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4 FALLACI PRAETORIS VICERIT URNA Cic. fin. II § 54 of L. Tubulus: qui, cum praetor quaestionem inter sicarios exercuisset, ita aperte cepit pecunias ob rem iudicandam. The iudices in criminal causes were generally appointed by sortitio: that is, the president of the quaestio drew out of an urn containing the names of all his iudices (selecti) the number necessary for the trial: the parties were allowed to challenge a certain proportion, in whose place other names were drawn (subsortitio).. In this ballot the praetor had opportunities for foul play (Geib Criminalprocess 184–6). dig. XLVIII 8 1 pr. lege Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis tenetur, qui,......cum magistratus esset publicove iudicio praeesset, operam dedisset, quo quis falsum indicium profiteretur, ut quis innocens conveniretur condemnaretur. The praetor's urna here may be that used for this purpose or rather that in which the tablets A (absolvo), C (condemno), or NL (non liquet) were thrown. Geib 365 366. If the first, the praetor has packed the jury. cf. Aen. VI 431—3 (where Servius quotes Iuv.) nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine iudice sedes : ' quaesitor Minos urnam movet, ille silentum | conciliumque vocat vitasque et crimina discit. If the latter, he has in the course of the proceedings won their votes. cf. Cic. Att. i 16. Apul. met. x 8 cum iam sententiae pares, cunctorum stilis ad unum sermonem congruentibus, ex more perpetuo in urnam aeneam deberent conici, quo semel conditis calculis iam cum rei fortuna transacto nihil postea commutari licebat. Cic. ad Qu. fr. II 4 § 6 Baiter (= =I1 6 fin.). Prop. v=iv 11 19. 49. Ov. met. XV 44. Hor. C. II 3 26. III 1 16.

s. 11 1 47. Sil. Ix 26 27 qui te | legibus atque urnae dira eripuere minanti.

7 TENUIS III 163 n. Cic. iny. I § 35 pecuniosus an tenuis.

8 MERGAT X 57 n. Pers. III 34. Amm. XXXI 9 § 5. Vell. II 91 § 3 Heins.

NEC RARA VIDEMUS 16. 126-173. Menand. fr. inc. 2 (in Plut. 11 103d) if, Trophimos, you alone of all mankind had been born to unbroken prosperity, ορθώς αγανακτείς έστι γάρ σ' έψευσμένος | άτοπον τε πεποίηκ', but if you drew the common air by the same laws with us, you must bear this loss better. où d'oở l' ÚT EPβάλλοντα, Τρόφιμ', απώλεσας | αγαθά, τα νυνί δ' έστι μέτριά σοι κακά. wot' dvà pérov TOU kai MOLTòv on pépe. Gataker on Antonin. VII § 58. Hamlet i 2 72–106 thou know'st 'tis common.' 9 COGNITUS XII 26.

10 71 seq. i.e. drawn at random. Plin. ep. IX 13 § 13 omnes Certum nondum a me nominatum ut nominatum defendunt crimenque quasi in medio relictum defensione suscipiunt.

11 PONAMUS XI 191 192. 12 VIRI Hor, epod. 10 17 illa non virilis eiulatio.

13 QUAMVIS however light. QUE MALORUM PARTICULAM 159 190. Cic. fin. v § 78 ea nos mala dicimus, sed exigua et paene minima. acad. 11 & 127 ut exigua et minima. Lucr. v 591=595 exigua maioris parte brevique.

14 SPUMANTIBUS Sen. Oed. 362 Peiper felle nigro tabi. dum spumat iecur.

15 SACRUM 72 sacrilega.

16 DEPOSITUM 60. cf. 71 seq. dig. xvi 3 (* depositi vel contra ') 1 pr. depositum est, quod custodiendum alicui datum est. cod. IV 34. Hor. s. 1 3 94 95 qui faciam, si [amicus] furtum fecerit aut si | prodiderit commissa. Sen. ben. "IV 26 § 3 the good man will not trust him with a deposit, depositum committet ei, qui iam pluribus abnegavit. VI 5 § 5. 6 § 1. The Christians in Bithynia, a few years before the date of this satire (Plin. ep. x 96=97 $ 7) took a mutual oath ne furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent,

MEDIO

MINIMAM EXIGUAM

ne fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent.

