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were those magazines of corn, by seizing which Alaric (A.D. 409) compelled Rome to surrender (Gibbon, c. 31 n. 86 seq. Tillemont Honore art. 36). Philostorg. XII 3 he seizes Portus, the chief naval station of Rome, encircled by three harbours and extending to the compass of a great city: here all the public corn was stored.' Gifford ‘My curiosity led me also to Ostia (1789) and I walked between the piers, now covered with grass. The land has gained considerably on the west as well as the east coast of Italy; the bottom of the old harbour, on which we now walk, is therefore much raised : yet the arms are still so high above it, as to intercept the view of the adjoining country. The extremities of the old arms towards the sea must have fallen in; for, in their present state, they are but short, and a sandy coast stretches out far beyond them.' Merivale ch. 49. E. H. Bunbury in dict. geogr. who gives a plan. Visconti escavazioni di Ostia (annali d. inst. 1857 281–340), and i monumenti del metroon ostiense (ib. 1868 362—413). Lanciani ricerche topogr. sulla città di Porto (ib. 1868 144—195 with tav. 49 of the monumenti). 0. Hirschfeld ròm. Verwaltungsgesch. 1 139—142. Marquardt röm. Staatsverw. 11 130 131. Lehmann Claudius Gotha 1858 199 (another great work of Cl., the emissary of the lacus Fucinus, was originally designed to feed the new canal). 250 251. Schiller Nero 136 n. 4, 483. 641. Marquardt v (2) 16—18.

MOLES 'moles carried out amidst enclosed seas.

76 TYRRHENAM V 96. PHARON VI 83. the lighthouse. Suet. DCass. Plin, cited 75. Plin. XXXVI $ 83. VFl. vıı 83–85 non ita Tyrrhenus stupet Ioniusque magister, i qui iam te, Tyberine, tuens clarumque serena | arce pharon.

RURSUM breakwaters stretching far into the sea, and then bending again towards the land. 78 NON sic Hor. c. IV 14 25.

79 MAGISTER dig. XIV 1 1 $ 1 magistrum navis accipere debemus, cui totius navis cura mandata est.

80 BAIANAE CUMBAE such as those which ply about in the harbour of Baiae III 4 n. XI 49 n. Plin. XIV § 61 fossa Neronis quam a Baiano lacu Ostiam usque navigabilem incohaverat. Prop. 1 11 9 10 atque utinam mage te remis confisa minutis | parvula Lucrina cymba moretur aqua. Mart. III 20 19 20 an aestuantes iam profectus ad Baias | piger Lucrino nauculatur in stagno. Hertzberg from this line infers that the harbour and moles spoken of are those of Baiae, joined with the Lucrine lagoon and Avernian lake by Augustus, to form the portus Iulius (Strab. 245. Suet. Aug. 16. DCass. XLVIII 50. Plin. xxxvi § 125 mare' Tyrrhenum a Lucrino molibus seclusum. Verg. g. II 160_4 Servius an memorem portus Lucrinoque addita claustra | atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor, Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso | Tyrrhenu sque fretis immittitur aestus Avernis ? Aen. Ix 707—9. Hor. a. p. 63–65. Prop. IV=111 18 1. cf. Vell. II 79 $ 2). But the distance of Baiae from Alba (the sublimis apex of 72), the lighthouse, and the short-lived fame of the portus Iulius (see Bunbury dict. geogr. Lucrinus) confirm the traditional interpretation. The interiora stagna are Trajan's inner basin. PERVIA in which pleasure-boats ride safe, to which even they find

81 GAUDENT Sen. ep. 78 14 quod acerbum fuit, rettulisse iucundum est: naturale est mali sui fine gaudere. Macrob. VII 2 § 9 seq. citing Eur. Andromeda fr. 15 Dind. ws nóú tou owdévta Meuvño dal tóvwr. Aristot, rhet, i il § 8, Sen. Hf. 660 661.

