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of heaven. Liv. XXVII 37 B.C. 207 the temple of Iuno Regina on the Aventine was struck by lightning; boves feminae albae duae porta Car. mentali in urbem ductae. Vopisc. Florian. 6 fin. the senators were 80 overjoyed, ut in domibus suis omnes albas hostias caederent...convivia sumptuosiora praevenirent. REGINAE a title under which Iuno was worshipt among the Etruscans, at Ardea, Lanuvium, Pisaurum etc. At Rome the Capitoline Iuno is generally called Regina in inscriptions (Orelli ind.) and documents. Preller röm. Myth. 253. Temples were built in honour of Iuno Regina by Camillus on the Aventine and by M. Aemilius Lepidus B.C. 179 (Liv. V 22 $$ 4. 7. 23 & 7. XXXIX 2 g 11). Ov. f. vi 37 cur igitur regina vocor? Varr. 1. 1. v § 67. Serv. Aen. 1 8. VIII 84. Martian, Capella I § 40 Kopp.

DUCIMUS 112. x 65. 4 GORGONE abl. instr. As Pallas bore the Gorgon's head on her shield, Gorgo is used for the shield. Aen. 11 616 of Pallas limbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva [effulgent with the border and terrible with the Gorgon': i.e. wearing the aegis, with its golden fringes and border, and the Γοργείη κεφαλή δεινοίο πελώρου in the centre. H. A. J. M.]. Prop. v=IV 9 58 fortia dum posita Gorgone membra lavat. Ov, m. v 230 of Perseus in partem Phorcynida transtulit illam. Claud. gigantom. 91 92 Tritonia virgo | prosilit ostendens rutila cum Gorgone pectus. id. in Rufin. I 280 rigida cum Gorgone Perseus. cf. sat. vir 130 rhi. nocerote. In Ov. m. VII 151 two mss. have arietis aurei for the golden fleece. Claud. in Eutr. II 387 non septem vasto quatiens umbone iu. vencos (hides). Haupt opusc. 11 168 169.

5 Serv. Aen, II 134. Iuv. acknowledged the claims of his religion 111 320 n.

6 TARPEIO VI 47 48. to Iuppiter, Iuno and Minerva belonged separate cellae in the Capitoline temple (Liv. VI 29 § 9. Becker röm. Alterth. I 397. Burn Rome and Campagna 189 190. Schwegler 1 696– 9): hence they are frequently invoked together. Liv. III 17 g 3 Iuppiter optimus maximus Iunoque regina et Minerva aliique di deaeque obsidentur. VM. v 10 8 2 Iovem optimum maximum Iunonemque Reginam et Minervam precatus sum.

Sil. x 433–6 Drakenb. Liv. vị 16 § 2. XXII 188 17 18. Serv. Aen. Il 225. Lact. i 11 g 39. Martian. Cap. 1 § 39 Kopp. Some supposed them to be the Penates Arn. III 40. Macrob. III 4 $ 8. cf. Serv. Aen. III 12.

FRONTEMQUE CORUSCAT Heins. and Burman on Ov. m. IV 493 cite exx, of corusco mucronem, hastam, telum, ferrum.

7 VITULUS Hor. c. 1 36 2. IV 254–60. TEMPLIS MATURUS VIII 169 maturus bello.

8 MERO Aen. IV 59–61 Iunoni...ipsa tenens dextra pateram pulcherrima Dido | candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit." vi 244 Servius. Ov. met. VII 594.

UBERA MATRIS Hor. C. IV 2 54–56 me tener solvet vitulus, relicta | matre qui largis iuvenescit herbis in mea vota.

9 VEXAT NASCENTI ROBORA CORNU Verg. g. 111 232 233 irasci in cornua discit | arboris obnixus trunco. id. ecl. 3 87. Hor. C. III 13 4-8. Galen. de usu partium 1 3 (III 6 K) had noticed a calf itting (Kuplttovta) before his horns had grown.

10 Hor. C. II 17 30–32. III 23 9–20. ADFECTIBUS a silver age use Plin. ep. 11 1 8 8 of Verginius Rufus ille mihi tutor relictus adfectum parentis exhibuit. IV 19 1 nec tantum amitae ei adfectum verum etiam patris amissi repraesentes. VIII 11 § 1 adfec. tum tuum erga fratris filiam...etiam materna indulgentia molliorem. 1x 13 & 16 Döring. x 4=3 & 6.

