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didere. id. XVIII § 18 a saying of Curius perniciosum intellegi civem cui
septem iugera non essent satis. Sen. cons. ad Helv. 10 8 7 scilicet maiores
nostri, quorum virtus etiam nunc vitia nostra sustentat, infelices erant,
qui sibi manu parabant cibum, quibus terra cubile erat. $ 8
scilicet minus beate vivebat dictator noster, qui Samnitium legatos audiit,
cum vilissimum cibum in foco ipse manu sua versaret, illa, qua
iam saepe hostem percusserat...quam Apicius. Cic. parad. 1 g 12 tenuitas
victus M'. Curii. id. Cat. Mai. § 55. Plut. Cat. Mai. 2. id. II 1941
Wytt. VM. iv 3 85. Luc. x 151–3 pone duces priscos et nomina pauperis
aevi | Fabricios Curiosque graves : hic ille recumbat | sordidus Etrus-
cis abductus consul aratris. Plut. Aristid. c. Cat. comp. 1 § 3 Cato
from a small town and country plunged into the public life of Rome
as into some vast sea, ουκέτι Κουρίων και Φαβρικίων...έργον, ούσαν
ηγεμόνων, ουδ' απ' αρότρου και σκαφείου πένητας και αυτουργούς
αναβαίνοντας επί το βήμα προσειμένην άρχοντας. The same story is told
by Sen. (prov. 3 § 6) of Fabricius. M'. Curius Dentatus (Hor. C. I
12 41 incomptis Curium capillis) as consul B.C. 290 triumphed over
the Samnites and Sabines. When consul a second time, B.C. 275,
he triumphed over Pyrrhus, and when re-elected, B.C. 274, finally
defeated the Lucanians and Samnites.
QUAE LEGERAT HORTO Plin. XVIII § 40 nequam agricolam esse, quisquis
emeret quod praestare ei fundus posset. § 19 ipsorum tunc manibus
imperatorum colebantur agri, ut fas est credere, gaudente terra vomere
laureato et triumphali aratore. id. xix § 51 Romae quidem per se hortus
a ger pauperis erat. § 52 ex horto plebei macellum, quanto
innocentiore victu !

79 HOLUSCULA Hor, ep. I
17 13–15 si pranderet holus patienter, regibus uti | nollet Aristippus.
si sciret regibus uti, | fastidiret holus qui me notat.' ib. 5 2. id.
8.1 6 112. II 1 71-74. 2 117–22. 6 64. 7 30.
80 FASTIDIT Marquardt v (1) 306.

COMPEDE FOSSOR VIII 180 n. x 182 n. XIV 24 n. Ov. Pont. 1 6 31 haec facit ut vivat vinctus quoque compede fossor. id. trist. IV 1 5. Tib. 11 6 25. Mart. 1x 22 4. Plin. ep, Ix 28 § 4 polliceris...futurum te fugitivum rei familiaris statimque ad nos evolaturum, qui iam tibi compedes nectimus, quas perfringere nullo modo possis. id. 111 19 7 nec ipse usquam vinctos habeo. dig. XLVII 10 15 g 44 multum interest, qualis servus sit, bonae frugi, ordinarius,... ...et quid si compeditus vel male notus vel notae extremae. Apul. mag. 44 quindecim liberi homines populus est, totidem servi, familia, totidem vincti, ergastulum. Becker Hermann Charikles III 36 37. Wallon 11 217 seq. 226. Marquardt v (1) 187. ditcher' Pers. v 122. VI 40. Catull. 22 10.

81 CALIDAE Mart. 1 41 9 10 fumantia qui tomacla raucus , circumfert tepidis cocus popinis.

SAPIAT QUID Phaedr. III 4 3 some one, seeing an ape's carcass hanging up at the butcher's quaesivit, quidnam saperet? Cato r. r. 108=109. VULVA Hor. ep. 1 15 41 Obbar nil vulva pulchrius ampla. Mart. vii 20 11.

XIII 56. Αthen. 969 μήτρα...μητρόπολις τις ως αληθώς ούσα και μήτηρ των Ιπποκράτους υιών, ούς εις υωδίαν κωμωδουμένους οίδα. 100% υπέρ πάτρας μεν πας τις αποθνήσκειν θέλει, η υπέρ δε μήτρας Καλλιμέδων και Κάραβος | έφθής ίσως προσειτ' άν άλλως αποθανείν. 101. Plin. VIII 8 209 hinc censoriarum legum paginae interdictaque cenis abdomina... vulvae. id. xi § 210 vulva eiecto partu melior quam edito. eiecticia vocatur illa, haec porcaria. primiparae suis optima, contra effetis. Plin. ep.. 1 15 g 3. Luc. lexiph. 6 Tokádos üds è m B puodoxov čvtepov. ed.