VERTICE RASO Lucian merc. cond. 1 many who had escaped the parasite's life of slavery (sat. v) told me the tale of

their way.

their adventures; I listened diligently as to the survivors of a shipwreck, saved by miracle, oιοί εισιν οι πρός τοίς ιεροίς έξυρημένοι τας κεφαλάς, συνάμα πολλοί τάς τρικυμίας και ζάλας και ακρωτήρια και εκβολάς και ιστού κλάσεις και πηδαλίων αποκαυλίσεις διεξιόντες κ.τ.λ. id. Hermotim. 86. Petron. 103 notavit sibi ad lunam tonsorem intempestivo inhaerentem ministerio, execratusque omen, quod imitaretur naufrago. rum ultimum votum. Artemidor. i 22 to seafaring men to dream that the head is shaven is a plain prognostic of shipwreck; vavayño avτες μέν γάρ ή εκ μεγάλης σωθέντες νόσου ξυρώνται οι άνθρωποι. Nonius p. 528 qui liberi fiebant, ea causa calvi erant, quod tempestatem servitutis videbantur effugere, ut naufragio liberati solent. anth. Ρal. VI 164 Γλαύκο και Νηρηί και Ινών Μελικέρτη και βυθία Κρονίδη και Σαμοθραξι θεοίς , σωθείς εκπελάγους Λουκίλλιος ώδε κέκαρμαι τάς τρίχας εκκεφαλής" άλλο γαρ ουδέν έχω. Dempster on Rosin 786 787 on the dedication of the hair.

83-92 Go then, boys; in all religious stillness dress the shrines with garlands, sprinkle the sacrificial knives with meal, deck out the soft hearth of turf. I will presently follow, and after duly performing the main sacrifice will return home, where the little images wax-polished welcome their tribute of slighter chaplets. Here I will propitiate my guardian Iuppiter, give frankincense to the Lares of my fathers and fling abroad all hues of violet. All is gay, the gate has raised long boughs on high, and keeps holiday with morning lamps.

83 LINGUISQUE ANIMISQUE FAVENTES eúpnuoûvtes Ov. f. 1 71 72 prospera lux oritur: linguisque animisque favete, I nunc dicenda bono sunt bona verba die. id. m. xv 677 deus est! deus est! linguis animisque favete. tr. v 5 5 6. Prop. V=IV 6 1. Tibull. II 2 1 2 Broukh. Hor. C. III 1 2. Aen. v 71 Servius. Plin. XXVIII § 11. Sen. vit. beat. 26 § 7 quoties mentio sacra litterarum intervenerit, favete linguis! hoc verbum non, ut plerique existimant, a favore [i.e. applause] trahitur : sed imperatur silentium, ut rite peragi possit sacrum nulla voce mala obstrepente. Stat. S. 11 7 19. Brisson. de form. 1 11 seq. Marquardt iv 465.

84 SERTA 91. 'festoons.' Aen. II 248 249 nos delubra deum...festa velamus fronde per urbem. ib. IV 457—9. Stat. s. III 3 23. IV 8 9. cod. Theod. xvi 10 12 pr. nullus omnino...Larem igne, mero genium, Penates odore veneratus, accendat lumina, imponat tura, serta suspendat. Rich.

FARRA INPONITE CULTRIS Luc. 1 609 610 Corte iam fundere Bacchum | coeperat obliquoque molas inducere cultro. Serv. Aen. II 133 sal et far quod dicitur mola salsa, qua et frons victimae et foci aspergebantur et cultri. Sen. Thyest. 688 tangensve fusa victimam culter mola. cf. Hor. S. 11 3 200. VM. 11 5 8 5.

85 MOLLIS FOCOS GLEBAMQUE VIRENTEM the three turf-altars 2. 94. Verg. eal. 8 64. Prop. v=IV 6 6. Ov. m. 111 751 of Perseus dis tribus ille focos totidem de caespite ponit. Here Iuv. to Iuppiter, Iuno, Minerva. cod. Theod. xvi 10 12 g 2 erecta effossis ara caespitibus.