STUPET HAEC IV 119 n. Plin. pan. 31 fin. stupebant agricolae-plena horrea, quae non ipsi refersissent. 17 FONTEIO CONSULE NATUS 28 n.

157 n.

Clinton (f. R. ann. 118) and Lipsius (quaest. epist. IV 20) understand C. Fonteius Capito cos. A.D. 59. Tac. XIV 1. Plin. 11 & 180. IRN 3067. But this Capito stands second to his colleague C. Vipstanus Apronianus, and therefore Borghesi (oeuvres v 74–76) understands the Fonteius Capito of A.D. 67, who is named before his colleague Iunius Rufus. This is the legatus of lower Germany, who was put to death B.C. 68 with the connivance of Galba (Tac. h. 1 7. 37. 52. 58. III 62. IV 13). When a single consul is named to date a year, the first is regularly named, except when that first is Caesar or emperor. Thus the date of this satire, like that of the 15th (xv 27 n.) is 127 A.D. 18–25 126–173. xv 106-9.

18 IN MELIUS Luc. VI 60 Corte. Plin. ep. Iv 18 1 Corte in deterius. ib. 28 § 3 longe difficillima est imitationis imitatio.

a qua rogo ut artificem...ne in melius quidem sinas aberrare. IX 39 g 1 reficienda est mihi aedes Cereris in praediis in melius et in maius. x 70=75 & 1 quae sunt vetustate sublapsa relaxentur in melius. Tac. IV 20 in melius flexit. Flor. IV 7 8 9 Duker. Hand Turs. III 331.

PROFICIT USUS ['experience helps on to something better.' H. A. J. M.]

19 [“MAGNA QUIDEM (sunt) praecepta agrees more closely with vita didicere magistra of 22 than magna (est) sapientia.' H. A. J. M.]

SACRIS Sen. ep. 14 & 11 numquam in tantum convalescet nequitia, numquam sic contra virtutes coniurabitur, ut non philosophiae nomen venerabile et sacrum maneat. 55 § 4. Cic. Tusc. i $$ 64 65.

20 VICTRIX FORTUNAE SAPIENTIA X 52. 363–6 n. Hor. s. II 7 83–88. Sen. ep. 71 g 30 sapiens quidem vincit virtute fortunam. 82 § 5 philosophià circumdanda est: inexpugnabilis est murus, quem fortuna multis machinis lacessitum non transit. cons. Helv. 13 & 2. const. sap. passim e.g. 5 § 4. 6 § 8 the munimenta of the sage et a famma et ab incursu tuta sunt, nullum introitum praebent, excelsa, inexpugnabilia, dis aequa. 8 $ 3 fortune, quoties cum virtute oongressa est, numquam par recessita

22 IACTARE IUGUM to fret under )( vi 207 208 of the patient husband summitte caput cervice parata | ferre iugum. MAGISTRA in the school of life ['with reference to the special use of magister as a trainer.' J. C.] cf. experientia stultorum magistra. Cic. Tusc. v § 5 of philosophy magistra morum et disciplinae.

23–37 No day too sacred to discover thieves, treachery, embezzlement, gain gotten by the dagger or the bowl. Good men are scarce, scarce as gates of Thebes or mouths of Nile. 'Tis Rome's ninth cen. tury, sunk below the iron age; Nature's self, baffled, has no metal to express the baseness of the times. We cry to men and gods for mercy, with a din deafening as the applause sold to Faesidius for a dole. Dotard, know you not the charms of a neighbour's gold? know you not, how the world flouts your innocence, who bid any man eschew perjury for fear of some avenger watching in temples and blood-stained altars? 23 seq. i 112 seq.

QUAE TAM FESTA DIES, UT CESSET PRODERE FUREM Suet. Tib. 61 nullus a poena hominum 'cessavit dies; ne religiosus quidem ac sacer. Markland 'FESTA vel fausta. non enim tam festi habendi sunt dies in quibus haec scelera non occurrunt, quam fausti.'

VITA

24 25 OMNI EX CRIMINE LUCRUM QUAESITUM Nägelsbach § 30 2 (Weid. ner).

