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freedman Zosimus ars quidem eius et quasi inscriptio comoedus, in qua plurimum facit. nam pronuntiat acriter, sapienter, apte, decenter etiam; utitur et cithara perite, ultra quam comoedo necesse est.

idem tam commode orationes et historias et carmina legit, ut hoc solum didicisse videatur. id. vi 182 Encolpius...lector, illa seria nostra, ille deliciae ...quis libellos meos sic leget, sic amabit? quem aures meae sic sequentur? VII 4 g 3. Ix 17 g 3 quam multi, cum lector aut lyristes aut comoedus inductus est, calceos poscunt aut non minore cum taedio recubant, quam tu ista (sic enim appellas) prodigia perpessus es! ib, ep. 34 hearing that he reads poems ill, he has resolved to employ his freedman, and asks Suetonius whether he should sit by defixus et mutus et similis otioso, or rather (as some did) accompany the reader murmure oculis manu. But alas puto me non minus male saltare quam legere. ib. ep. 36 § 4 cenanti mihi, si cum uxore vel paucis, liber legitur. Sen. cons. ad Polyb. 8 & 2 sends the emperor's freedman to H. and V. to seek comfort in the loss of his brother: tunc Homerus et Vergilius tam bene de genere humani meriti, quam tu et de omnibus et de illis meruisti, quos pluribus notos esse voluisti quam scripserant, multum

tecum morentur. Burm. anthol. iv 260 11–14 n. epitaph on a reader of Homer: quondam ego Pierio vatum monumenta canore I doctus cygneis enumerare modis. I doctus Maeonio spirantia carmina versu | dicere, Caesareo curmina nota foro. ib. 344 6 on a boy of ten: legi pia carmina Homeri. ib. 346 1 2 (Orelli inscr. 1200) grammaticus lectorque fui, sed lector eorum | more, incorrupto qui placuere sono. Calvisius Sabinus had a slave who knew Homer by heart, another who knew Hesiod, nine others who knew each one of the lyric poets: as such slaves were not to be bought (Sen. ep. 27 8 6) faciendos locavit. anth. Pal. xI 141 against the grammarians who talk Homeric criticism (“shop') at dinner: oñuepov oỦ DELTVÔ uñviv äecde Oed. Lucian adv. ind. 7 from a book written on purple vellum, with umbilicus of gold, the ignorant owner of a fine library reads and murders the author by his barbarisms, so that the very parasites who applaud him laugh at him in their sleeves. Philostr. soph. 11 10 $s 1 2. Gell. 11 22 88 1 2 apud mensam Favorini inconvivio familiari legi solitum erat aut vetus carmen melici poeta e aut historia partim Graecae linguae alias Latinae. legebatur ergo ibi tunc in carmine Latino iapyx' ventus quaesitumque est, quis hic ventus. ib. III 19 8 1. ΧΙx 7 2. Αth. 6966 ως άδοντος εν τοις συσσιτίοις όσημέραι εις To Epucian Tarava. Marquardt v (1) 156. 848. Friedländer I 416 417. Einhardt vita Caroli magni 24 p. 530 Jaffé inter caenandum aut aliquod acroama aut lectorem audiebat. legebantur ei historiae et antiquorum res gestae; also Aug. esp. the civ. Dei. It was the monastic rule and is enjoined in college statutes: it was the practice at the board of James I. and of lord keeper Williams. Card. Wiseman in the English college at Rome chose Walter Scott's novels for the purpose (see two lives of N. Ferrar Cambr. 1855 41. Bayle s.v. Berenger note A. Becker Gallus 113 125. 1113 261).

181 vir 227 n. So Prop. III=11 33 65 66 cedite Romani scriptores, cedite Grai: | nescio quid maius nascitur Iliade. Macrob. v 12 & 1 (which book contains a comparison of V.'s translations with the originals in H. see Jan's ind. Homerus p. 656) in quibusdam par paene splendor amborum est. Quintil. x 1 885 ut apud illos Homerus, sic apud nos Vergilius auspicatissimum dederit exordium, omnium eius generis poetarum, Graecorum nostrorumque, haud dubie ei proximus. Ov. a. a. 111 337 338. rem. 396. amor. 1 15 25. anthol. Lat. Meyer 254–6. 288. For modern writers cf. Pauly vi 2655 seq.