86 QUOD PRAESTAT the nobler offerings 3—9.

87 CORONAS IX 137 138 o parvi nostrique Lares, quos ture minuto | aut farre et tenui soleo exorare corona. Cato r. r, 143 kalendis, idibus, nonis, festus dies cum erit, coronam in focum indat. per eosdem dies Lari familiari pro copia supplicet. Plaut. aul. 3. 383—5 on the marriage of a daughter. trin. 39 Larem corona nostram decorari volo, at a house-warming. merc. 834 seq. on a departure. Stich. 534 on a return. Hor. c. III 23 15 16. iv 11 7. Tibull. 1 10 15-30, where the


V. 8.



Lares are the guardians of homely virtues. 11 1 59 60. Ov. tr. v 5 10 et velet tepidos nexa corona focos. ib. III 13 15. Plin. XXI § 11. Minuc. Fel. 3 § 1. Preller röm. Myth.1 488---92. Henzen inscr. 5770a C. Salvius Entychus Lar(ibus) Cas(anicis) ob redit(um) Retinae Nep.

cf. Orelli 1600 votive inscr. to Silvanus pro salute et reditu L. Tursellii Maximi. Tert. de cor. 7. 88 FRAGILI SIMULACRA NITENTIA CERA Prud. C. Symm. i 203 204 saxa inlita ceris | viderat unguentoque Lares umescere nigros. Hor. epod. 2 66 renidentes Lares. Plin. XXXIII § 122 inlito (minio] solis atque lunae contactus inimicus. remedium, ut pariete siccato cera Punica cum oleo liquefacta candens saetis inducatur it. erumque admotis galea carbonibus inuratur ad sudorem usque, postea candelis subigatur ac deinde linteis puris, sicut et marmora nitescunt. „Vitruv. VII 9 § 3. The wax then, thus prepared, was used as a varnish. schol. 'incerata signa deorum.' Silvestri, because of fragili, understands by cera a wax figure of the Lar; but the hearth is no safe place for such a figure. ["Cannot fragili refer to the wax which first crumbles away and then melts with the fire, before it is fit to be applied in the way mentioned ?' H. A. J. M.] See Welcker in Müller Archäologie § 310 4, who cites yávwors (Plut. qu. Rom. 98) as the technical term for furbishing.

89 NOSTRUM the Iuppiter of my house (as Cicero had a household god, Minerva). PATERNIS familiaribus.

90 TURA 87 n. Plaut. aul. 23—25 the Lar familiaris says of the daughter of the house ea mihi cotidie | aut ture aut vino aut aliqui semper supplicat, / dat mihi

When Verres conveyed? Diana from Segesta, all the matrons and maidens of the town came together Cic. Verr. Iv § 77 unxisse unguentis, complesse coronis et floribus, ture, odoribus incensis usque ad agri fines prosecutas esse. Arn. VII 32 sed sit ut vultis honor in vino, sit in ture, immolatione et cacdibus hostiarum irae numinum offensionesque placentur. etiamne di sertis, coronis adficiuntur et floribus? Movers Phönizier 111 100 on the traffic. Marquardt v (2) 364.

VIOLAE Plin. XXI S 27 violis honos proximus [to lilies] earumque plura genera, purpureae luteae albae, viola is a diminutive of lov, and includes the stock matthiola incana and wallflower cheiranthus cheiri Hehn Kulturpfl.2 222.

91 EREXIT IANUA RAMOS x 65 n. Ov. m. IV 760. Luc. II 354 Corte. Stat. 8. 1 2 231 fronde virent postes, effulgent compita flammis. Namatian. I 423_5 festa dies pridemque meos dignata penates | poste coronato vota secunda colat. exornent virides communia gaudia rami. Apul. met. IV 26 Hildebrand domus tota lauris obsita, taedis lucida constrepebat hymenaeum. Tert. apol. 35 cur die laeto non laureis postes obum. bramus nec lucernis diem infringimus? id. idol. '12 'luceant' inquit (Matt. 5 16) opera vestra. at nunc lucent tabernae et ianuae nostrae : plures iam invenies ethnicorum fores sine lucernis et laureis quam Christianorum...... ergo' inquis' honor Dei est, lucernae pro foribus et laurus in postibus?......accendant igitur quotidie lucernas, quibus lux nulla est, affigant postibus lauros postmodum arsuras, quibus ignes templis renuntiasti, ne feceris templum ianuam tuam. minus dixi : si lupanaribus renuntiasti, ne indueris domi tuae faciem novi lupanaris. id. de cor. 13 fin. Claud. nupt. Hon, et Mar. 208. rapt. Pros. II 320. Prudent. c. Symm. 11 724—7. corp. iur. can. decr. 11 26 7 13 (from conc. Ix 858 Labbe) non licet iniquas observationes agere kalendarum et otiis vacare gentilibus, no

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que lauro aut viriditate arborum cingere domos: omnis enim haec observatio paganismi est.