25 PUXIDE 1 70 n. 158 n. II 41 pyxide medicine box. VIII 17 n. Cic. p. Cael. 8 65 veneni pyxidem. Corvus was ridiculed for a sentence in a controversia Sen, suas. 2 $ 21 de ea quae apud matronas disserebat liberos non esse tollendos ') inter pyxides et redolentis animae medicamina constitit mitrata contio. Sen. ep. 95 & 18. ben. v 13 8 3 quaedam, etiamsi vera non sunt, propter similitudinem eodem vocabulo comprensa sunt. sic pyxidem [properly of box] et argenteam et auream dicimus. id. ap. Lact. 111 15 13 of some philosophers, who need to apply their own rebukes of vice to themselves quos non aliter intueri decet quam medicos, quorum tituli remedia habent, pyxides venena. Plin. xxix 20 of the medical profession quid enim venenorum fertilius aut unde plures testamentorum insidiae ? Hermas vis. 3 $ 9 nolite similes fieri maleficis et malefici quidem venena sua in pixides [sic] baiulant. vos autem venenum vestrum et medicamentum in corde continetis. 26 rhythm as 35. 225.

RARI BONI Porphyr. vit. Pythag. 42 maxim of Pythagoras, “avoid the beaten path,' tàs lewpopovs un Badljerv (cf. Rittersh. p. 229 Kiessling. Matt. 7 13 14 the broad way). Theogn. 150. Bias in DL. I $ 87 Menage pileîv us plonσοντας τους γάρ πλείστους είναι κακούς. Χen. Kyrop. ΙΙ 2 8 24. DL. VI SS 27. 32. 40 41 Menage the lantern of Diogenes, and his frequent complaints that he could not find ‘men.' Sen. vit. beat. 2 § 1 cum de beata vita agetur, non est quod mihi illud discessionum more respondeas : haec pars maior esse videtur.' ideo enim peior est. non tam bene cum rebus humanis agitur, ut meliora pluribus placeant: argumentum pessimi turba est. id. ben. 1 10 G 3 idem semper de nobis pronuntiare debebimus, malos esse nos, malos fuisse, invitus adiciam et futuros

id. n. q. iv praef. § 19 with citations from Verg. Ov. Menander. id. ep. 42 § 1 the vir bonus is a phoenix, born once in 500 years. Plut. II 4134. Plin. ep. VIII 22 & 3 maxim of Thrasea qui vitia odit, homines odit. Hor. 8. 1 3 68 69. Lucian Tim. 25 Plutos complains that Zeus has sent him, blind as he is, to find an honest man, dvoeúperov OÚtw xpñua kai apo πολλού εκλελοιπός εκ του βίου, which even Lynkeus could not easily find, άμαυρον ούτω και μικρόν όν. As then the good are few, and crowds of bad fill all the streets in the cities, I more readily light upon these latter in my roamings. Philo 1 84. 255. 316 M. Chrys. hom. 10=9 in Rom. (1x 5176) πολλούς των ανθρώπων, κατά την παροιμίαν, αρέσκει τα χείρω, και ταύτα αιρούνται, τα αμείνω παρατρέχοντες. Nigelsbach nachhomer. Theol. 322-4. Aus. id. 16 1 2 vir bonus ac sapiens, qualem vix repperit unum milibus e multis hominum consultus Apollo.

27 THEBARUM PORTAE Thebes in Boeotia, called ÉTTÁTulos by Hom. Il. iv 406. Od. xi 263. Hes. op. 162. scut. 49. The seven heroes each assailed a separate gate (Aesch. Th. Eur. Ph. 287. Ov. tr. II 320 septem portas sub duce quamque suo). Book 3 pp. 251– 345 of Unger's learned paradoxa Thebana is . de Thebarum portis.'

DIVITIS XV 123. cf. its epithets trupopópos, LÓTATOS, isvuos, pinguis, fecundus etc.

OSTIA NILI reckoning from W. to E. Plin. v § 64 the Canopic, Bolbitine, Sebennytic, Phatnitic, Mendesic, Tanitic, Pelusiac. cf. Hdt. 11 17. Strabo 801. Mel. I 9 $ 9 (see Tzschucke v 316). Hence the epithets éttáropos (Mosch. 2 51). septemplex (Ov. m. v 187). septemfluus (ib. xv 753). septemgeminus (Catulī. 11 7. Verg. Stat.). septeno gurgite (Cl. in Ruf. 1 185. Luc.).

