, nec ira numinum aut caelum concuti aut terram. suas ista causas habent nec ex imperio saeviunt. Tert, apol. 29.

VENTORUM RABIE cf. the aidéplos Aîvos of Aristoph. nub. 380—408. Aristot. meteorol. 11 9 $ 6. Sen. n. q. 1 1 $$ 4—9. 12--15. Minuc. Fel, 5 g 9 nimbis collidentibus tonitrua mugire, rutilare fulgora, fulmina praemicare; adeo passim cadunt, montes inruunt, arboribus incurrunt, sine delectu tangunt loca sacra et profana, homines noxios feriunt, saepe et religiosos. ib. § 10.

226 IRATUS IGNIS 93. Pind. Nem, v 90 SKOTOY čYxos. Aristoph. nub. 397 of the thunderbolt roûtov yap on pavepws • Zeus Ino' TT Tous é LOPKOUS, where follows the argument, 'why then does he spare Simon, Kleonymos, Theoros ? why strike his own temple and oaks?' On “judgements' see Hom. Od. x 72 n. Cic. harusp. resp. $$ 62 63 the gods speak to men in earthquakes. Prop. III=11 16 47–56 esp. 52 nec sic de nihilo fulminis ira cadit. Strabo 19 fin. we tell chil. dren pleasant tales to encourage them, tales of terror to deter them: Ý te γάρ Λάμια μυθός έστι και η Γοργώ και ο Εφιάλτης και η Μορμολύκη...so legislators encourage men to exertion by the tales of Herakles and Theseus, and deter them, όταν κολάσεις παρά θεών και φόβους και απειλές ή διά λόγων ή διά τύπων αοράτων τινών προσδέχωνται, ή και πιστεύωσι περιπεσείν τινας... κέραυνος γάρ και αιγίς και τρίαινα και λαμπάδες και δράκοντες και θυρσύ

loyxa Tv Dev Tla púbol. Suet. Tib. 69 tonitrua praeter modum "xpavescebat et turbatiore caelo numquam non coronam lauream capite gestavit, quod fulmine ajlari negetur id genus frondis. Tac. I 28-30 an eclipse. XIII 17 on the same night Britannicus . was murdered and buried adeo turbidis imbribus, ut oulgus iram deum portendi crediderit. Plut. II 555b. Serv. Aen. IV 209. Lear III 2 49–58. Hor. c. 1 3 40 iracunda...fulmina.

228 SERENO VII 179. Luc. Ix 423 of Libya nostris reficit sua rura serenis. Sen. n. q.13 § 14. Plin. XI § 14. XVIII § 362. Stat. Th. XI 135. VFl. II 403. Obseq. 1=55. Ambr. de Cain i § 21. Claud. iv cons. Hon. 425. bell. Get. 49. Forcellini. cf. sudum. nubilum, esp. abl. to which sereno is often opposed.

229 VIGILI FEBRE VII 42 sollicitas...portas. Ov. m. III 396 curae vigiles. 230 231 MISSUM AD SUA CORPORA MORBUM INFESTO CREDUNT A NUMINE Cels. prooem. p. 1 20 Daremberg we may learn from Homer morbos tum ad iram deorum immortalium relatos esse et ab isdem opem posci solitam.

232 TELA Sen. ben. IV 19 g 1 deos nemo sanus timet. furor est enim metuere salutaria : nec quisquam amat, quos timet. tu denique, Epicure, deum inermem facis: omnia illi tela, omnem detraxisti potentiam. Tac. XIV 22 fin. Nero swam in the aqua Marcia, and was thought potus sacros et caerimoniam loci corpore loto polluisse. secutaque anceps valetudo iram deum adfirmavit. Suet. Nero 48 in his last flight tremore terrae et fulgure adverso pavefactus. DCass. LvII 14 § 7 A.D. 15 some regarded an inundation of the Tiber as a portent, but § 8 Tiberius appointed commissioners to regulate the flow of water. cf. comm. on Hor. C. II 8 1. Casaubon lect. Theocr. c. 10. PECUDEM Pers. v 167 agnam.

233 LARIBUS XII 113.

PROMITTERE XII 2. 101. Tibull. III 5 33 nigras pecudes promittite Diti.