182 QUID REFERT, TALES VERSUS QUA VOCE LEGANTUR? cf. the question of Pliny the elder Plin. ep. 111 5 $S 11 12 super hanc [cenam] liber legebatur, adnotabatur, et quidem cursim. memini quendam ex amicis, cum lector quaedam perperam pronuntiasset, revocasse et repeti coegisse, huic avunculum meum dixisse intellexeras nempe? cum ille adnuisset, 'cur ergo revocabas ? decem amplius versus hac tua interpellatione perdidimus.' As Iuv. here, so Pers. (1 96 seq. cf. 30 seq.) contrasts poems which need a skilful reader to make them endurable, with Virgil's which have an intrinsic merit of their own (supra vii 82 n.).

183–192 Give yourself a welcome holiday for once; put off at my door all thought of the money-market, all pangs of jealousy; forget the glaring tokens of your disgrace, your wife's long absence and late returns, her disordered hair, ruffled attire, and tingling ears; dismiss home troubles, losses by waste or breakage; last, not least, ingratitude of friends.

187 TACITO I 55–57. VI 206 seq. 433. Munro on Lucr. v 1091.

188 SUSPECTIS X 208 n. MULTICIA II 66. 76 seq. VIII 101 n. Sen. ben. VII 9 § 5. Tert. pall. 4 endromidis (111 103 n.) solocem aliqua multicia ynthesi extrusit (i.e. has driven out the thick, coarse endromis by the ight synthesis). Multicia soft Coan robes. JUGIS Macr. 111 13 =11 9 88 4 5 of Hortensius fuit...vestitu ad munditiem arioso et, ut bene amictus iret, faciem in speculo quaerebat, ubi se intuens ugam corpori sic applicabat, ut rugas non forte sed industria locatas ar. tfex nodus astringeret...capital putavit, quod in umero suo locum ruga nutasset. Plin. xxxv $ 56. Tert. pall. 5 pr. 189 VEXATASQUE COMAS ET VULTUM AUREMQUE CALENTEM Prop. V=IV 31 32 si tibi forte comas vexaverit utilis ira, | postmodo mercata jace premendus erit. Suet. Aug. 69 Antonius spread the scandal feminam onsularem e triclinio viro coram in cubiculum abductam, rursus in conivium rubentibus auriculis incomptiore capillo reductam. id. (al. 36. Theokr. i 140.

193—202 Meanwhile the crowded benches pay their devotions to the Haean festival of the Great Mother's 'towel'; the praetor, ruined by the borses, sits in triumphal state, and (without offence to the countless and vergrown populace be it said) all Rome now finds place in the Circus; lark, a shout strikes on my ear, from which I gather the victory of the geen 'rag.' For if it lost, you would see this city plunged in trouble and bewilderment, as when Hannibal at Cannae defeated our consuls. Such £ghts are for youths whom noise, bold wagers and gay company befit. in the circus and the shows see x 81 n. the exhaustive collections of Canvinius and Bulengerus (Graev. thes. 1x). Friedländer in Marquardt

490–523. Sittengesch. 113 263-330. anthol. Pal. xvi 335—387 (on he statues of drivers in the hippodrome at Constantinople).

193 MEGALESIACAE VI 69. Shortly after the Mater magna (meyaan lebs) had been brought to Rome (B.C. 204 111 137 n.), the Megalesia were stablished in her honour (prid. Id. Apr. Liv. XXIX 14: prid. Non. Apr. Jv. f. iv 179 seq.). Cic. harusp. resp. § 24. Spart. Caracall. 8. These zames, originally aedilician, are spoken of as praetorian under the empire also by DH. 11 19. Mart. x 41 you divorce your husband: why? licam ego, praetor erat. I constatura fuit Megalensis purpura centum nilibus, ut nimium munera parca dares. I et populare sacrum bis milia tena tulisset. | discidium non est hoc, Proculeia; lucrum est. Preller rom. Myth'. 448–451. They were the first games in the new year, and

SPECTACULA

therefore the crowd would be greater.
spectatores. cf. XIV 24 n. curia, theatrum, 'gallery,' 'pit,' boxes.'