11 HISPULLA VI 74 cf. u 50 Hispo. 8o Cato Catullus, Maro Marullus, homo homullus

(Corssen Aussprache 112 149).

13 CLITUMNI the Clitumnus (Clitunno) falls near Mevania in Umbria (Bevagna) into the Tinia (Timia), a tributary of the Tiber Verg. g. II 146—8 Servius hinc albi, Clitumne, greges et maxima taurus | victima saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro | Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos. Prop. III=11 19 25 26. Colum. III 8 § 3 armentis sublimibus insignis Merania est. Luc. 1 473. Stat. s. I 4 129. Sil. IV 547–8. VI 647 648. VIII 452—3. Plin. ep. VIII 8 highly extols the beauty of its banks and the clearness of its waters. cf. Suet. Cal. 43. Claud. Vi cons. Hon. 506 507. epigr. 4 3 4. Addison works 1 410 Bohn. Childe Harold iv 66–68. PASCUA 40.

SANGUIS the blood and neck would go to the altar, i.e. the ox chosen for his fulness of blood (cf. Verg. g. III 492) and thick neck. Cf. infra 112 ebur. XIV 10 gula. x 238 239 halitus oris, | quod steterat multis in carcere fornicis annis.

14 A GRANDI FERIENDA MINISTRO gerundives (in Gr. perf. pass.) usually take dat. of agent; they take abl. with ab (únò with gen.) however sometimes for perspicuity Cic. leg. agr. 2 § 95 venerandos a nobis. de imp. Pomp. § 6 Halm. esp. p. Caecina § 33 Jordan. ep. fam. 19 § 17. Ov. m. 11 431. Roby 11 pref, Lxxv.

GRANDI VII 210 n. FERIENDA the technical term Mühlmann col. 191. Ov. f. iv 415 apta iugo cervix non est ferienda securi.

MINISTRO popa Suet. Cal. 32 admota altaribus victima succinctus poparum habitu elato alte malleo cultrarium mactavit.

16 AMICI Catullus 29. 93. 17–61 Catullus has escaped not only the risks of the waves but thunderbolts; darkness overcast the heaven with one cloud and a suaden flash caught the yard-arms; every man thought himself struck, and stunned with the shock counted blazing shrouds worse than any shipwreck. No terror by which poets add awe to a storm was wanting there. Hear another form of danger, and pity once more; though it is true what remains, if terrible, is but part and parcel of the same mischance, known to many, to which numerous temples by their votive tablets bear witness. Who knows not that painters look to Isis for their bread? The hold now half filled, as the billows rocked the ship, and the hoary master's skill found no help for the tottering tree, he compounded with the wind by lightening the vessel; as the beaver ransoms his life by biting off the drug for which he is hunted. Over with all that's mine' cried Catullus, readily offering purple robes fit for fops like Maecenas, Spanish woollens of native dye, chargers engraved by Parthenius, a bowl that holds a draught for Pholus or for Fuscus' wife, baskets, a thousand plates, embossed goblets in which Philip of Macedon had caroused. Who else the wide world over would, to save life, cast away his all ? Most of the cargo is thrown out without relief; as a last resort the master fells the mast to ease the vessel by crippling her to a hulk. Go now, commit your life to the winds, trust a drest plank, and live four, or at most seven, fingers' breadth from death: and with bread-sack and wine-flagons, be sure to pack up axes against storms.

17–19 ANTEMNAS dig. XIV 2 6 navis adversa tempestate depressa ictu fulminis deustis armamentis et arbore [Iuv. 32] et antemna. 17 ET X 354 n.

19 NUBE UNA Corte on Luc. VI 346.

21 ATTONITUS Sen. n. q. 11 27 g 3 of the thunder-clap hic proprie fragor dicitur, subitus et vehemens, quo edito concidunt homines et exanimantur, quidam vero vivi stupent et in totum sibi excidunt, quos vocamus adtonitos, quorum mentes sonus ille caelestis loco pepulit.

23 TALIA TAM inIUV. II.

15

verted comparison as in Thuc. IV 64 g 1. VI 78 $ 3. SI QUANDO [' all things

are such and as bad in a poet's storm (but nowhere else out of poetry).' H. A. J. M.].