28 degeneracy of the age i 147—150 n. XII 48 49. NONA AETAS (so p w) the ninth century of the city (Borghesi

esse.

oeuvres v 72). nunc (P. Jahn) is vapid. x 246 n. 249 n. Varro 1. 1. vI 11 saeculum spatium annorum centum vocarunt. Serv. ecl. 4 5. Cen. sorin. 17 § 15 was writing in the tenth saeculum. On the Etruscan doctrine of the world's ages Suid. Eúllas (=DCass. fr. 102 Bekker). Plut. Sulla 7. Serv. ecl. 9 47 on ‘Dionaei Caesaris astrum' Vulcatius harus spex in contione dixit cometen esse, qui significaret exitum noni saeculi et ingressum decimi. Varro's work de saeculis (Serv. Aen. VIII 526) is unhappily lost. Preller röm. Myth.1 472–8. [ Greswell origines Italicae II 633.' J. C.]

AETAS SAECULA TEMPORIBUS X 9 n.

29 SCELERI abstract Halm on Cic. p. Sest. $ 86. Nägelsbach § 17 1 (Weidner).

30 METALLO VI 23 24 omne aliud crimen mox ferrea protulit aetas: / viderunt primos argentea saecula moechos. xv 70 n. According to Hesiod there were five ages : the golden (op. 109-126), the silver (127—142), the brazen (143—155), heroes or demi-gods (156–173), the iron (174—201). Aratus mentions three: the golden (phaen. 100—114), the silver (115—128), the brazen (129—134): Ovid, four: the golden (m. 189—112), the silver (113–124), the brazen (125127), the iron (127—150). Claud, laud. Stil. II 446–50 hic habitant vario faciem distincta metallo | saecula certa locis : illic glomerantur aena, | hic ferrata rigent, illic argentea candent ; | eximia regione domus, contingere terris | difficiles, stabant rutili, grex aureus, anni. Serv. ecl. 4 4 ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas : Sibyllini, quae Cumana fuit, et saecula per metalla divisit: dixit etiam quis quo saeculo imperaret et solis ultimum, id est decimum, voluit.' Sibyll. 1 22–86 first race; 87—103 second; 104-108 third; 109–119 fourth ; 120—282 fifth, the giants, who refuse to repent at Noah's preaching; 283–305 sixth, golden or heavenly ; 306–319 Titans. 11 15 16 on Tóte kai γενεή δεκάτη μετά ταύτα φανείται | ανθρώπων, when the Thunderer, who shakes the earth, shall break idolatry. 17-19 daóv te TIVÁŽEL' | 'Puuns επταλόφοιο, μέγας δέ τε πλούτος όλείται | δαιόμενος πυρί πολλά υπό φλογος 'Hpalotolo. (Here however the tenth generation A.D. is meant). There shall be wars, plagues and dearths 161 162 ω μέγα δειλοι | ύστατίνης γενεής φωτες, κακοεργέες, αινοί. Macrob. comm. II 10 § 6 who can believe that the world has existed for ever, remembering the late discovery of many arts, even of agriculture, cumque ita exordium rerum et ipsius humanae nationis opinemur, ut aurea primum fuisse saecula credamus, et inde natura per metalla viliora degenerans ferro saecula postrema foedaverit? Hakewill apology iv 3 $ 1.

31 HOMINUM DIVUMQUE FIDEM di immortales, obsecro vestram fidem. di vestram fidem. tuam fidem, Venus. pro deum atque hominum fidem (Brisson de formulis 1 132. VIII 20 21). Plaut. Men. v 8 4. aul. 297–9 quin divom atque hominum clamat continuo fidem, | suam rem perisse seque eradicarier, | de suo tigillo fumus si qua exit foras. ib. 684 Wagner. Joined with auxilium, clientela ; in fidem accipere etc. Mühlmann 276 277. CIEMUS Liv. XXII 14 § 7 modo Saguntum oppugnari indignando non homines tantum, sed foedera et deos ciebamus.

