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ib. v 3 21 quod usucaptum esset et ob id de hereditate exiit. Orelli inscr. 4386-7.

43 ANULUS last of all of their ring, the symbol of equestrian rank 129. 1 28. VII 16 n. 89. cf. Suet. Caes. 33 cum in adloquendo exhortandoque saepius digitum laevae manus ostentans adfirmaret, se ad satisfaciendum omnibus, per quos dignitatem suam defensurus esset, anulum quoque aequo animo detracturum sibi. Mart. Il 57 7 8 of one who sauntered in purple about the saepta with a crowd of retainers and brand-new palanquin oppigneravit modo modo ad Cladi mensam | vix octo nummis anulum, unde cenaret. id. VIII 5. Apul. mag. 75 cum undique versum tabulis flagitaretur, ......... negat posse dissolvere, anulos aureos et omnia insignia dignitatis abicit, cum creditoribus depaciscitur. Friedländer 14 269—275.

43 POLLIO IX 6—8 non erit hac facie miserabilior Crepereius | Pollio, qui triplicem usuram praestare paratus , circumit et fatuos non invenit.

44 45 see the account of Apicius Iv 23 n. Kiaer 162–4 makes luxuriae gen. and places these lines (44 45) as the reply to the question quis exitus ? after 41, saying truly (cl. 1 144 hinc subitae mortes) that rakes had reason to fear an early death, and that ' mors non metuenda est, sed morte magis senectus,' is vapid. But the gen. seems harsh, and the transposition needless. Not an ea funeral (that standing terror to Roman superstitio x 241 n.), but old age worse than death is what luxury has to dread.'

44 FUNUS ACERBUM Plaut. asin. 595 acerbum funus filiae faciet. Aen. Vi 429 funere mersit acerbo. Servius ad l. ac, immaturo; translatio a pomis est.' id. ib. III 64. XI 143. Cic. Tusc. III § 29 translates Davátous 1 åúpous, aut mortem acerbam. Nep. Cimon 4 g 4,

Liv. VII 1 § 8 mors quam matura, tam acerba (Madvig's quamvis......... tamen is needless). Sen. ad Marc. 9 & 2 tot praeter domum nostram ducuntur exsequiae : de morte non cogitamus. tot acerba funera: nos togam nostrorum infantium, nos militiam et paternae hereditatis successionem agitamus animo. id. ep. 99 & 18. 122 & 10 quantulum enim a funere absunt, et quidem acerbo, qui ad faces et cereos vivunt? Tac. x111 17 p.m. Plin. ep. v 5 4 mihi autem videtur acerba semper et immatura mors eorum, qui immortale aliquid parant. ib. 16 § 6 o triste plane acerbumque funus ! o morte ipsa mortis tempus indignius! Curt. Ix 6 8 19 unicum bonum diuturnam vitam existimantes saepe acerba mors occupat. Quintilian had lost his children vi pr. § 4 quos utique inmeritos mors acerba damnavit, erepta mihi prius matre eorundem, quae nondum expleto aetatis undevicesimo anno duos enixa filios, quamvis acerbissimis rapta fatis, felix decessit. Publil. Syr. 396 nil non acerbum prius quam maturum fuit. 360 mors infanti felix, iuveni acerba, sera nimis seni. The word is frequent in the epitaphs of children. Orelli 4836. anthol. Meyer 361 12. 1236 7. 1248 2. 1254 2. 1258 5. 1268 11. Auson. prof. 3 5. parental. 11 2. 14 1 and 12 indole maturus, funere acerbus obis. 20 5. 29 6. Luc. catapl. 5 ou paklal vekpol. 45 LUXURIAE II 34 35 vitia ultima fictos | contemnunt Scauros et castigata remordent. x 120 ingenio manus est et cervix caesa. 46 CONDUCTA Hor. 8. 1 29 conductis...nummis. So Plaut. most. 520 Lorenz, locare argenti nemini nummum queo. the owners (lenders) of the money=fenoris auctoribus. 49 VERTERE SOLUM schol. Sexsilium pati. Cic. pro Caec. § 100 qui volunt aliquam poenam subterfugere aut calamitatem, eo solum vertunt, hoc est sedem ac locum mutant. Petron. 81 conturbavit et libidinis suae solum vertit.

BAIAE III 4 n. Sen. ep. 51 § 1 Baias,

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DOMINIS

quas postero die quam adtigeram reliqui, locum ob hoc devitandum, ...quia illum sibi celebrandum luxuria desumpsit. § 3 diversorium viti. orum. 8 3 illic sibi plurimum luxuria permittit, illic, tamquam aliqua licentia debeatur loco, magis solvitur. $S 11-13. 55 § 7. Cic. ep. fam. IX 2 g 5. p. Cael. SS 27. 35. 38 cuius in hortos, domum, Baias iure suo libidines omnium commearent. 47. 49. Friedländer 113 106-9. Spartian. Hadr. 25. Stat. 8. III 2 17. Klausen Aeneas 1 551. Eunap. p. 459 20-23 Didot «Gadara, warm baths in Syria, second only to Baiae, to which none can compare, in the Roman empire.' Symm, ep. 1 3. 7. 8. 47. 11 17. 26. v 93. vi 9. 22. 67. yıl 16. 24. 73. Sidon. c. 18. Baiae (Baja), the Brighton of Rome, lay to the south-west of the sinus Baianus, on the coast of Campania. It was sought for its situation, its warm springs, and its fisheries. Mart. XI 80 1–4 litus beatae Veneris aureum Baias, | Baias superbae blanda dona naturae, | ut mille laudem, Flacce, versibus Baias, 1 laudabo digne non satis tamen Baias. id. vi 42 7. 43.