92 OPERATUR schol. sacrificat.' Verg. g. 1 339 laetis operatus in herbis. Aen. III 136 conubiis arvisque novis operata iuventus, where Servius citing Iuv. perfecit sacrificia propter conubia et novas sedes. LUCERNIS Tert. supra. id. apol. 35 quam recentissimis et ramosissimis laureis postes praestruebant, quam elatissimis et clarissimis lucernis vestibula nebulabant. ib. 46 quis enim philosophum sacrificare aut deierare aut lucernas meridie vanas prostituere compellit? Epikt. diss. ΙΙ 17 38 37 38 τέκνον, αν. σωθής, αψω λύχνους" ταύτ' έστι τα του φιλοστοργου. μέγα σοι αγαθόν έσται σωθέντι τοιούτω και λύχνον άπτειν äčlov. ib. i 19 s 24 ‘has he been made tribune? all who meet him congratulate him ; one kisses his eyes, another his neck, the slaves his hands; when he comes home, he finds an illumination lúxvous ånTouévous.' Tac. 111 9 Lipsius. Plut. Cic. 22 g 3. Mart. x 6 4. Stat. s. III 5 62 and 70. Apul. met. XI 9. DCass. LXIII 4 § 1. 20 § 4. LXXIV 1 $ 4. Pacat. 37 fin. Greg. Naz. or. 5=4 (2 in Iul.) § 35 pr. Sozom. vi 2 g 15. Becker-Rein Gallus 1 129 130. Marquardt v (1) 245. (2) 238 239. Friedländer 113 283–5 on public illuminations. Forbiger 13 165.

93—130 Do not set down my zeal as counterfeit, Corvinus. Ca. tullus, for whose safety I rear three altars, has three heirs. On so barren a friend a sickly hen, even a quail, would be a bait wasted. With your Gallitta and your Pacius, your childless rich, it is another matter. Let them but begin to feel the heat, their whole porch is lined with votive tablets; men come forward to vow a hecatomb,-aye, of elephants, if they were not Caesar's drove, from the days of Hannibal and of Pyrrhus reserved to uses of state or war; so it is no fault of Hister's, if the 'ivory' is not led to the altars for Gallitta's health.-Another will offer his goodliest, his bondmen and bondwomen, even his own daughter in her prime, though no Diana will, as in the play, ransom his Iphigenia by a hind. My countryman for ever, say I: what is the Greek fleet of a thousand sail to a will? For if Pacius recover, entangled in the angler's weel, he may in a line make Pacuvius universal heir; no bad investment, you see, a daughter slain. Long live Pacuvius, even to Nestor's years ; let him pile up plunder like Nero's, gold on gold, mountains high; and loving none, let him by none be loved. 93 SUSPECTA 98 n.

III 129 n. v 98 n: x 202 n. XVI 56. Even Pliny could urge, as a reason for refusing a request ep. v 18 3 non esse satis honestum dare et locupleti et orbo. ib. IX 30 $ 1 laudas...Nonium tuum, quod sit liberalis in quosdam: et ipse laudo, si tamen non in hos solos. volo enim eum, qui sit vere liberalis, tribuere... amicis, sed amicis dico pauperibus. non ut isti, qui iis potissimum donant, qui donare maxime possunt. § 2 hos ego viscatis hamatisque muneribus non sua promere puto, sed aliena corripere. Tac. XI11 52 reus ilico defendi postulabat. valuitque pecuniosa orbitate et senecta, quam ultra vitam eorum producit, quorum ambitu evaserat. Amm. xxx 4 § 9 viduarum postes et orborum limina deterentes. Marquardt v (1) 73 74. Friedländer 14 394—400. 95 TRES HABET HEREDES v 137–145 n. IX 82—90 esp. 87-90 iura parentis habes, propter me scriberis heres, legatum omne capis, nec non et dulce caducum. Ī commoda praeterea iungentur multa caducis, / si numerum, si tres implevero. IS 96 AEGRAM ET CLAUDENTEM OCULOS Malachi 1 8. Meineke com.