32 QUANTO i.e. tanto, quanto il 225. x 14 n.

FAESIDIUM LAUDET SPORTULA III 87–91. VII 106-136. schol. but ostendat Faesidium conductos habuisse, qui eum agentem causas magna voce laudarent.' see Plin. cited on VII 44. Hor. ep. i 19 37 38 Obbar. II 2 87–89. Mart. Vi 48 quod tam grande sophos clamat tibi turba togata, , non tu, Pomponi, cena diserta tua

est. Αnth. Ρal. XI 394 ποιητής πανάριστος αληθώς έστιν εκείνος, | 8στις δειπνίζει τους ακροασαμένους. | ήν δ' αναγιγνώσκη και νήστιας οίκαδε πέμπη, | εις αυτόν τρεπέτω την ιδίαν μανίην. Gell. cited on 220. AGENTEM XVI 49.

33 SPORTULA 1 128 n. x 46 n. As it is only for the sake of the dole that the clients applaud, the dole itself is called vociferous. cf. III 20 silva. XIy 14 culina. x 45 n. officia.

SENIOR 17 n. See lexx. and Stat. s. III 3 43 senior placidissime. 208. Pers. 1 22 vetule.

BULLA V 164 n. XIV 5. The bulla was dedicated to the Lares on the assumption of the toga virilis. Prop. V=Iv 1 131 132 mox ubi bulla rudi dimissa est aurea collo, | matris et unte deos libera sumpta toga. Pers. V. 31 bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit. VM. 11 1 g 1 to Aemilius Lepidus a statua bullata et incincta praetexta was set up in the capitol, because when a boy he had slain an enemy, saved a countryman, schol. Cruq. on Hor. s. 1 5 65. Becker Gallus 11 55.

SENIOR BULLA DIGNISSIME schol. ex proverbio Graeco δις παίδες οι γέροντες.'

34 VENERES charms Sen, ben. 11 28 § 1 ille non est mihi par virtutibus nec officiis, sed habuit suam venerem. The plur. also in Quintil. (of style). 36 Xen. anab. 11 6 & 22 the Thessalian Menon thought perjury, lying, fraud, the shortest way to his ends; simplicity and truth he held to be all one with folly. $ 25 perjurers he feared as men well armed. PUTET 91.

37 75–89. II 149–153. Tibull. 1 3 51 52 timidum non me periuria terrent, ' non dicta in sanctos inpia verba deos.

ARAE RUBENTI Pollux 1 27 αιμάσσειν τους βωμούς. The blood was poured on the altar from a vessel (opós/lov) Eust. Od. 111 445.

38–59 In such honest sort lived the first-born of earth before luppiter had driven Saturn, resigning his crown for a sickle, to fly for his life, while Iuno was a girl and Iuppiter still lived in the nursery of Ida's caves, when as yet were no feasts in heaven, no Ganymedes or Hebe, to fill the cups, no Vulcan when the nectar is racked off scouring his arms dingy from the smithy of Lipara. Each god dined apart, and the crowd of gods was less. The stars satisfied with few divinities weighed but slightly on poor Atlas. Not as yet 'had the gloomy realm of the deep been by partition-treaty made over to one brother; grim Pluto as yet had no Sicilian wife; Ixion's wheel was not, nor Furies, nor stone of Sisyphus, nor vulture preying on Tityus; the ghosts made merry, for they owned no king or queen of hell. Dishonesty was a portent in that age, when it was counted a deadly sin not to rise before your elders, though you might boast more strawberries or larger hoards of acorns. Such reverence was accorded to four years' precedence. * And children, in the springing down, revered | the sacred promise of a hoary beard. With the scoffing tone cf. i 10 n. 84 n.

38 INDIGENAE aúróxoves Aen. viii 314. On the golden age when Saturn ruled in heaven, cf. sat. vi 1-24. Verg. ecl. 4 6. g. i 125—8. 11 536–540. Aen. VIII 319–325. Tibull. 1 3 35-50 Broukh. Prop. III=11 32 52 hic mos Saturno regna tenente fuit. O.v. her. 4 131—3 ista vetus pietas, aevo moritura futuro, i rustica Saturno regna tenente fuit. Iuppiter esse pium statuit, quodcumque iuvaret. Aetna 9—15. Preller röm. Myth.1 408—418, who accepts Varro's derivation from satio (Saeturni pocolom is found in an inscription; thence Sāturnus). Marquardt iv 10. 15. Praises of earlier times sat. III 67 n. 137 seq. 312. IV 103. v 57. 110. vI 1-20. 45. 164. 287–91. 342—6 et quis tunc hominum contemptor numi.

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