GALLI XII 96. Plin. x § 49 speaking of the auspices from chickens hi maxime terrarum imperio imperant, extis etiam fibrisque haud aliter quam opimae victimae dis grati. cf. $ 156. Cocks were sacrificed to Apollo (anthol. Pal. vi 155 3) and to Asklepios (Artemid. ν 9 ηύξατό τις τό 'Ασκληπιώ, ει διά του έτους άνοσος έλθοι, θύσειν αυτώ άλεκτρυόνα. cf. the last words of Sokrates Plato Phaed. 118a where see Wyttenb., Fischer, Gottl. w Kpitwv, 'Ασκληπιό οφείλομεν άλεκτρυόνα" αλλ' απόδοτε και μη αμελήσητε. Tert. ad nat. ii 2. de an. 1). Arn. Vi 8 e.g. quae causa est, ut si ego porcum occidero, deus mutet adfectum animosque et rabiem ponat, si gallinulam, vitulum sub illius oculis atque altaribus concremaro, oblivionem inducat iniuriae} ib. 16. Costly birds were sacrificed to Caligula DCass. LIX 28 $ 6.

235 contrast viII 255—8 the Decii acceptable as an atoning sacrifice for whole armies, being of greater value than what they died to save. DL. VI 28 Diogenes was moved to wrath by those who offered sacrifices to recover health, and in the very sacrifice feasted against health.

236-249 The wicked are unstable; bold in the flush of sin, alive to its guilt when it is done; still remorse does not mend inbred habits nor restore a blush to the brazen forehead. No man stops at the first crime: our treacherous friend will be snared and suffer execution or live a con. vict on some Egean rock swarming with great exiles. You will triumph in your revenge, and confess at last that heaven is neither deaf nor blind. 236 MOBILIS NATURA MALORUM Sen. de otio 1=28 & 2 inter cetera mala illud pessimum est, quod vitia ipsa mutamus...aliud ex alio placet vexat

que nos hoc quoque quod iudicia nostra non tantum prava; sed etiam levia sunt. fluctuamus aliudque ex alio conprehendimus. petita relinquimus, relicta repetimus. § 3 alternae inter cupiditatem nostram et paenitentiam vices sunt. id. ep. 47 g 21 hoc habent inter cetera boni mores, placent sibi, permanent: levis est malitia, saepe mutatur, non in melius, sed in aliud. 237 seq. Quintil, decl. 3 14 esp. pp. 623 624 tu fortasse, cum miserum patrem trucidares, tollentem ad sidera manus risisti, inane hoc supra nos vacuumque cura caelestium putabas : sunt illa vera, quae extremo miseri spiritu dicebantur : ‘dabis mihi, scelerate, poenas: persequar quandoque et occurram'...1

... nec tamen illa mihi vana quorumdam esse videtur persuasio, qui credunt non extrinsecus has furias venire, nec ullius deorum impulsu hanc mortalibus incidisse dementiam, sed nasci intus : conscientiam esse, quae torqueat... repetita toties confessio est. ecquid concipitis animis imaginem illam, quae hoc coegit ? stabat profecto ante oculos laceratus et adhuc cruentus pater. Plut. II 554' seq. 5 yep itauórns ékelun kai θρασύ της κακίας άχρι των αδικημάτων ισχυρόν έστι και πρόχειρον, είτα του πάθους ώσπερ πνεύματος υπολείποντος, ασθενές και ταπεινόν υποπίπτει τους poßos kai tais deloldaluoviais. Cic. legg. I § 40. p. Rosc. Am. SS 65—67. 237 ADMITTUNT X 340 n.

SUPEREST 109. CONSTANTIA 77.

238 1 166 n.

III 50. 239 AD MORES NATURA RECURRIT X 303 n. Hor, s. II 7 74. ep. 1 10 24 25 Obbar naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret | et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. Sen. brev. vit. 6 § 3 sed his querellis nec alios mutaverunt nec se ipsos. nam cum verba eruperunt, adfectus ad consuetudinem relabuntur. id. ep. 25 g 3. 2 Pet. 2 22 Grotius. Wetstein.

242 ATTRITA DE FRONTE Cic. Tusc. III § 41 cum os perfricuisti. Calvus to Vatinius in Quintil. ix 2 25 perfrica frontem et dic te digniorem, qui praetor fieres, quam Catonem. Mart. xI 27 7 at cum perfricuit frontem posuitque pudorem. Lucian vit. auct. 10 το ερυθριάν απόξεσον του προσώπου παντελώς. Victorius (v. 1. viii 6) compares Ath. 2130 (where Athenio, who of a poor philosopher became tyrant of Athens, having described the successes of Mithradates, Tpiyas to uét w Tov, persuaded the Athenians to revolt from Rome) and Strabo 603 speaking of audacious critics of Homer: éxpņu ydp kal τούτο πλάσαι παρατριψαμένους το μέτωπον και μή χωλόν εάν και έτοιμος προς έλεγχον άπαξ ήδη αποτετολμηκότας. .

