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DABIT HANC ALTARIBUS

I 35.

Christian's prayers. Lucr. I 84—100. Hor. 8. II 3 199—201 tu cum pro vitula statuis dulcem Aulide natam | ante aras spargisque mola caput, inprobe, salsa, / rectum animi servas ? Mühlmann col. 498 has many exx. of dare focis tura liba etc.

120 xv 116-9. XIII 84 85 of the perjurer, swearing by all the armoury of heaven si vero et pater est, “comedam inquit 'flebile nati| sinciput elixi Pharioque madentis aceto.'

121 LAUDO MEUM CIVEM IV 18 19 consilium laudo artificis, si munere tanto | praecipuam in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi. Holyday my citizen has brain ! what is a fleet, | to a rich will ?' Tert. apol. 14 'I do not speak of your cheating Hercules of more than two-thirds of his tithe: laudabo magis sapientiam, quod de perdita aliquid eripitis.' ib. 16 laudo diligentiam. 122 MILLE Varro r. r. II 18 26 numerus non est, ut sit ad amussim, ut non est cum dicimus, mille naves isse ad Troiam. The number of ships in the Homeric Catalogue (Il. II) is 1186, but the poets (Aesch. Ag. 45 Blomf. Eur. Andr. 106 Barnes. Or. 352 Klotz, Plaut. Bacch. 928. Aen. II 198 Heyne. IX 148. Prop. III = II 26 38. Sil. III 229 Drak. cf. Sen. contr. 35 § 2. [Sen.] Agam. 39. Stat. Ach.

Duker on Thuc. i 10 § 4. Eust. Il. 11 760 p. 338) generally speak of a thousand only. Cic. Verr. I $ 48 gives 1000 also as the number of Xerxes' fleet.

LIBITINAM III 32 n. Hor. C. III 30 6 7 non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei | vitabit Libitinam. id. s. 11 6 19 Heind. Plut. Num. 12 § 1 some identified with Proserpina, the more learned with Venus, Lib. επίσκοπον των περί τους θνήσκοντας οσίων O còy our av. id. qu. rom. 23. Servius Tullius appointed that for every death a sum of money should be paid into the treasury of Venus Libitina in the grove (Piso in DH. IV 15. Varro in Non. p. 64 lucus Veneris Lubentinae), from which biers and fuel for funerals were brought Mart. x 97 1. id. viii 43 effert uxores Fabius, Chrestilla maritos, | funereamque toris quassat uterque facem. | victores committe, Venus : quos ista manebit | exitus, una duos ut Libitina ferat. Hence the mention of Libitina in pestilences (Liv. XLI 21 $ 6. Suet. Nero. 39), the terms Libitinam facere, exercere, the Libitinensis porta at the amphitheatre. Orelli inscr. 3349 lucar Libitinae. Preller röm. Myth.1 387. Marquardt v (1) 380 381,

123 DELEBIT TABULAS if the patient recovers he will ascribe all to the vow of Pacuvius, and erase in his favour all other names from the waxen tablets of his will 1 68 n.

II 58. XIV 55 tabulas mutare parabis. NASSAE a weel Festus p. 169 a 19 M. Sil. v 47–52 vitreas sollers piscator ad undas lore levem patulo texens de vimine nassam, I cautius interiora ligat mediamque per alvum | sensim fastigans compressa cacumina nectit, | ac fraude arctati remeare foraminis arcet | introitu facilem, quem traxit ab aequore, piscem. met. also in Plaut. mil. 579. Cic. Att. xv 20 S 2. SO Kúptos in Lucian Hermot. 59. cf. Hor. s. II 5 25. 44. Obbar. Mart. IV 56. VI 63. Plin, ep. Ix 30 cited 93 n. Sen. const. sap. 9 § 2 est et illa iniuria frequens, si lucrum alicuius excussum est aut praemium diu captatum, si magno labore adfectata hereditas aversa est et quaestuosae domus gratia erepta. ben, IV 20 § 3 ingratum voco, qui aegro adsedit, quia testamentum facturus est, cui de hereditate aut legato vacut cogitare. faciat licet omnia, quae facere bonus amicus et memor officii debet, si animo eius obversatur spes, si lucri captator est et ha mum iacit. Lucian dial. mort. 8 a captator dead before. his victim complains : 'As the proverb is, the fawn has caught the lion. I courted the rich and childless Hermolaos and thought it a stroke of policy to deposit in a public place my will, in which I have be. queathed to him my all, that he might do the like by me... and now by a fall of the roof I am dead on the sudden and Hermolaos has my estate, having like some sea-wolf swallowed bait and hook.' 'Not only so, but you the fisherman too, so that your plan has recoiled upon yourself.' 'So it seems; more's the pity.' ib. 6 § 4 Terpsion a man of 30 had sent many costly presents to Thukritos, an old man past 90, with three teeth in his head, who seemed to have one foot already in his coffin. Terpsion complains to Pluto: 'after swallowing so large a bait of mine the day before yesterday he attended my funeral and crowed over me.' Pluto: * Bravo, Thukritos! Long life and prosperity to you; may you live to bury all your flatterers.' id. Tim. 22 cited 126. 124 SOLI II 58 59 cur solo tabulas impleverit Hister | liberto.