MAPPAE cf. 198_panni. Quintil. 15 57 mappam circo quoque usitatum nomen, Poeni sibi vindicant. Hence map, napkin, napery. The consul or praetor, by dropping a napkin, gave the signal for starting. Suet. Nero 22 universorum se oculis in circo maximo praebuit, aliquo liberto mittente mappam, unde magistratus solent. Mart. XII 29 9 cretatam praetor cum vellet mittere mappam. Tert. spect. 16 aspice populum ad spectaculum iam cum furore venientem, iam tumultuosum, iam caecum, iam de sponsionibus concitatum. tardus est illi praetor, semper oculi in urna eius cum sortibus volutantur. dehinc ad signum einzii pendent: unius dementiae una vox est... 'misit,' dicunt, et nuntiant invicem quod simul ab omnibus visuin est. teneo testimonium caecitatis ; non vident quid sit; mappam missam putant; sed est diaboli ab alto praecipitati" figura. id. adv. Val. 36 mappa, quod aiunt, missa. novell. cv 1. Liv. VIII 40 S 2. xLv 1 SS 6 7. DCass. LIX 7. Cedren. hist. comp. 1 297 Bonn. Friedländer in Marquardt iv 503. The mappa (dropt from a balcony over the main entrance) may be seen in Guhl und Koner fig. 486 11 325. Rich. The consular diptych of Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus (A.D. 525 in Gori thes. Flor. 1759 tab. 15) has a mappa. Ennius in Cic. de divin. 1 $ 107 exspectant veluti, consul quom mittere signum | volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras, | quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus.

194 IDAEUM III 138. SIMILIS TRIUMPHO PRAETOR X 36-46 n. cf. vit. Gallieni 8 where Gall. celebrates his decennia. The senate in toga, the knights the soldiers clad in white, omni populo praeeunte with almost all the slaves, and women bearing tapers and lamps, march to the Capitol; 100 white oxen with gilt yokes and silk dorsualia of many colours, 200 white lambs, ten elephants, 1200 gladiators pompabiliter ornati cum auratis vestibus matronarum, 200 mansuetae ferae diversi generis ornatu quam ma.cimo affectae, cheers and clapping along the route. ipse mediu: cum picta toga et tunica palmata inter patres, ut diximus omnibus sacerdotibus praetextatis Capitolium petit, 500 gilt spears on either side 100 standards; standards of the collegia, of the temples and of all the legions; gentes simulatae, ut Gothi Sarmatae Franci Persae. DСasg LIV 2 B.C. 22 the direction of the games was made over to the praetors Mommsen Staatsr. 12 397. 112 227. Serv. Aen. IV 543 qui... triumphat albis equis utitur quattuor et senatu praeeunte in Capitolio de tauri. sacrificat. For the expression cf. Liv. IV 33 § 3 dictator...proeliun ciens ipse in sinistrum cornu, quod, incendio similius quan proelio, territum cesserat flammis. ib. XXVIII 9 $ 15 iret alter consu sublimis curru multiiugis, si vellet, equis; uno equo per urbem verum triumphum vehi.

195 PRAEDA CABALLORUM PRAETOR 59 n. Gron. obs. IV 24 «qni in comparandis et instruendis ad munus equis, munere denique ipso sub vana specie honoris censum mergit. Theon progymn. 6 Acouńons de Opàs els İTTOτροφίαν εξαναλωθείς ελέχθη υπό των αυτού ίππων απολωλέναι. cf. Ρalaeph. 4.' Suet. Nero 5 his father Cn. Domitius was such a swindler ut...in praetura mercede palmarum aurigarios fraudaverit. Vopisc. Aurelian 15 we have seen charioteers receive not prizes (praemia) but estates (patrimonia), cum darentur tunicae subsericae lineae paragaudeae, darentur etiam equi ingemiscentibus frugi hominibus. factum est enim, ut iam divitiarum sit non hominum consulatus, quia utique si virtutibus defertur, editorem spoliare non debet. DCass. Lx 27 & 2. dig. VII 8 12 § 4 (horses hired). The treasures left by Tiberius wasted on shows by Caligula in less than two years DCass. LIX 2 SS 5 6. 5 SS 2–5. Mart. IV 67. v 25 9 10. Plin. paneg. 95 in praetura modestiae.

