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auto's vův tporayoperovol) was favoured by Caligula (DCass. Lix 14), Nero (id. LXIII 6 ήρμήλατησε την τε στολήν την πράσινον ενδεδυμένος και το kpávos vioXcKÒV Tepikel uevos), Verus (Capitot. 4), Commodus (DCass. LXXII 17. LXXIII 4), Heliogabalus (id. LXXIX 14 & 1). Each party had its supporters among the spectators (id. LXXVIII 8), and the contests between the factions often ended in bloodshed (thus Apollonius of Tyana rebuking the Alexandrians Philostr. v 26 8 2 υπέρ δ' ίππων ενταύθα γυμνά μεν υμίν επ' αλλήλοις ξίφη, βολαι δ' έτοιμοι λίθων. Again at Antioch in Caligula's days between blues and greens Malal. p. 244 Bonn. The most memorable instance is the Nika riot at Constantinople A.D. 532, well described by Gibbon, c. 40 2). See Chrysost. de Lazaro concio 7 (1 790 seq.) against frequenters of the circus. Orelli inscr. 2593 seq. Bulenger de circo 47–49. Panvin, 1 10. Wilken über die Partheyen der Rennbahn Berlin 1829 4to. (Akad.) Alfr. Rambaud de Byzantino hippodromo et circensibus factionibus. Paris Franck 1870.

EVENTUM Amm. xiv 6 g 26 est admodum mirum videre plebem innumeram mentibus ardore quodam infuso cum dimicationum curulium eventu pendentem. haec similiaque memorabile nihil vel serium agi Romae permittunt. Plin, x § 71 Caecina, owner of some chariots, sent to his friends news of his victory by swallows inlito victoriae colore.

VIRIDIS Caligula was so devoted to this colour that he dined in the green stable Suet. Cal. 55. · Nero's talk from his boyhood ran chiefly on the circensian games ; lamenting among his schoolfellows an accident to a green charioteer, who was dragged on the ground, he was reproved by his paedagogus ; on which (Suet. 22) de Hectore se loqui ementitus est. DCass. LXI 6 SS 1–3. Mart. also cheered the Greens xi 33 saepius ad palmam prasinus post fata Neronis i pervenit et victor praemia plura refert. I i nunc, bivor edax, dic te cessisse Neroni; | vicit nimirum non Nero, sed prasinus. cf. vi 46. Friedländer 11° 310.

PANNI Plin. ep. ix 6 (see n. on 53) si tamen aut velocitate equorum aut hominum arte traherentur, esset ratio non nulla : nunc favent panno, pannum amant, et si in ipso cursu medioque certamine hic color illuc, ille huc transferatur, studium favorque transibit, et repente agitatores illos, equos illos, quos procul noscitant, quorum clamitant nomina, relinquent.. tanta gratia, tanta auctoritas in una vilissima tunica.

199 si DEFICERET schol. si vinceretur prasinus.' Amm. XXVIII 4 § 29 eisque templum et habitaculum et contio et cupitorum spes omnis circus est maximus. § 30 inter quos hi, qui ad satietatem vixerunt, potiores auctori. tate longaeva, per canos et rugas clamitant saepe, rem publicam stare non posse, si futura concertatione, quem quisque vindicat, carceribus non exsiluerit princeps. § 31 on the morning of the race before daybreak effusius omnes festinant praecipites ut velocitate currus ipsos anteeant certaturos : super quorum eventu discissi votorum studiis anzii plurimi agunt pervigiles noctes. Cassiod. var. III 51 transit prasinus, pars populi maeret: praecedit venetus, et potior pars civitatis affligitur. nihil proficientes ferventer insultant, nihil patientes graviter vulnerantur, et ad inanes contentiones sic descenditur, tamquam de statu periclitantis patriae laboretur.

200 CANNARUM IN PULVERE II 155. VII 163 n. 165 n. Liv. XXII 43 SS 10 11 Hannibal castra posuerat aversa a Vulturno vento, qui campis torridis siccitate nubes pulveris vehit. id cum ipsis castris percommodum fuit, tum salutare praecipue erat, cum aciem dirigerent, ipsi aversi, terga tantum afflante vento, in occaecatum pulvere offuso hostem pugnaturi, etc, ib. 46 § 9 ventus (Vulturnum incolae regionis vocant)

SPECTENT IUVENES

race,

adversus Romanis coortus multo pulvere in ipsa ora volvendo prospectum ademit. Sil. 1x 491. cf. Sen. n. q. v 16 S 4. Flor. 1 22=11 6 § 16. Plut. Fab. 16 § 1. App. VII 20. On the Roman loss at Cannae see Liv. ib. 49. 50 SS 1 2 pugna Cannensis, Aliensi cladi nobilitate par ....strage exercitus gravior foediorque. On the panic at Rome ib. 53 (a plot formed by some nobles to desert Italy). 54 g 8 numquam salva urbe tantum pavoris tumultusque intra moenia Romana fuit. itaque succumbam oneri neque aggrediar narrare,quae edissertando minora vero fecero.