23 24 POETICA TEMPESTAS Lucian quom. hist. conscr. 45 TOINTIKOÙ Tivos á vélov ÊT OUpráoovtos árátia. Grang. cites Hom. Od. v IX XII. Aen, I.

Ov. m. XI 478–565. tr. I 2. Luc. v. Stat. Th. V. VFI. I. Badham Tac. II 23.

24-29 K. F. Hermann and Lupus (24) cite exx. of like verbosity in detail, which injures the general effect e.g. I 40–44. 137 138. II 102—9. 143—8. III 12-20. 172-9. IV 48—56, 95—103. v 19—23. VII 189—202. VIII 54 55. 100—124. IX 79 80. x 95—98. XII 48 49. 57–61. 76—79. 106-110. XIII 2-4. 42–52. 130_4. 187–192. 199–208. xv 110—2.

25 Poeta, tanquam nimis graviter miserere iterum dixerit, haec, quae additurus est, de bonorum iactura, dira illa quidem ait esse, sed tamen partem et quasi appendicem eiusdem sortis, naufragii et periculi maritimi, multis notam. MADVIG. QUAMQUAM SINT XI 205 n.

27 VOTIVA TABELLA XIV 302 n. Hor. c. 1 5 13-16 me tabula sacer votiva paries indicat uvida | suspendisse potenti*| vestimenta maris deo. id. S. II 1 33 34 votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella | vita senis. Cic. n. d. III § 89 Diagoras the atheist, when asked tu qui deos putas humana neglegere, nonne animadvertis ex tot tabulis pictis, quam multi votis vim tempestatis effugerint in portumque salvi pervenerint? replied illi enim nusquam picti sunt, qui naufragia fecerunt in marique perierunt. Others (DL. VI 859) ascribed the saying to Diogenes. Ambrose de excessu Satyri i 17 attributes his brother's escape from shipwreck to his vows apud sanctum martyrem Laurentium. Aen. XII 768 769. Plut. Mar. 40 init. A like tablet was offered in other cases Apul. met. Vi 29 Hildebrand: to Aesculapius Aristid. 11 5416 Jebb. Verg. catal. 6 5 6 picta tua templa tabella ornabo. 28 PICTORES Sen. contr. 34 § 1 nemo, ut naufragium pingeret, mersit hominem.

ISIDE (with the form cf. vi 270 and xv 163 tigride. Servius Aen. x 166. Neue 12 142–146). VI 489. 526–534. IX 22. XIII 93. Preller röm. Myth.' 723—733. Marquardt iv 85–89. 94 95. When Tibullus went on a voyage Delia made a vow to Isis 1 3 23. 27 28 Broukh. quid tua nunc Isis mihi, Delia ?... | nunc, dea, nunc succurre mihi : nam posse mederi | picta docet templis multa tabella tuis. Stat. S. 111 2 103. anth. Pal. VI 231 Alyú TOU μεδέουσα μελαμβώλου, λινόπεπλε | δαίμον... | ει δ' ως εκ πελάγους ερρύσαο Δαμιν, άνασσα, | κεκ πενίης, θύσει χρυσόκερων κεμάδα. Zeus commissions Hermes (Lucian dial. deor, 3 fin.) to take Io across seas into Egypt and make her into Isis: • let her be a goddess of that country kai tous ávéMOUS επιπεμπέτω και σωζέτω τους πλέοντας.’ Apul. met. XI 5. Hygin. fab. 27. See inscriptions to Isis (sometimes salutaris) ex voto Orelli 1871 seq. 2494. Marquardt iv 94—96. Friedländer 111 147 148. At Salzburg I have seen an altar hung with wax models of legs, arms etc. and inscriptions hilf, Maria! Maria hat geholfen, ascribing cures to the Virgin. PASCI III 141 n. VII 93. IX 136.

30 ALVEUS Verg. Prop. Ov. (in Forcellini). Amm. XXIV 4 8 8 arborum cavatarum. XXXI 4 5 cavatis arborum alveis.

ET IAM in 6th foot also vi 574. IX 75. XIII 9. XV 62–64 ergo acrior impetus et iam | saxa inclinatis per humum quaesita lacertis | incipiunt torquere. cf. v 47 quattuor ac iam.