A lively picture of the formidable correspondence required to furnish the games in Symm. ep. IX 12. 15. 18—25. Friedländer in Marquardt IV 485 486.

PRAEDA PRAETOR Arator act. 11 1164 praedo venis, sed praeda iaces. Martian. Cap. v § 232 paronomasia (x 122 n.] levis immutatio verbi ac nominis, id est, cum syllaba aut littera mutata diversa significat, ut si dicas : praetor est vel potius praedo. Diomed. 11 p. 441. Cic. Verr. I § 131 pupillos et pupillas certissimam praedam esse praetoribus. ib. v § 63 naves inanes, quae praedam praetori, non quae praedonibus metum adferrent. PACE LICET SI DICERE PLEBIS Quintil. 1 6 8 8 pace dicere hominis erudi. tissimi liceat. Plin. xxxiv § 108 haec omnia medici, quod pace eorum dixisse liceat, ignorant. Tibull. II 5 105. Ov. am. II 2 60 pace loquar Veneris, tu dea maior eris. Petron. 2 pace vestra liceat dixisse, primi omnium eloquentiam perdidistis.

196 IMMENSAE Stat, s. 1 2 232 et pars immensae gaudet cele. berrima Romae. Friedländer 14 19. 5463 at the beginning of the empire the population amounted to a million, and grew to two million or more. Ios. b. I. vii 5 § 3 at the triumph of Titus none remained at home της αμέτρου πληθύος εν τη πόλει. .

Some suppose that a verse has here fallen out, but immensae nimiaeque_shew that the next verse might offend the overgrown populace : 'all Rome is here,' puts a definite limit to the unlimited, counts the countless. Congreve : 'if I may be allow'd, / without offence to such a num'rous crowd, i to say all Rome.' Chrys. de Anna serm. 4 (1v 730d) őtav não a ý módcs após Tòv ιππόδρομον μεταστη, και οικίαι και αγοραι εις την παράνομον θεωρίαν κενωWol éxelvny. A sermon de consubstantiali 7 (1 501b) begins rádiv İTTOδρομίαι και πάλιν ο σύλλογος ημίν ελάττων γέγονε. id. in illud, vidi Dominum, hom. 3 8 2 (VI 113cd) ουχ ορας τους ηνιόχους, οι της πόλεως απάσης άνω καθημένης εν ταις τών ίππων αμίλλαις, άπαν του σταδίου παρατρέχοντες το μέρος, εκεί φιλονεικούσι τα των αντιπάλων άρματα καταστρέφειν, ένθα αν ίδωσι τον βασιλέα καθήμενον;

197 CIRCUS 53 n. Sen. ir. 117 85 circum, in quo maximam sui partem populus ostendit. Ov. a. a. 1 136 multa capax populi commoda circus habet. Quintil. XII 1 § 6 dati spectaculis dies multum studiis auferunt. Luc. Nigr. 29 the jostling and the Circus and the pictures of jockeys and the names of the horses and the discussions about them in the streets : πολλή γαρ ώς αληθώς η ιππομανία and it has seized on many men of good repute. Tac. XIII 54 intravere Pompeii theatrum, quo magnitudinem populi viserent. On the days of the games Augustus (Suet. 43) custodes in urbe disposuit, ne raritate remanentium grassatoribus obnoxia esset.

FRAGOR VIII 59 n. Sen. ep. 83 & 7 ecce circensium obstrepit clamor. subita aliqua et universa voce feriuntur aures meae. Auson. idyll. 17 10 11. Namatian. I 201—4 saepius attonitae resonant circensibus aures, | nuntiat accensus plena theatra favor. | pulsato notae redduntur ab aethere voces, , vel quia perveniunt vel quia fingit amor. Epiktet. man. 33 § 2 'speak seldom, and in few words; when occasion demands it, speak, but not on trivial matters, not of sword plays, nor of horse races, nor of athletes.' It was a safe topic Mart. x 48 21—24 accedunt sine felle ioci nec mane timenda | libertas et nil quod tacuisse velis. I de pra sino conviva meus venetoque lo. quatur, | nec faciunt quemquam pocula nostra reum. Sil. XVI 313–457