IV 19.

ep. 1 1 79

VI 601. Hor, s. 11 5 54 solus, multisne coheres.

125 BREYITER 1 68 n. exiguis tabulis. 125 126 SUPERBUS INCEDET Hor. epod. 15 17 18 et tu, quicumque es felicior atque meo nunc / superbus incedis malo. 126 INCEDET ‘stalk,' 'strut,' connotes a stately consequential movement Aen. I 146 divom incedo regina, where Servius 'incedere proprie est nobilium personarum ; hoc est, cum aliqua dignitate ambulare. Sall. Iug. 31 g 10 incedunt per ora vestra magnifici, sacerdotia et consulatus, pars triumphos suos ostentantes. Liv. 11 6 $7. Sen. tranq. 1 § 9. ep. 76 § 31. 80 § 7. 115 § 9 omnium istorum, quos incedere altos vides, bratteata felicitas est. Amm. xxi 14 § 3 grandiaque incedens tamquam Oti frater et Ephialtis, cf. Mühlmann. VICTIS RIVALIBUS Lucian Tim. 22 the successful fortune-hunter, when the will is open, carries me (Plutos] off, will and all, styles himself instead of Pyrrhias, Dromo or Tibios (his name to that moment) Megakles or Megabyzos or Protarchos, τους μάτην κεχηνότας εκείνους ες αλλήλους αποβλέποντας καταλιπών αληθές άγοντας το πένθος, οδος αυτούς ο θύννος εκ μυχου της σαγήνης διέφυγεν, ουκ ολίγον το δέλεαρ καταπιών. 127 you see then how well he is repaid for the sacrifice of his Iphigenia.

IUGULATA MYCENIS the same use in principle as ab urbe condita from the foundation of Rome.' When Ribbeck asks (x 108 summus nempe locus nulla non arte petitus) 'wie kann der höchste Stand oder der Gipfel der Macht Jemanden zu Boden stürzen ? Das Streben danach wohl,' he has yet to learn that summus locus petitus =petitio summi loci. Nägelsbach § 30 2 cites e. g. Cic. fam. IV 13 8 2 quorum benevolentiam nobis conciliarat per me quondam te socio defensa res publica.

MYCENIS Agamemnon was king of Mycenae. Aen. XI 266 ipse Mycenaeus magnorum ductor Achivom. Sil. I 27 ante Agamemnoniam ditissima tecta Mycenen. Ov. m. XII 34 supposita fertur mutasse Mycenida cerva. Pacuvius's Mycenis is his daughter, whom he is ready to offer as Agamemnon did Iphigenia (119).

128–130 may Pacuvius be curst (x 7 seq.) by the fulfilment of his desires: attain Nestor's age and mountains of gold, but know nothing of that friendship which he counterfeits.

VIVAT NESTORA 4 n. x 246–255. May he live a Nestor,' i.e. Nestor's age, compared by Wytt. on Plut. 11 150b with Cyclopa moveri, etc. Mart. x 24 9-11 vitae tribus arcis peractis | lucos Elysiae petam puellae. | post hunc Nestora nec diem rogabo. (Ribbeck, correcting' Ruperti, strangely renders after this day I will not ask Nestor for one day more'). The comparison of the attribute of one person (or

thing) to another person or thing (111 74 n. add Schäfer on Plin. ep. i 16 § 3. on schol. Ap. Rh. II 477. Heinichen n. cr. on Eus. h. e. VI 3 § 13) is in principle the same. cf. Mentor (viti 104 n.)=