FRONTE II 8. VIII 189. Pers. v 103 104 if a ploughman, ignorant of astronomy, were to seek command of a vessel, exclamet Melicerta perisse | frontem de rebus. Hier. ep. 18=22 (IV 2 p. 41) quae rubore frontis abstrito parasitos vincunt mimorum.

RUBOREM XI 54 55, 244 DABIT VESTIGIA Cf. dare colla sub iuga. 245 CARCERIS UNCUM X 66 n. Ov. Ibis 164. Burn Rome and Camp. 80.

245—247 CARCERIS UNCUM AUT MARIS AEGAEI BUPEM SCOPULOSQUE FREQUENTES EXULIBUS MAGNIS 1 73 n. aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum. x 16 n. 170 n. Plin. ep. III 9 $ 33 Norbanus Licinianus in insulam relegatus est. Philo in Flacc. 21 (1 543 M). legat. 43 (1 595) Gaius (Caligula) sent orders to Andros and elsewhere for the execution of the exiles. Tert. spect. 23 pr. cum igitur humana recordatio etiam obstrepente gratia voluptatis damnandos eos censeat ademptis bonis dignitatum in quendam scopulum famositatis. Holtzendorff die Deportationsstrafe im röm. Alterthum Leipz. 1859.

248 NOMINIS Bentley on Hor. C. III 27 34.

249 NEC SURDUM NEC TIRESIAM V 138

Fr. v.

C

139 nullus ... Aeneas nec filia. contrast Sen. Med. 1035 Iason to M. testare nullos esse, qua veheris, deos. Cic. n. d. III § 83 saying of Diogenes : Harpalum, qui temporibus illis praedo felix habebatur, contra deos testimonium dicere, quod in illa fortuna tam diu viveret. Divine judgement on perjury Il. r 280. T 260. Eur. Oenom. fr. 581 Nauck εγώ μεν εύτ'

αν τους κακούς ορώ βροτών | πίπτοντας, είναι φημι δαιμόvwv yévos. Xen. Hell. v.4 § 1. Kyrop. v 4 § 31. VIII 7 § 22. Plut. Dion 58 & 2.

SURDUM Sen. ben. IV 4 § 2 speaking of the universality of prayer: quod profecto non fieret nec in hunc furorem omnes mortales consensissent adloquendi surda numina et inefficaces deos, nisi nossemus illorum beneficia nunc oblata ultro, nunc orantibus data. Zenob. III 49 els Dewr wra ñ oev.

TIRE SIAM caecum x 318 n. Apollod. 111 6 7 1 Heyne. Ov. m. III 322 Burman. 335–8. blinded by Pallas, whom he had seen in the bath (cf. Aktaeon) Pherekydes fr. 50. Dicaearch. fr. 30. Kallim. lavacr. Pall. 82 Spanheim. Prop. v=iv 9 57 58. N. Schell de Tiresia Graecorum vate Lips. 1851.

ADDENDA, 26 Boissier la relig. des Rom. 11 177 comments on the exaggeration here.

38 Calpurn. I 42–4 aurea secura cum pace renascitur aetas | et redit ad terras tandem squalore situque | alma Themis posito.

46 TURBA DEORUM Cic. legg. II § 19 separatim nemo habessit deos neve novos neve advenas nisi publice adscitos.

65 Schiller Nero 138 n. 6 justly says: 'we must not underrate the importance of prodigies; how much even enlightened people thought of them appears from Sen, qu. n. II 49 seq. [various kinds of thunder, some portending death and exile, some a consulate to the holder's harm, an inheritance which will cause more loss than gain cet. cet.] vii 1 and 17.'

78–83 Strabo p 19 fin. cited on 226. Lasauls Studien 209. 229. 83 QUIDQUID TELORUM Liv. III 17 § 5 quidquid patrum plebisque est25 $ 8 .et haec' inquit sacrata quercus et quidquid deorum est, audiant, foedus a vobis ruptum.' 98 ARCHIGENE on the è Lachmann Lucr. I 739. Bentley Hor. C. III 12 8.