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anon. fr. 41 τις ώδε μώρος και λίαν ανειμένος | εύπιστος ανδρών, όστις ελπίζει θεούς | οστών ασάρκων και χολής πυρουμένης, | ακαι κυσίν πεινώσιν ουχιβρώσιμα, | χαίρειν απαρχαις και γέρας λαχείν τόδε; Lucian Iupp. trag. 15 when the skipper Mnesitheos sacrificed tà owtýpla on his escape from a storm at Kaphareus, εκκαίδεκα θεούς εστιών άλεκτρυόνα μόνον κατέθυσε, γέροντα κακείνον ήδη και κορυζώντα. Τert. apol. 14 pr. non dico quales sitis in sacrificando, cum enecta et tabid osa et scabiosa quaeque mactatis, cum de opimis et integris supervacua quaeque truncatis, capitula et ungulas, quae domi quoque pueris vel canibus destinassetis. ib. 30 I offer to God opimam et maiorem hostiam quam ipse mandavit, orationem de carne pudica, de anima innocenti, de spiritu sancto profectam, non grana turis unius assis, Arabicae arboris lacrimas, nec duas meri guttas, nec sanguinem reprobi bovis mori optantis. Arnob. vii 16. The pious Xen, ordered an old horse to be fattened up before it was sacrificed anab. iv 5 & 35.

96 GALLINAM XIII 233 Laribus cristam promittere galli. INPENDAT Tert. idol. 6 immo tu colis, qui facis, ut coli possint. colis autem non spiritu vilissimi nidoris alicuius, sed tuo proprio, nec anima pecudis inpensa, sed anima tua.

97 STERILI VII 49 n.

Mart. x 18 nec vocat ad cenam Marius, nec munera mittit, | nec spondet, nec vult credere, sed nec habet. | turba tamen non dest, sterilem quae curet amicum. eheu, quam fatuae sunt tibi, Roma, togae!

VERUM a hen, did I say? No, etc. COTURNIX Varro r. r. 111 5 8 7 coturnices immani nuPlin, x 8 69 quails are fond of poisonous seeds, quam ob causam eas damnavere mensae, also because they alone, with man, are subject to epilepsy morbum despui suetum (above vıı 112 n.). On the quantity (o see Lachm. and Munro on Lucr. IV 641. Lachm. ib. i 360.

98 PATRE Plin. ep. VIII 18 § 1 cum Domitius Tullus longe melior apparuerit morte quam vita. 2 nam cum se captandum praebuisset, reliquit filiam heredem. § 3 ergo varii tota civitate sermones: alii fictum ingratum immemorem loquuntur seque ipsos, dum insectantur illum, turpissimis confessionibus produnt, ut qui de patre avo proavo, quasi de orbo querantur. Stat. s. IV 7 33--40 orbitas omni fugienda nisu, I quam premit votis inimicus heres, | optimo poscens (pudet heu) propinquum | funus amico. / orbitas nullo tumulata fletu:/ stat domo capta cupidus superstes | immi. nens leti spoliis, et ipsum computat ignem. Lucian dial. mort. 6 $ 3.

CADET 113. Mart. cited 100. Hor. c. III 18 5 si tener pleno cadit haedus anno.

CALOREM Nonius p. 46 febris proprietatem... Varro Andabatis aperiendam putat; idque alterum appellamus a calendo calorem, alterum a fervore febrim. cf. Lips. epist. quaest. II 6. Tibull. iv 11 2.

99 COEPIT sing. verb and plural orbi ; so Caes. b. C. 1 2 $ 7 intercedit M. Antonius, (. Cassius, tribuni plebis. [Plat.] Theag. 1296. cf. Cic. Verr. Iv § 92 Zumpt. Liv. XXII 47 § 3 in directum utrinque nitentes...vir virum amplexus detrahebat equo. xxv 19 S 6.

GALLITTA II 68 Pollittas. anth. Pal. vii 334 16 Ilwiittns. CIG 3098 IwXittms. 0. Jahn specim. epigraph. 90. It is a pet name. 0. Jahn Hermes 111 190 191 gives evidence for Bonitta, Iulitta, Livitta, Pollitta (and Pollittianus), and Salvitto; observing that these names seem not to have been used before the imperial times. For Gallitta he cites Plin. ep. vi 31 § 4. guida al mus. di Bologna p. 59 (Fabretti p. 172. 332) the daughter of Aur. Gallus. Gruter 75 5 Flavia Gallita. IRN 346 Fundania Gallitando

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