FOSSOR

Diocl. 4 4 where .bulbae' are dearer than any other meat. Böttiger kl. Schriften III 225. Marquardt v (2) 39 (the encroachments of a meat diet).

POPINAE VIII 172. Lucil. I 16 Müller tur. pemque odisse popinam. Gracch. in Gell. xv 12 § 2 nulla apud me fuit popina. Tac. h. 11 76 fin. Hadrian in Spartian. 16 latitare per popinas. Hor. to his bailiff ep. 1 14 21 22 Obbar fornix tibi et uncta popina | incutiunt urbis desiderium. id. s. II 4 62 quaecunque im.

undis fervent allata popinis. Suet. Vit. 13 ut autem homo non profundae modo, sed intempestivae quoque ac sordidae gulae, ne in sacrificio quidem umquam aut itinere ullo temperavit, quin...circa...viarum popinas fumantia obsonia [manderet]. They were chiefly frequented by slaves (VIII 173 n. 174 n. 179 n. Cic. p. Mil. § 65. Columell. infra 151 n. Mart. v 70 3), gamblers (Mart. v 84 4), and the like (Sen. vit. beat. 7 § 3 voluptas humile, servile, inbecillum, caducum, cuius statio ac domicilium fornices et popinae sunt. Mart. vii 61 8 nigra popina). They were under the control of the aediles Suet. Tib. 34. Cl. 38. cf. Plin. XXXIII § 32. dig. IV 8 21 § 11 in aliquem locum inhonestum....puta in popinam vel in lupanarium. ib. XLVII 10 26 si quis servum meum vel filium ludibrio habeat licet consentientem, tamen ego iniuriam videor accipere : veluti si in popinam duxerit illum, si alea luserit. novell. 117 15 pr. cf. lexx. under popinalis. popino.

82 SICCI TERGA SUIS VII 119 n. cf. Hor. s. II 2 117 fumosae cum pede pernae. Verg. moret. 55 56 suspensa focum carnaria iuxta | durati sale terga suis truncique vacabant.

Ov. m. VIII 638 sordida terga suis nigro pendentia tigno. Swine were kept in great numbers Varr. r. r. 11 4 3. Cic. Cat. mai. § 56. Ov. f. VI 179 sus erat in pretio; caesa sue festa colebant. Waddington on ed. Diocl. 4 1.

CRATE the rack on which the flitch of bacon hung in the kitchen: Trimalchio served up Petron. 31 fin. tomacula supra craticulam argenteam ferventia. cf. ib. 70. Mart. XIV 221 rara tibi curva craticula sudet ofella ; | spumeus in longa cuspide fumet aper. In these passages it seems to mean a gridiron.

83 MORIS Madvig $ 290 2. publ. sch. Lat. gr. p. 413. Plin. ep. 1 12 8 7 Döring. Caes. b. Ğ. IV $ 2 est enim hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti...cogant.

84 NATALICIUM as a birthday treat. Pers. 1 16 natalicia tandem cum sardonyche albus. On this feast in honour of one's genius cf. IV 66 n. v 37 n. Becker Gallus i 119. Pauly v 421. Censorin. 2 § 3 illud etiam in hoc [natali] die observandum, quod genio factum neminem oportet ante gustare, quam eum qui fecerit. Marquardt v (1) 256. LARDUM short for laridum (cf. calda, soldum etc.) ' bacon, see Plaut. Hor. Macrob. in lexx. Ov.f. vi 169—72 pinguia cur illis gustentur larda Kalendis, , mictaque cum calido sit faba farre, rogas ? | prisca dea est, aliturque cibis, quibus ante solebat, nec petit ascitas luxu. riosa da pes (no oysters, no peacocks etc.). edict. Dioclet. 4 7. It formed part of a soldier's rations (Spartian. Hadr. 10. Vulcat. Avid. Cass. 5. vit. Gord. 28. cf. Trebell. Claud. 14. Vopisc. Prob. 4. cod. Theod. vii 4 2 and 6. Veg. 1v 7). Mart. v 78 10 pallens faba cum rubente lardo.