100 Hom. Il. iv 160—2. Wyttenb. on Plut. 11 549a. Grang. here,

102 SED ET XII 41. glossary to Beda h. e. III IV (Cambr. 1878). EXORABILE Prop. III=II 30 11 et iam si pecces, deus exorabilis illest.

105 xı 177 n. Lact. 11 4 SS 20 21. Hen. riot moeurs juridiques . , de l'anc. Rome d'après les poëtes lat. Par. 1865 III 44 45.

119 147 n. 121 cynicos see DL. VI SS 30 31 the wise discipline enforced by Diogenes on his pupils.

136—139 cf. the complaint of Polyb. vi 56 g 13 after saying that the modern disbelief in the gods and υπέρ των έν άδου is irrational and dangerous τοιγαρούν, , χωρίς των άλλων, οι τα κοινά χειρίζοντες παρα μεν τοις "Ελλησιν, εάν ταλάντου μόνον πιστευθώσιν, αντιγραφείς έχοντες δέκα και σφραγίδας τοιαύτας και μάρτυρας διπλασίους ου δύνανται τηρείν την πίστιν. . among the Romans an oath is still sacred,

145 INCENDIA SULPURE COEPTA Sen. n. q. 11 § 8 apud nos quoque ramenta sulpure adspersa ignem ex intervallo trahunt. 148 XII 47 n.

180 AT VINDICTA BONUM VITA IUCUNDIUS Attila in Iordan. 39 quid viro forti suavius, quam vindictam manu quaerere? magnum munus a natura animum ultione satiare,

XIV

IF our sons, Fuscinus, grow in vice as they grow in years, the fault is too often to be charged on a father's example (1-106). True as this is universally, it is most true of avarice; this vice alone is inculcated as a virtue: yet, if parents would but suffer things to take their course, this also would soon spring up of itself, and alarm by its growth those who now blindly and suicidally foster it (107—331).

Cf. Sen. de ira il 21 § 9 pertinebit ad rem, praeceptores paedagogosque pueris placidos dari. proximis adplicatur omne quod tenerum est et in eorum similitudinem crescit. nutricum et paedagogorum rettulere mox in adulescentiam mores. § 10 apud Platonem educatus puer cum ad parentes relatus vociferantem videret patrem, numquam' inquit 'hoc apud Platonem vidi.' non dubito quin citius patrem imitatus sit quam Platonem. $ 11 tenuis ante omnia victus et non pretiosa vestis et similis cultus cum aequalibus : non irascetur aliquem sibi conparari quem ab initio multis parem feceris. ib. 18 § 2 educatio maximam diligentiam plurimumque profuturam desiderat. facile est enim teneros adhuc animos componere, difficulter reciduntur vitia, quae nobiscum creverunt. Quintil. 1 2 $ 6 utinam liberorum nostrorum mores non ipsi perderemus ! infantiam statim deliciis solvimus. mollis illa educatio, quam indulgentiam vocamus, nervos omnes mentis et corporis frangit. quid non adultus concupiscet, qui in purpuris repit? nondum prima verba exprimit, iam coccum intellegit, iam conchylium poscit. § 7 ante palatum eorum quam os instituimus. in lécticis crescunt: si terram attigerunt, e manibus utrimque sustinentium pendent. gaudemus, si quid licentius dixerint : verba ne Alexandrinis quidem permittenda deliciis risu et osculo excipi

nec mirum: nos docuimus, ex nobis audierunt. $ 8 nostras amicas, nostros concubinos vident, omne convivium obscenis canticis strepit, pudenda dictu spectantur. fit ex his consuetudo, inde natura. discunt haec miseri antequam sciant vitia esse : inde soluti ac fluentes non accipiunt e scholis mala ista, sed in scholas adferunt. Plut. pueror, educ. 20 προ πάντων γάρ δει τους πατέρας το μηδέν αμαρτάνειν, αλλά πάντα, και δεί, πράττειν, εναργές εαυτούς παράδειγμα τοϊς τέκνοις παρέχειν, ίνα προς τον τούτων βίον ώσπερ κάτοπτρον αποβλέποντες αποτρέπονται των αισχρών έργων και λόγων. ως οίτινες, τοίς αμαρτάνουσιν υιοίς επιτιμώντες, τους αυτοίς αμαρτήμασι περιπίπτουσιν, επί τώ εκείνων ονόματι λανθάνουσιν εαυτών κατήγοροι γιγνόμενοι. οι δ' όλως φαύλως ζώντες ουδέ τούς δούλοις παρρησίαν.

mus.

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