201 CONSULIBUS B.C. 216 L. Aemilius Paullus, who fell in the battle; C. Terentius Varro, who received the thanks of the senate for not having despaired of the state. Chrys. de Anna serm. 4 (iv 730d) ávOpwTol yeynpakótes véwv akuagóvtwV σφοδρότερον εκεί τρέχουσι, την πολιάν καταισχύνοντες, την ηλικίαν παραδειγματίζοντες, το γήρας αυτό καταγέλαστον ποιoύντες. cf. 730°-7322.

202 SPONSIO Mart. xi 1 15 16 cum sponsio fabulaeque lassae | de Scorpo fuerint et Incitato. Tertull. (supra 193 n.). Ov. a. a. i 167 168: even in the Il. (XXIII 485) a wager is laid on the issue of a

Plin. XXXIU § 28 consuetudo vulgi ad sponsiones etiamnum anulo exiliente. Trimalchio's cook, being invited to take his place at table, Petr. 70 fin. continuo Ephesum tragoedum coepit sponsione provocare, si prasinus proximis circensibus primam palmam.' Macrob. Sat. II 13=III 17 SS 15 16 Cleopatra uxor, quae vinci a Romanis nec luxuria dignaretur, sponsione provocavit insumere se posse in unam cenam sestertium centies. id mirum Antonio visum, nec moratus spon. sione contendit, dignus sculna Munatio Planco qui tam honesti certaminis arbiter electus est. cf. Plin. Ix $ 120. CULTAE Tert. spect. 25 pudicitiam ediscet attonitus in mimos ? immo in omni spectaculo nullum magis scandalum occurret, quam ipse ille muli. erum et virorum accuratior cultus. ipsa consensio, ipsa in favoribus aut conspiratio aut dissensio inter se de commercio scintillas libidinum confla. bellant.

ADSEDISSE cf. Hor. C. IV 1 29 seq. nec opes... nec certare iuvat.

PUELLAE Ov, amor. III 2 65-82. a. a. I 135 seq. esp. cuius equi veniant, facito studiose requiras; 1 nec mora ; quisquis crit, cui favet illa, fave. tr. 11 283 284 tollatur circus! non tuta licentia circi est : | hic sedet ignoto iuncta puella viro. cf. the precautions of Augustus Suet. 44. Procop. bell. Pers. I 24. 203-8 let our wrinkled skin drink in spring's warm sun, 'and fly the (cumbrous and formal] toga. Already, though it wants a full hour of noon, you may go to the bath, nor blush for the loss of a day. You could not live thus five days running, for even such delights pall. 'Tis sparing indulgence must give pleasures their zest. 203 BIBAT VERNUM CUTICULA SOLEM VII 105 n. 173 n. Mart. x 12 7 3 precor et totos avida cute combibe soles. Pers. Iv 18 assiduo curata cuticula sole. ib. 33 si unctus cesses et figas in cute solem. Hor. ep. 1 20 24 Obbar. The Romans, esp. the elderly (hence Pers. v 179 aprici senes) and men of leisure (Sen. brev. vit. 13 § 1 persequi singulos longum est, quorum aut latrunculi aut pila aut excoquendi in sole corporis cura consumpsere vitam) walked (Plin. cited 204 n.) or basked (id. ep. 111 5 & 10 si quid otii, iacebat in sole. vi 16 § 5 usus ille sole, mox frigida, gustaverat iacens studebatque) in the sun after rubbing their bodies with oil. Cic. Att. XII 6 § 2 pro isto asso sole, quo tu abusus es in nostro pratulo, a te nitidum solem unctumque repetemus. The process was called insolatio, apricatio, ndiwors, and solaria

were appropriated to this use. Arn. 19 quid si sole aliquis torrere se suetus et adquirere corpori siccitatem,..conqueratur frequentissimis nubilis iucunditatem serenitatis ablatam ? numquid ideo dicenda sunt nubila inimica obductione pendere, quia libidini non permittitur otiose rutilare se flammis et causas potionibus praeparare? Ast on Plat. Phaedr. p. 262 seq.

BIBAT Quintil. XI 3 & 23 fuligo lucubrationum bibenda.