85 Hostia a part of the victim was burnt, and the remainder eaten by the offerer, or sold (Hom. passim, Wetstein on 1 Cor. 10 28. VM. II 2 $ 8. Plin. ep. x 96 g 10. Plut. quaest. Rom. 60 p. 278). Of old every feast was in a sense a religious ceremony (Hermann gottesd. Alterth. § 28 2). So soldiers now and then had fresh meat cod. Theod. VII 4 6 cum militibus...l aridum vel recens forsitan caro

IX 51.

XII 1. XXXVI

deinceps erogabitur. Veg. IV 7. cf. III 3. Philo cited XII 101. 89 DOMITO Sen. ep. 86 § 5 of Scipio abluebat corpus laboribus rusticis jessum. exercebat enim opere se terramque, ut mos fuit priscis, ipse subigebat. Mart. IV 64 33. Sil. VIII 371. MONTE 11 73 74 populus modo victor et illud | montanum positis audiret vulgus aratris. vi 5. XIV 161–172. Hor. C. III 6 37–44. Arat. phaen. 118 schol. Ov. f. III 779–82. Claud. cons. Mall. Theod. 8 9 toties a rure profectus | lictor et in mediis quaesitus consul aratris. Plin. XVIII § 39 qui triumphales denas argenti libras in supellectile crimini dabant, qui mortuo vilico relinquere victorias et reverti in rura sua postulabant,... exercitusque ducebant senatu illis vilicante. $ 111 nimirum sic habitaverant illi qui hoc imperium fecere tantum, ad devincendas gentes triumphosque referendos ab aratro' aut foco exeuntes, quorum agri quoque minorem modum obtinuere quam sellaria istorum. For praises of agriculture see 111 67 n. XIV 181–9. Cic. p. Rosc. Am. SS 50 51 e.g. cum ab aratro arcessebantur qui consules fierent .....illum Atilium, quem sua manu spargentem semen qui missi erant convenerunt. off. I § 151 Beier. VM. IV 4 § 4 (see the whole chapter) illi enim praedivites, qui ab aratro arcessebantur ut consules fierent. Plin. XVIII § 10 notices some families (Lentuli, Cicerones, Fabii, Pisones, Pilumni) named from their devotion to these pursuits.

90–119 When Cato and Fabricius kept men in awe, and censors were a terror to their very colleagues, none cared to rifle the ocean for tortoiseshell; an ass's head, rudely cut in brass, sole ornament of the couch, was crowned for the feast, and about it the peasant heroes used to romp. Innocent of Greek art, the soldier defaced work of famous engravers, his share of booty, to adorn his horse or helmet; the wolf that suckled the Quirini, Mars with spear and shield, these were the decorations of his choice. He dined off earthen platters, saving such silver as he had to deck his arms. Yet then was heaven near to Rome; a divine voice foretold the inroad of the Gauls. So watchful was Iuppiter, as yet of clay, unspoilt by gold. Tables too were then of native timber, some chance indfall of an old walnut tree. 90 FABIOS 11 145 146 generosior...Fabiis. VIII 14 n. 191 n. The most famous censor of the Fabia gens was Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus, colleague of P. Decius B.C. 304. Joined with Cato also Sen. ep. 86 § 10 di boni, quam iuvat illa balnea intrare obscura et gregali tectorio inducta, quae scires Catonem tibi aedilem aut Fabium Maximum aut ex Corneliis aliquem manu sua temperasse.

DURUM CATONEM II 40. Mart. XI 2 12 triste supercilium durique severa Catonis | frons. Cato maior was censor B.C. 184 (Liv. XXXIX 40–44. Plut. Cat. Mai. 15 seq. Sen. ep. 87 S8 9 10. VM. II 9 § 3).

91 SCAUROS II 35. VI 604. Hor. c. 1 12 37, where, as in Cic. (p. Mur. $$ 16. 36. p. Font. § 14=24. p. Sest. § 39. Brut. $ 111. Drumann Gesch. Roms 1 28) and VM. (v 8 8 4 Scaurus, lumen ac decus patriae) this M. Aemilius Scaurus, cons. B.C. 115 (when he passed & sumptuary law Plin. VIII § 223 glires quos censoriae leges princepsque M. Scaurus in consulatu non alio modo cenis ademere ac concbylia aut ex alio orbe convectas aves), censor B.C. 109, is held up as a model of virtue. But see Sallust Iug. 15 8 4 Aemilius Scaurus, homo nobilis, inpiger factiosus avidus potentiae honoris divitiarum, ceterum vitia sua callide occultans. Quintil. vi 1 § 21 Cicero and Asinius, the one speaking for the younger Scaurus, the other for the