OSTREA IV 141 n. VIII 86 n. Mart. x 37 11 12 ostrea Baianis...non liventia testis quae domino pueri non prohibente vorent. id. viii 82. Three glass cups have been found with inscriptions descriptive of the chief buildings on the coast of Puteoli; the name ostriaria occurs twice Jordan Topogr. d. St. Rom Berl. 1871 11 145. Aus. epist. 7 1 ostrea Baianis certantia. 9 30 (the whole ep. is on the habitat of oysters) vel quae Baianis pendent fluitantia pilis. As here the debtor, so the criminal (1 49) enjoys himself the more in exile.

50 CEDERE FORO X 25 n. Hor. s. II 3 18. schol. 'tantum est illis deserere patriam suam vel forum [the bourse, the stock-exchange), quan. tum est qui a Subura, frequentissima regione, ad Diocletianas migret, ubi solitudo est.' dig. XVI 3 7 8 2 quoties foro cedunt nummularii. Sen. ben. IV 39 § 2 pecuniae etiam male creditae exactio est, et appellare debitorem ad diem possum, et, si foro cesserit, portionem feram. Cic. p. Rabir. Post. § 41 nisi C. Caesaris incredibilis in hunc liberalitas exstitisset, nos hunc iampridem in foro non haberemus. Plaut. epid. 1 2 16 mersos...foro. In foro versari is said of one who is solvent Cic. p. Flacc. § 70. cf. de imp. Pomp. § 19 haec fides (credit) atque haec ratio pecuniarum, quae Romae, quae in foro versatur. Plaut. Persa 435 436 (of argentarii) ubi quid credideris, citius extemplo a foro | fugiunt, quam ex porta ludis quom emissust lepus. ib. 442—3. Ter. Ph. 921. ad. 277. Iulian p. 340a del ulow tås in To&poulas, Botep oi xpń. ματα ώφληκότες τας αγοράς. Becker III (2) 55. 51 ESQUILIAS 111 71 n. Hor. s. 1 8 14 nunc' licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus. hence Augustus Suet. 72 aeger in domo Maecenatis [on the Esquil.] cubabat. id. Tiber. 15.

FERVENTI SUBURA the Subura (v 106 n. x 156 n.), was the busiest part of ancient Rome (III 5 n. Mart. v 22), with many shops (Mart. vi 31 9 seq. quicquid vilicus Umber aut Calenus, | aut Tusci tibi Tusculive mittunt, | ... id tota mihi nascitur Subura. id. x 94 5) and brothels (Pers. v 32. priap. 40. Mart. vi 66. XI 61 3. 78 11).

52 ILLE both in Greek and Latin a neuter pronoun, when the subject of a sentence, takes (by attraction) the gender of the predicate; here for illud solum (caruisse sc.) we have ille by attraction to dolor, and illa by attraction to maestitia. Ov. Pont. 111 3 3 4 dum tibi quae vidi referam; seu corporis umbra, | seu veri species, seu fuit ille sopor. Vell. 11 60 g 3 hunc protinus Antonius consul superbe excepit (neque is erat contemptus, sed metus). Quintil. x 1 $ 112. 3 § 17. Fabri on Liv. xxi 10 § 12. Jahrbb. xci (1865) 722 seq. Plaut. capt. 750 vis haec quidem herclest. cf. Caesar's cry when assailed by hiş murderers Suet. 82 ista quidem vis est. Cic. Phil. 2 8 54 1. 2 n. Plin. ep. IV 2 & 4 nec dolor erat ille, sed ostentatio doloris.

53 CIRCENSIBUS x 81 n. Plin. ep. ix 6 omne hoc tempus inter pugillares ac libellos iucundissima quiete transmisi. 'quemadmodum' inquis in urbe potuisti ?' circenses erant, quo genere spectaculi ne levissime quidem teneor. nihil novum, nihil varium, nihil quod non semel spectasse suficiat. quo magis miror, tot milia virorum tam pueriliter identidem cupere currentes equos, insistentes curribus homines videre, etc. cf. Iulian (on ver. 50). Iuv. vi 85—7 inmemor illa domus et coniugis atque sororis , nil patriae indulsit, plorantesque improba natos, | ut que magis stupeas, ludos Paridemque reliquit.