VERNUM the April sun 193.

CONTRACTA shrunk, Iuv. being about 70 years of age.

CUTICULA the i is long also in canicula, clavicula, craticula L. Müller de re metr. 353.

204 EFFUGIATQUE TOGAM III 172 n. lunata nusquam pellis, et nusquam toga, thus Mart. (1 49 31) recommends the life in his native Spain. So xi 18 17 ignota est toga. Spart. Hadr. 22 senatores et equites Romanos semper in publico togatos esse iussit, nisi si a cena reverterentur. On public occasions, as in the circus, the toga was full dress Suet. Aug. 40 negotium aedilibus dedit, ne quem posthac paterentur in foro circove nisi positis lacernis togatum consistere. Lampr. Comm. 16 contra consuetudinem paenulatos iussit spectatores, non togatos ad munus convenire; this order (the paenula being dark and worn by mourners) passed for an omen of the emperor's death. Friedländer II? 274.

BALNEA III 262 263. VI 419. Artemid. 1 64 είτα δή λούονται μέλλοντες δειπνήσεις και εστι νύν το βαλανείον ουδέν άλλο η οδός επί τροφήν. Cato bathed and supped as usual before his nobile letum App. b. C. II 98. Apul. met. viII 29. x 15. The usual time of bathing was the eighth hour Mart. xi 52 3. Plin. ep. III 1 § 8 ubi hora balnei nuntiata est, est autem hieme nona, aestate octava, in sole, si caret vento, ambulat nudus. Spartian. Hadr. 22 ante octavam horam in publico neminem nisi aegrum lavari passus est. The tenth hour is also named as late Mart. III 36 5. X 70 13. cf. VII 51 11. Some bathed at the sixth hour ib. 48 144 nuntiat octavam Phariae sua turba iuvencae 1 ... temperat haec thermas, nimios prior hora vapores | halat et immodico sexta Nerone calet. Spartian. Pescenn. 3 a letter of Severus: tribuni medio die lavant, pro tricliniis popinas habent, pro cubiculis meritoria. saltant, bibunt, cantant et mensuras conviviorum vocant hoc sine mensura potare. Vitruv. v 10 $ 1 maxime tempus lavandi a meridiano ad vesperum est constitutum. Tert, apol. 42 non lavor diluculo saturnalibus, ne et noctem et diem perdam, attamen lavor honesta hora et salubri, quae mihi et calorem et sanguinem servet; rigere et pallere post lavacrum mortuus possum. Here Iuv. proposes to bathe at once, though it wants a whole hour of noon Iuv. 1 49 n. 143 n. Lips. exc. on Tac. XIV 2. Marquardt v (1) 277 278. Salm, on Vopisc. Florian. 6 (11 631–4). Becker Gallus sc. 7 exc. 1.

205 FRONTE XIII 242. Pers. v 103 104 exclamet Melicerta perisse | frontem de rebus.

QUAMQUAM SUPERSIT 11 4 5. VI 88. 199. vii 15. x 34 n. XII 25. XIII 172. xv 30; so generally in Tac.

SOLIDA HORA Hor. c. 1 1 20 partem solido demere de die. See the lexx.

206 QUINQUE DIEBUS Hor. s. 1 3 16.

208 VOLUPTATES COMMENDAT RARIOR USUS seasons,' "enhances,' sets off. Phaedr. 11 pr. 7 a jest recommendatur, non auctoris nomine. Plin. ep. 1 2 8 6 sed sane blandiantur, dum per hoc mendacium nobis studia nostra commendent. VII 3 § 3 tempus est te revisere molestias nostras vel ob hoc solum, ne voluptates istae satietate languescant. 1x 5 § 1 iustitiam tuam provincialibus multa humanitate commendas. ib. 36 § 6 quorum mihi agrestes querellae litteras nostras et haec urbana opera commendant. id. pan. 5 maris caelique temperiem turbines tempestatesque commen. dant. Ruhnken on Vell. 11 29 2. comm. on Petr. 110 p. 656.

ADDENDA.

10 Sen. ben. I 10 & 2 foedissimum patrimoniorum exitium culina. Philo legat. 43 (11 596 M) the great men who thought that they were in highest favour with Gaius, were compelled to incur great expenses, πάμπολλα μεν εις τας ακρίτους και ατάκτους και εξαπιναίους αποδημίας αναλίσκοντες, πάμπολλα δε εις τας εστιάσεις. όλας γαρ ουσίας εξανάλουν εις ενός δείπνου παρασκευήν, ως και δανείζεσθαι" τοσαύτη τις ήν ή πολυτέλεια. .