Drakenb. a very lively picture e.g. 320—325 tollitur in caelum furiali turbine clamor, | pronique ac similes certamtibus ore sequuntur | quisque SUDS Turrue magnaque volantibus idem | voce loquuntur equis : quatitur certamine circus | certantum et nulli mentem non abstulit ardor. s instant praecipites et equos clamore gubernant. Casaubon on Vopisc. Aurel. 48. Symm. ep. x 29. Prudent. hamartig. 361 vesania fervida circi. Tert. spect. 23 an Deo placebit auriga ille tot animarum inquietator, tot furiarum minister...coloratus ut leno? Philo (de provid. II § 103 fin.) had seen men in a frenzy throw themselves under the wheels of the chariots. Chrysost. in gen. hom. 5 (Iv 395). hom. 6 (414) ου μόνον γάρ ίππους τρέχοντας έστιν ιδείν, αλλά και κραυγών και βλασφημιών και μυρίων ακαίρων έστιν ακούσαι λόγων και γυναίκας ήταιρηκυίας εις το μέσον παριούσας ιδείν και νέους πρός των γυναικών απαλότητα εαυτούς εκδιδόντας. ib. 42ab. id. de Lazaro 7 (1 790cd), when I preach against the circus, I see men clap my words, and then again run to the hippodrome, kai μείζονας τους κρότους επί τους ηνιόχους επιδεικνυμένους και ακάθεκτον την μανίαν, και μετά πολλού του τόνου συντρέχοντας και προς αλλήλους πολλάκις διαπληκτιζομένους και λέγοντας, ότι ο μεν των ίππων ου καλώς έδραμεν, ο δε υποσκελισθείς κατέπεσεν, και ο μεν τούτω τώ ηνιόχο εαυτόν προσνέμει, ο δε ÊTÉPW. It is a Satanic spectacle 7916. 793a. ad pop. Antioch. hom. 15 (11 157d) the spectacle of the horse-races has often led to battles, revilings, blows, insults, lasting feuds. cf. 651the insatiable passion of those who sit agape for the horse-race. Friedländer 113 266—274 (acclamations, petitions, hooting, political demonstrations). 321. 329 330. Vit. Gall. 9 Gallienus, when Rome was murmuring at his neglect of his father's memory, took no heed obstupefacto voluptatibus corde, sed ab his qui circum erant, requirebat .ecquid habemus in prandio ? ecquae voluptates paratae sunt?' et qualis cras erit cena qualesque circenses?' cf. Iuv. x 81, when the people, once rerum domini, care only for the same 'two things' panem et circenses..

198 x 81 n. [Cypr.) spect. 5 quam vana sunt ipsa certamina, lites in coloribus, contentiones in cursibus, favores in honoribus, gaudere quod equus velocior fuerit, maerere quod pigrior. Four chariots generally contended, the drivers being distinguished by four colours Sidon. c. 23 323 324 (where is a full description of the race) micant colores, I albus vel venetus virens rubensque. The factiones (also partes, populi, μέρη, δήμοι: the members δημόται or ο λαός), not named by any writer of the republic. The earliest trace is a notice (Plin. VII § 186) from the acta of Felix a driver of the red faction, on whose pyre one of his partisans threw himself (copia odorum corruptum, said the rival faction); this was shortly after the death of M. Lepidus (i.e. if the triumvir's father, cir. B.c. 77). Cic. Verg. VM. etc. derive the games of the Circus from the rape of the Sabine women; whence Malalas, the chron. Pasch. Cedrenus etc. attribute the origin of these factions to Romulus (Schwegler 1 471). Tert. spect. 9 quadrigae productae merito et aurigas coloribus idololatriae vestierunt. et ab initio duo soli fuerunt, albus et russeus: albus hiemi ob nives candidas, russeus uestati ob solis ruborem voti erant. sed postea tam voluptate, quam superstitione provecta, russeum alii Marti, alii album Zephyris consecraverunt; prasinum vero terrae matri vel veri, venetum caelo et mari vel auctumno. Isidor. XVIII 41. Ov. amor. III 2 78 evolat admissis discolor agmen equis. Mart. x 48. 53. XIV 131. anth. Pal. vi 368 1 οι βενετοι πρασίνοισιν εναντίοι αιέν εόντες. The green faction (prasina from πράσον, leek, Lydus mens. IV 25 οι δε βίριδες οίον ανθηροί πρασίνους δε

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