32 ARBORI Lachmann's conjecture for arboris. When now, the ship rolling from side to side, the helmsman could not save the tottering mast.' Lupus 7 objects that such a hiatus is unexampled in Iuy. He reads arboris and cum ferret; making the construction cum alveus foret plenus fluctu et arboris incertae, a hull of tottering mast,' gen. qual. cf. Forcellini. Scheller. Ov. m. XI 476. 551. Luc. VIII 179 descendit ab arbore summa. Plin. ep. IX 26 § 4.

33 RECTORIS schol. gubernatoris.' Aen, v 161. Ov. m. XI 492 493 ipse pavet nec se, qui sit status, ipse fatetur | scire ratis rector, nec quid iubeatve vetetve. Censor, de die nat. 12 g 3.

DECIDERE the technical term for a bankrupt's composition, as for other settlements: here, to compound for life with loss of cargo. Mart. ix 3 5 6 cited xı 131 n. Sen. cons. Polyb. 12 (=30 fin.) $ 1 pro horum omnium salute hac tecum portione fortuna deci. dit. dig. Il 14 44 tutor cum plerisque creditoribus decidit, ut certam portionem acciperent. ib. vi 146 transegisse enim cum eo et decidisse videor eo pretio, quod ipse constituit.

IACTU dig XIV 2 de lege Rhodia de iactu. acts 27 38 Wetstein.

34 CASTORA schol. ‘castorem bebrum [fibrum, Germ. biber, our beaver] dicit, qui cum viderit se obsideri et non posse evadere, testiculos suos morsu avulsos proicit: intellegit enim ob hanc rem posse capi.' Cic. p. Scaur. 2 § 7 (cf. Beier's note) redimunt se ea parte cor, poris, propter quam maxime expetuntur. [Ov.] nux 164—6 [utinam] possem fructus excutere ipsa meos. I sic ubi detracta est a te tibi causa pericli, ' quod superest'tutum, Pontice castor, habes. Sil. xv 486—490 tenuitque moratas [praeda] | a caede, ut Liby. cus ductor providerat, iras. | fluminei veluti deprensus gurgitis undis avulsa parte inguinibus causaque pericli enatat intento praedae fiber avius hosti. Ammian. XVII 5 & 7 letter of Sapor king of kings to Constantius : resign Armenia and Mesopotamia, that you may safely enjoy the rest of your empire, remembering that physicians amputate limbs to save the body; hocque bestias factitare: quae cum advertant cur maximo opere capiantur, illud propria sponte amit. tunt ut vivere deinde possint in pavide, schol. Nikand, ther. 565. alex. 307. Tert. adv. Marc, i 1 quis enim tam castrator carnis castor quam qui nuptias abstulit? (a passage which countenances Hertzberg's explanation; an etymological myth). Aesop. fab. 226 (p. 93 Lips. 1810). Phaedr. app. 28. Apul. met. 1 9. Ariosto XXVII 57. Barth on Gul. Brito Philippis 11 183. The fable was believed by Plin. VIII § 109. cf. XXXVII § 82 cum etiam ferae abrosa parte corporis propter quam periclitari se sciant relicta redimere se credantur. Serv. georg. 1 58. Apul. met. 1 9; rejected by Sestius ap. Plin. XXXII § 26 and Dioscorid. i 26. See Alciat. embl. 153 with n. (Padua 1621 pp. 651–4). Whitney's emblems p. 35. Sir T. Browne vulgar errors b. III c. 4. Z. Grey's n. on Hudibras 1 2 34. Io. Jonston de quadrup. Frankf. 1650—3. p. 148. Fabricius bibliotheca Graeca ed. vet. IV 334. 341. H. E. Weber Beiträge zur Anatomie u. Physiologie des Bibers (in the Berichte üb. d. Verhandl. d. kön. süchs. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. zu Leipzig II 1848 p. 185 seq.) gives an account of his dissection of several beavers. Cuvier (Pline vi 448) · Le castoreum ne consiste point dans les testicules du castor; c'est une substance huileuse et fétide qui naît dans une glande adhérente au prépuce. Lorsque les conduits de cette glande sont gorgés du castoreum, il est possible que l'animal s’en debarrasse en se frottant contre des pierres ou des troncs d'arbres;' which may be the origin of the fable. The beaver seems not to have been hunted for its fur.

35 DAMNO Phaedr. 111 11 3 a eunuch had a dispute cum quodam improbo, who, among other taunts, damnum insectutus est amissi roboris. Mart. ix 7 5 viri.

litatis damna maeret ereptae. [Quintil.] decl. 5 § 12 dam na corporum.