18 MATRIS IMAGINE FRACTA Ambr. de Tobia § 10 (the whole treatise is on usury) at ubi usurarum facta fuerit mentio aut pignoris, tunc deiecto supercilio fenerator arridet et, quem ante sibi cognitum denegabat, eundem tamquam paternam amicitiam recordatus osculo excipit, hereditariae pignus caritatis appellat, flere prohibet. 'quaeremus' inquit domi si quid nobis pecuniae est: frangam propter te argentum paternum quod fabrefactum est; plurimum damni erit : quae usurae compensabunt pretia emblematum ?' Mart. xi 11 5 cited x 362 n.

31 Lucian pro imag. 20 τόν Θερσίτην εύμορφότερον απoφήναι του 'Αχιλλέως.

33 TE CONSULE Sen. n. q. Iv praef. § 18 ipse te consule, verane an falsa memoraveris.

[40 Ov. ibidem 846 demisso in viscera censu. Plaut. trin. 424 nisi forte in ventrem filio correpserit. The general character of the imagery of the whole passage reminds me of Pers. II 50 51 donec deceptus et exspes | nequiquam fundo suspiret nummus in imo.' J. C.]

43 MENDICAT (Quintil.] decl. 9 § 23 duo egentes et circa omnium, vel ignotorum, domos stipem rogabimus pariter.... fortasse proderit mendicaturo mihi, quod ipse aliquando egentem pauperem alui.

[53'ANNO same abl. as 72 parte anni.' 'J. B. M.] [72 'PARTE good part. XII 110 partem aliquam belli.' J. B. M.]

148 ET MAGNO Ambr. de Tobia § 19 adhibentur nitentes ministri, magno empti pretio, sumptu pascendi maiori.

149 TONSI DL. VI 31 the pupils of Diogenes. 150 PEXI Lucian cited x 117 fin.

157 Sen. n. q. VII 31 & 2 adhuc quicquid est boni moris, exstinguimus levitate et politura corporum.

164 Alkiphr. ep. 1 39.

XII

To-Day, Corvinus, I keep holy to the gods, who have delivered Catullus; nor, were my means equal to my affection, would I withhold the costliest offerings (1–16). For, after encountering all the perils of a storm, and cheerfully sacrificing his treasures to lighten the ship, he has reached in safety our new harbour (17--92). Wonder not then at my rejoicing, nor question its sincerity: he, for whom I raise so many altars, is no orbus, that a fortune-hunter should pay him court: even those who would offer their own children on the altar to propitiate the childless rich, would think any the smallest attention thrown away upon the father of three sons (93—130). With 1-92 cf. Catull. 9. Hor. C. I 36. II 7. III 14. Stat. s. II 7. Mart. x 87. Gell. XIX 9. With 93—130 Hor. s. II 5. Luc. dial. mort. 549. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 1 78.

1-16 To-day, Corvinus, is sweeter to me than a birthday. To-day I perform the promised vow to the three gods of the Capitol, snow white lambs to Iuno and Minerva, to Iuppiter a calf just weaned; if my fortune were as my love, a fat bull from the Clitumnus should prove my gratitude for my friend's deliverance. 1 NATALI XI 84 n. Hor. C. IV 11 17 18 iure sollemnis mihi sanctiorque | paene natali proprio. Mart. 1x 53. Censorin. 3 $ 6. Aug. de beata vita § 6 idibus Novembris mihi natalis dies erat: post tam tenue prandium, ut ab eo nihil ingeniorum impediretur etc. Becker Gallus 13 127 128. Serv. on ecl. Ji 76 sane cum natalis apud maiores plenum fuerit, posteritas natalis dies dicere coepit : nam cum Hor. dixerit natales (ep. II 2 210), Iuv. ait natali Corvine, die. Cic. however (see Forcell.) uses natalis dies.

2 PROMISSA 115. XIII 233. CESPES 85. Ov. tr. v 5 9 araque gramineo viridis de caespite fiat. Tert. apol. 25 prope fin. temeraria de caespite altaria. Hor. C. 1 19 13. III 8 4. Luc. IX 988. Stat. s. I 4 131. Lact. vi 25 & 27 God requires an offering not of the man and the life; for which neque verbenis opus est, neque fibris, neque caespitibus, quae sunt utique vanissima, sed iis, quae de intimo pectore proferantur. Maxim. Taur. serm, 96 p. 655 (ed. 1784). Berthold de ara 6 (Graev. vi 273 274). 3 NIVEAM Aen. iv 61 (cited 8 n.). · White victims were offered to the gods

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