FABRICIOS

father, urged in mitigation nobilitas et merita maiorum. On the generic plur. cf. 1 109 n. p. 140. Dräger hist. Synt. § 6 b. Neue 12 394-5. Cic. p. Cael. g 39 if there is a youth scorning delights and living laborious days, he is divinely endowed. ex hoc genere illos fuisse arbitror Camillos, Fabricios, Curios omnisque eos, qui haec ex minimis tanta fecerunt. § 40 verum haec genera virtutum non solum in moribus nostris, sed vix iam in libris reperiuntur. Plin. pan. 13 Fabricios et Scipiones et Camillos. 55 visuntur eadem e materia Caesaris statuae, qua Brutorum, qua Camillorum. The family was extinct Sen. suas. 2 § 22 Scaurum Mamercum in quo Scaurorum familia extincta est. Tac. vi 29 Mamercus dein Scaurus rursum postulatur, insignis nobilitate et orandis causis, vita probrosus... Scaurus, ut dignum veteribus Aemi. liis, damnationem anteiit. Sen. ben. IV 31 $$ 3—5 on the infamy of this Scaurus. 11.154. 1x 141 142 argenti vascula puri, / sed quae Fabricius censor notet. C. Fabricius Luscinus, cons. B.C. 282 and 278, in his censorship B.C. 275 removed from the senate P. Cornelius Rufinus, for possessing ten pounds of silver plate (Liv. periocha 14. Plut. Sull. 1. Sen. vit. beat. 21 8 3. Salvian. de gub. Dei 1 p. 10 Baluz. Sen. contr. 9 § 8 hoc scio nostros fugisse maiores,... hoc Fabricium Samnitium non accipientem munera, hoc ceteros patres nostros, quos apud aratra ipsa minantes pecora sua circumsteterunt lictores. ib. &$ 17 18. Plin. ix & 118 contrasts the jewels of Lollia Paulina, the spoils of provinces, with the old frugality: comparet nunc aliquis ex altera parte quantum Curius aut Fabricius in triumphis tulerint; imaginetur illorum fercula. XXXIII § 153 Fabricius, qui bellicosos imperatores plus quam pateram et salinum habere ex argento vetabat, videret hinc dona fortium fieri aut in haec frangi. heu mores, Fabricii nos pudet! Gell. IV 8 (the chapter treats of Fabricius]. XVII 21 § 39. VM. II 9 $ 4 [the chapter de censoria nota]. Tert. apol. 6). Aug. c. Iulian. IV & 17 who but a Pelagian will give the name just to an infidel? sit licet ille Fabricius, sit licet Fabius, sit licet Scipio, sit licet Regulus, quorum me nominibus, tamquam in antiqua Romana curia loqueremur, putasti esse terrendum.

92 COLLEGA the censors M. Livius Salinator and C Claudius Nero B.C. 204 VM. 11 9 § 6 Nero et citari collegam et equum vendere iussit... Salinator quoque eadem animadversione Neronem persecutus est. cf. id. vii 2 § 6. Liv. XXIX 37. Becker 11 (2) 216–8. Mommsen Staatsr. 112 363_-9.

94 OCEANO FLUCTU XV 23 n. mare oceanum nom. in Ampel. 1 7. Unger paradox. Theb. 396. Zumpt § 257 n. Freund s. v. Heins. on Claud. p. 249. Burman anth. II 296. Neue 1% 642-3. The tortoiseshell was brought from the mare Indicum Plin. Ix & 35.

TESTUDO VI 80. XIV 308. Verg. g. II 463. Mart. 1x 59 9 testudineum...hexaclinon. id. XII 66 5 gemmantes prima fulgent testudine lecti. id. XIV 87. Plin. Ix § 39 testudinum putamina secare in laminas lectos que et repositoria his vestire Carvilius Pollio instituit, prodigi ac sagacis ad luxuriae instr menta ingenii. ib. XVI SS 232–3 nec satis : coepere tingui animalium cornua, dentes secari lignumque ebore distingui, mox operiri. placuit deinde materiam et in mari quaeri. testudo in hoc secta. nuperque portentosis ingeniis principatu Neronis inventum ut pigmentis perderet se plurisque veniret imitatā lignum. sic lectis pretia quaeruntur... modo luxuria non fuerat contenta ligno, iam lignum et testudinem facit. id. XXXIII § 146 triclinia of tortoiseshell came into fashion under Tiberius. Sen. ben. Vil 9 & 2. Lucian asin. 53 (translated by Apul, met. x 34) Kllyn

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FRONS

ην μεγάλη από χελώνης 'Ινδικής πεποιημένη, χρυση εσφηκωμένη. Clem.
Alex. paed. 11 3 8 35. Varro in Non. s.v. culcita. Varro 1.1. IX § 47. dig.
XXXII 100 § 4 cui testudinea legata essent, ei lectos testudineos
pedibus inargentatis deberi. Marquardt v (1) 318. Luc. cited 123.
95 TROIUGENIS I 100 n. Hdn. II 3 § 4 Glabrio traced his pedigree to
Aeneas.