36 TESTICULI ADEO the only example in Iur. of hiatus in this place. L. Müller de re metr. 310 rejects ito

INTELLEGIT Plin. VIII S 7 of elephants praedam ipsiin se expetendam sciunt solam esse in armis suis, quae Iuba cornua appellat, Herodotus tanto antiquior et consuetudo melius dentes. quamobrem deciduos casu aliquo vel senecta defodiunt. § 8 circumventique a venantibus primos constituunt quibus sunt minimi, ne tanti proelium putetur, postea fessi inpactos arbori frangunt praedaque se redimunt. cf. what he says of feles x 8 202. Ael. n. a. vi 34 the beaver knows the hunters' motive kal Élkuyas kal dakòv απέκοψε τους εαυτού όρχεις και προσέρριψεν αυτοίς, like a prudent man fallen among robbers, who redeems his life by a ransom. If hunted a second time, he rears και επιδείξας ότι της αυτών σπουδής ούκ έχει την υπόθεσιν, του περαιτέρω καμάτου παρέλυσε τους θηρατάς. In this way they often gull the hunters: hiding το σπουδαζόμενον μέρος πάνυ σοφώς και πανούργως εξηπάτησαν, ώς ουκ έχοντες α κρύψαντες είχον. This legend may have arisen from a peculiar property of the beaver: The animal has the power of retracting its testicles into the abdomen, where they abide as å rule, except in the season of sexual excitement. It never mutilates itself' (A. H. Garrod). Fr. Jacobs cites M. Glycas ann. 55d. and the collections of Allatius on Eustath. hexa. p. 189. intellegere (cf. intellegens, “a connoisseur') connotes technical knowledge, here a druggist's. see lexx, esp. Mühlmann 1221–2. Cic. Verr. IV § 33 ego antea, tametsi hoc nescio quid nugatorium sciebam esse, ista intellegere, tamen mirari solebam istum in his ipsis rebus aliquem sensum habere......ita studiosus est huius praeclarae existimationis, ut putetur in hisce rebus intellegens esse. Ov.m. XIII 295 arma. Plin. ep. I 10 SS 3 4 nunc illas (the virtues of Euphrates) magis miror, quia magis intellego. quamquam ne nunc quidem satis intellego. ut enim de pictore sculptore fictore nisi artifex iudicare, ita nisi sapiens non potest perspicere sapientem. III 6 § 1. Plin. XXXV SS 88. 137. Vell. cited xı 100.

38 VESTEM collective Apul. met. XI 28 veste ipsa mea quamvis parvula distracta sufficientem corrasi summulam.

39 PURPUREAM I 27 n. MAECENATIBUS I 66 n. Mart. x 73 244 he had received as a present Ausoniae dona superba togae, | qua non Fabricius, sed vellet Apicius uti, | vellet Maecenas Caesarianus eques. Sen. ep. 92 g 35 diserte Maecenas ait: nec tumulum curo : sepelit natura relictos. alte cinctum putes dixisse. habuit enim ingenium et grande et virile, nisi illud secunda discinxissent. comment. on Hor. s. 1 2 25. Pedo Albin. in ob. Maec. 21. 25 26 (Wernsd. p. l. min. 11 213 Lem.) quod discinctus eras, animo quoque, carpitur unum:/ invide, quid tandem tunicae nocuere solutae ? | aut tibi ventosi quid nocuere sinus ? 41 PECUS 'other attire, dyed on the sheep's back by the nature of the herbage. Ipsum vestium pecus the very sheep that yield the cloth. The pastures are the banks of the Baetis (Guadalquivir). Plin. VIII $ 191 quas nativas [oves] appellant, aliquot modis Hispania, nigri velleris praecipuas habet Pollentia...iam Asia rutili... item Baetica. Mart. 1 96 5 8 baeticatus...nativa laudet. XIV 133 'lacernae Baeticae' non est lana mihi mendax, nec mutor aeno; / sic placeant Tyriae; me mea tinxit ovis. id. v 37 7 quae crine vicit Baetici gregis vellus. VIII 28 5 6 an Tartessiacus stabuli nutritor Hiberi | Baetis in Hesperia te quoque lavit ove? IX 61 3—5 qua dives placidum Cor

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