=a work of Mentor's. XIV 326 sume duos equites. Mart. II 29 3 quaeque Tyron (Tyrian dye) totiens epotavere lacernae. Sen. apocol. 4 14 vincunt Tithoni, vincunt et Nestoris annos. It was a common prayer for a friend that he might attain Nestor's years. Stat. S. I 3 110 finem Nestoreae precor egrediare senectae. II 2 107 108 sis felix, tellus, dominis ambobus in annos | Mygdonii Pyliique senis. 11 4 103 104 eat, oro, per annos | Iliacos Pyliosque simul. Iv 3 149 150 to his 'god’ Domitian annos perpetua geres iuventa, | quot fertur placidos obisse Nestor. v 3 255—7 to his father o Pylias aevi transcendere metas ! et Teucros aequare senes, o digne videre me similem ! 129 QUANTUM RAPUIT NERO VIII 100—123 n. On Nero's wholesale robberies in Greece and elsewhere cf. Tac. xv 45 interea conferendis pecuniis pervastata Italia, provinciae eversae sociique populi et quae civitatum liberae vocantur, inque eam praedam etiam dicessere, spoliatis in urbe templis egestoque auro, quod triumphis, quod votis omnis populi Romani aetas prospere aut in metu sacraverat. enimvero per Asiam atque Achaiam non dona tantum sed simulacra numinum abripiebantur, missis in eas provincias Acrato ac Secundo Carrinate. ib. XVI 23. id. Agric. 6. Plin. XXXIV 84 works of art restored by Vesp. to the temple of Pax (Nero had collected them for his golden house). DCass. Lxu 11. 12 & 3. Suet. 26 (his shoplifting in Rome). 32 (temples in Rome, e.g. of the Penates; Suet. is silent as to his robberies in Greece). DChrys, or. 31 1 644 R. to the Rhodians

the Romans who often plundered temples and palaces, have never stirred any of yonrs; Nero himself, who did not spare even the statues of Olympia and Delphi, and removed most of those of the Athenian acropolis and many from Pergamum, left yours alone undisturbed.' Pausan. v 25 8 8. 26 3. ix 27 SS 3 4 (Nero's incests and adulteries were instigated by an Eros, enraged at being removed from Thespiae !). 7 $ 1 (five hundred statues were removed from Delphi alone). Höck röm. Gesch. 1 (3) 399. Thus he injured the Greeks by his taste for the fine arts more than Xerxes had done by his conflagrations Philostr. Apoll. v 7 § 3 sq. Hertzberg Gesch. Griechenl. II 97—99. 110 111. Schiller (Nero 247—250) gives reasons for reducing the amount of these depredations.

129 130 MONTIBUS AURUM EXAEQUET Ter. Ph. 68 modo non montes auri pollicens. Pers. III 65 Jahn et quid opus Cratero magnos promittere montes? Hier. in Rufin. III 39 montes aureos pollicitus. VM. 11 9 pr. partarum rerum caelo cumulus aequatus, sedem stabilem non habebit. 130 Ov. Ibis 117—122 e.g. sisque miser semper, nec sis miserabilis ulli. Hor. s. 1180—91, e.g. 86 87 miraris, cum tu argento post omnia ponas, , si nemo praestet, quem non merearis, amorem ? See Lasaulx der Fluch bei Griechen u. Römern (Studien Regensb. 1854 155—177).

NEC NEC=neu 93. III 302. VI 450. VIII 188. IX 99. XI 186. XIV 201. XVI 9. neu only once xiv 203 (Lupus).

QUEMQUAM ULLO VIII 177 178 lectus , non alius cuiquam neo mensa remotior ulli.

XIII

A consolatio' (Tapauvontirós cf. Sen. cons. ad Polyb. ad Helv. ad Marc. Plut. cons. ad Apollon. ad uxor. a beautiful tribute to his daughter's memory) addressed to Calvinus, who had been cheated of ten sestertia.

GUILT meets its due punishment, if not from corrupt judges, yet from the conscience of the sinner and the reprobation of honest men (1–6). But there are other considerations, Calvinus, which should mollify your wrath. True, the friend whom you trusted has defrauded you; but your fortune can well support so trifling a loss. Look about you, and see how rife such crimes are. In the golden days of Saturn's rule falsehood was unknown, but now it is honesty that is the prodigy (7--85). Never was perjury so universal: for, while many believe in no God, others hope for a long reprieve, if not a final pardon (86–119). To raise an outcry then, as though your case were hard and strange, is as unreasonable as to wonder at blue eyes in a German, the goître among the Alps, dwarfs in the land of pygmies (120–173). Are you then to look for no redress ? Philosophy will teach you that none but little minds delight in revenge: but, in any case, you may be well content to leave the delinquent to his own remorse and to that law by which crime breeds crime. If such be your desire, you may yet see him condemned to exile or to death (174–249).

cf. Quintil. decl, 314.