FULCRUM VI 22. Prop. III=11 13 21 when I die, let me not be buried in state nec mihi tum fulcro sternatur lectus eburno. supports decorated with sphinxes and other figures Becker Gallus 11 249.

96 NUDO LATERE ET PARVIS Ov, m. I 19 20 frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis, , mollia cum duris, sine pondere (=tols äveu Bápous ou ouv) habentia pondus. Lucr. 1 774 non animans, non exanimo cum corpore, ut arbos. Cic. orat. & 4 in poetis non Homero soli locus est,... ...aut Archilocho aut Sophocli aut Pindaro, sed horum vel secundis vel etiam infra secundos. Suet. Caes. 13 dispositis circa macellum custodibus, qui obsonia contra vetitum retinerent. Vesp. 4 et industriae expertae nec metuendus. Nägelsb. Stylistik § 75 2. Nep. Iph. 3 8 2 bonus...civis fideque magna. Heusinger on Nep. Att. 8 § 2. Ov. m. II 403 404 firma suique | roboris. Tac. IV 31 compositus alias et velut eluctantium verborum. Capi. tolin. Maximin. 2 5 semibarbarus et vix adhuc Latinae lingua e.

PARVIS III 203. (VM. 1 10 3 lecti illius frontem Macedonicis triumphis...adornatam) is the head of the couch. The sides were plain, not inlaid with ivory or tortoiseshell. Liv. XXXIX 6 § 6 B.C. 187 not only the outrages reported from the provinces, sed ea etiam magis, quae in militibus...quotidie adspiciebantur. § 7 luxuriae enim peregrinae origo ab exercitu Asiatico invecta in urbem est. ii primum lectos aeratos (Cic. Verr. IV § 60], vestem stragulam pretiosam,...et, quae tum magnificae supellectilis habebantur, monopodia et abacos Romam advexerunt. § 8 epulae quoque ipsae et cura et sumptu maiore apparari coeptae.

97 VILE of rude workmanship and small cost. Ov. f. vi 311 ecce coronatis panis dependet a sellis. ib. 347. The head was crowned with vine-leaves, the ass being sacred to Bacchus (and Vesta, Oy. l. l., Lydus de mens. IV 59. Prop. iv 1 21 Vesta coronatis pauper gaudebat a sellis). Hygin. fab. 27, antiqui autem nostri in lectis tricliniaribus in fulcris capita asellorum vite alligata habuerunt, significantes suavitatem [? asinum vitem conj. Reines.] invenisse. Pausan. II 38 3 sculpture of an ass at Nauplia, in gratitude for its invention (by the example of its browsing) of pruning. Britannicus compares the Etruscan superstition Colum. x 344 345 hinc caput Arcadici nudum cute fertur aselli | Tyrrhenus fixisse Tages in limite ruris. Pallad. i 35 § 16. Markland •vetus kalendarium mensis Iunii: vi iduum asinus coronatur.'

98 LASCIVI playful : cf. XIV

RURIS ALUMNI Kiaer 97 rightly understands the guests (incolae ruris, agricolae). olim viri consulares et qui dictaturam gesserant ab opere agresti ad epulas frugales laeto animo ibant; supellex ut cibus simplex erat, lecti nulla testudine ornati, frons aerea vile caput aselli ostendebat, et ad hoc convivae ad epulas festo die convenientes laeti puerorum more ludebant. He cites Ov. who calls himself Paeligni ruris al., Stat. (Diana nemoris al.), Cic. (frogs paludis al.), Hor. (Fauns and Satyrs alumni of woods and fields). cf. Agesilaos equitans in harundine longa with his boy Ael. v. h. XII 15, where are like frisks of Herakles, Sokrates and Archytas. VM. VIII 8. For the old interpretalion (children playing) cf. Suet. Claud. 32 Torrent. Marquardt v (1) 183.

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CORONATI ASELLI

168 seq.

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