This satire was written in the year 127 A.D. 17 n. Its lofty Stoicism has made it a favorite with moralists; many of the lines are as vigorous as any in Iuv., but the effect is marred by verbosity. The aged poet forgets the caution : manum de tabula. Recitations had spoilt taste; the sense of proportion was lost; the whole was sacrificed to the parts. It is true, not only of Seneca, but of all silver age writers, that they look best in quotations. The epigrams of Martial are the most perfect works of silver age art, because in them point is in place, and there is no temptation to digress. In 1575 Muretus spent at Rome three lectures on this satire vol. II or. 12 . et iucunda autem et utilis illius evolutio futura est. continet enim multas graves et utiles sententias, optimis verbis et genere quodam dicendi salso festivo hilari et, ut ita dicam, vivido, quod huic poetae proprium ac perpetuum est, explicatas.' This is all: die hohen Lobsprüche, of which Düntzer talks, do not exist. Verses 39—52, 64–70, 78_85, extracts from a common-place book on mythology and portents, remind one of Lucan's misplaced encyclopaedic learning e.g. on Thessalian witchcraft (v1 630—829), on Antaeus (iv 590—655), portents (v 540—556), the battle of the winds (v 598—612). cf. Stat. Th. vi 88—117 with his prototype Aen. vi 180—182.

1-22 Sin stands condemned by the sinner: he may bribe the praetor's court, but he cannot silence the judge within. What says the world, Calvinus, to this breach of trust? Your estate can bear it; it will not sink you ; 'tis a hackneyed, every day mishap, a 'stale trick of chance.' Play the man then, and stifle your sobs. Scorn to wince at a trifling wound. What, born under Fonteius, with sixty years behind your back, and yet startled and fuming at perjury and fraud ? Wisdom, by her heavenly maxims, enables men to master fortune. Even experience, that mistress of fools, might have enured your shoulders to the yoke. 1 EXEMPLO MALO Petr. 104 illi qui sunt, qui nocte ad lunam radebantur pessimo medius fidius exemplo. Mühlmann col. 954.

2 DISPLICET AUCTORI 192 n. IV 8. Sen. ep. 42 § 2 nec ulla maior poena nequitiae est, quam quod sibi ac suis displicet. ib. 97 § 11. Macrob. comm. i 10 $ 12.

ULTIO Aus. VII sap. sent. Thales' turpe quid ausurus te sine teste time. 2 3 SE IUDICE NEMO NOCENS ABSOLVITUR not like the following passages from Plaut. Cic. Nep. Plaut. mil. 559 si ego me sciente paterer vicino meo inferri apud me iniuriam; for here the construction is infertur vicino meo me sciente iniuria. Cic. in Pis. § 23 quae omnia ornamenta etiam in Sex. Clodio te consule esse voluisti. p. Scaur. $ 34 se consule neque repelli fratrem volebat. Nep. Paus. 2 & 4 Graeciam sub tuam potestatem se adiuvante te redacturum pollicetur. Compare rather Ov, amor. 11 12 13 me duce ad hunc voti finem, me milite veni. Quintil. vi 2 $ 2 ille, qui in actione ' hibericas herbas,' se solo nequi. quam intellegente, dicebat. Suet. Tib. 31 Burm. Oud. negante eo...im petravit. iterum censente...optinere non potuit. Cal. 35 edente se munus...animadvertit. Censorin. 17 § 11 sextos autem [ludos] fecit Ti. Claudius Caesar se IIII et Vitellio III COSS..., septimos Domitianus se XIIII et L. Minucio Rufo coss. Aus. id. 2 14 ipse mihi numquam iudice me placui. Symm. laud. in Val. sen. Aug. 1 13 nec quisquam se ipso iudice impune laedatur. id. in Gratian. 8 me ipso principe militavi. Scribon. 97 ne hic quidem ulli se vivo compositionem dedit. Many exx. in Sanctii Minerva II 7. Duker on Florus iv 12 § 28. Haase on Reisig 760. Kuhner gr. Gr. 112 666. se iudice='at the bar of his own conscience, and the abl. is necessary.

3 IV 8. 192—239. Publil. Syr. 259 Sp illo nocens se damnat quo peccat die. Philo 11 635. 642. 649. Sen. de irà ili 26 § 2.quid ergo' inquis impune illi erit?' puta te velle, tamen non erit. maxima est enim factae iniuriae poena fecisse, nec quisquam gravius adficitur quam qui ad supplicium paenitentiae traditur. ib. 11 30 § 2 iam sibi dedit [poenas], qui peccavit. id. Hippol. (or Phaedra) 164-—9 Peiper e.g. scelus aliqua tutum, nulla securum tulit. Ambr. in ps. I § 20 etiamsi hominem fefellit, testem refugit, accusatorem evasit; se tamen sui accusatorem vitare non poterit, quem macime debet timere ; quia et accusatorem habebit et confitentem reum.

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