54 SANGUINIS X 301. XIII 242.

55 EFFUGIENTEM VI 19. Hes. op. et d, 199 đOavá. των μετά φύλον τον προλιπόντ' ανθρώπους | Αιδώς και Νέμεσις. [I should think the effugientem of Pw more picturesque and forcible than fugientem : the quasi-caesura, ef | fugientem would be like that in several verses of Lucr. as 11 1059; and of Virgil and Hor, as magnanimi Iovis ingratum as /cendere cubile, non quivis videt in modulata etc. Iuv. himself XIV 108 ex | ercere: x 358 is even harsher.' H, A. J. M.].

56–63. cf. Hor. 8. II 2 89–93. 7 22—38. ep. 1 7 35 nec somnum plebis laudo satur altilium. To day, Persicus, you shall prove whether I practise the plain living that I preach, or whether, after bawling 'make gruel, cook,' I whisper-sweet-meats buy. You will find my board patriarchal as Evander's when he entertained Hercules or Aeneas.

57 PERSICE the (unknown) friend whom Iuv. invites to dinner.

58 SILIQUAS Hor. ep. II 1 123 vivit siliquis et pane secundo. Pers. III 55.

PULTES XIV 171 n. resembling the Italian polenta.

59 IN AURE Hor. 8. 1 9 9 10 in aurem dicere nescio quid puero. Valck. on Eur. Hipp. 936. Lucil. in Prisc. 1506 Hertz iucundasque puer qui lamberat ore placentas. Hor. S. II 8 24. Mart. III 77 1–3 nec mullus, nec te delectat, Baetice, turdus, | nec lepus est unquam, nec tibi gratus aper. I nec te liba iuvant, nec sectae quadra placentae. Cato r. r. 76=77.

60 PROMISSUS Phaedr. Iv 25=24 15 ad cenam mihi promitte. Plin. ep. I 15 § 1 heus tu. promittis ad cenam nec venis. Sen. ben, IV 39 § 3. ep. 82 § 21. Sen. suas. 2 § 12 Sabinus Asilius...cum hanc sententiam Leonidae rettulisset [άριστοποιείσθαι ως έν άδου δειπνησομένους], αit: ego illi ad prandium promisissem, ad cenam renuntiassem. 61 EVANDRUM Aen. VIII 100 tum res inopes Evandrus habebat. ib. 359–65 ad tecta subibant | pauperis Evandri: • . haec inquit limina victor | Alcides subiit; haec illum regia cepit. / aude hospes contemnere opes, et to quoque dignum | finge deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis. The entertainment on a seat of turf, Aeneas having the post of honour, a maple chair, ib. 180—3 viscera tosta ferunt taurorum onerantque canistris | dona laboratae Cereris Bacchumque ministrant. | vescitur Aeneas simul et Troiana iuventus | perpetui tergoʻ bovis et lustralibus extis. cf. Ov. m. XIV 456. mythogr. Vat. I fab. 202. Schwegler I 351-2. 357. 443.

VENIES 65 veniet. TIRYNTHIUS both as adj. (anth, Pal. 1x 237 XELOVTonálns. Kallim. Dian. 146 åkuwr. Ov. T. heros. Stat. T. pubes), and subst. (Verg. Ov. Stat.) applied to Hercules. His mother Alcmena is Tirynthia in Ov. (cf. Eur. Alk. 838).

62 CONTINGENS SANGUINE CAELUM VIII 7. Sen. apoc. 9 § 5 Hercules says cum divus Claudius et divum Augustum sanguine contingat, nec minus divam Augustam aviam suam, quam ipse deam esse iussit,...censeo uti divus

PLACENTAS

Claudius ex hac die deus sit. Sil. VIII 295—6 summumque per altos | attingebat avos caelum.

63 the two heroes, before their admission among the gods, pass through a discipline of puri. fication, the one washed in the Numicius, the other refined in the fires of Oeta.

AQUIS Tibull. II 5 43 44 illic sanctus eris [says the Sibyl to. Aeneas), cum te veneranda Numici, unda deum caelo miserit indigetem. Ov. m. XIV 581_608. Sery. Aen. IV 620. VII 150. 797. DH. 1 64. Tertull. ad nat. I1 9. Arnob. 1 36 indigetes illi qui in flumen repunt et in alveis Numici cum ranis et pisciculis degunt...flammis alter [Hercules] concrematus Oetaeis. Aug. c. D. XVIII 19 Aeneam, quoniam quando mortuus est non comparuit, deum sibi fecerunt Latini. The grave of Aeneas was shewn in many places DH. I 54. Festus p. 269 Romam. Schwegler i 287—8. 295. 299. 300. Preller röm. Myth. 1 520.

FLAMMIS Soph. Tr. Sen. Herc. Oet. Arnob. i 41. IV 25 Hildebrand. Minuc. Fel. 22 8 7 Hercules ut hominem exuat, Oetaeis ignibus concrematur, Sil. 111 43 44 fulget sacratis ignibus Oete, 1 ingentem que animam rapiunt ad sidera flammae. According to Iuba (hist. rom. I fr. 13 Müller from Plut. qu. rom. 59) Hercules taught Evander's people letters. cf. Tac. XI 14.

64–76 bill of fare cf. Hor. 8. 11 2 120–5. )( & sumptuous bill in Macr. III 13 (=119) $ 12.

64 FERCULA I 94 n. ORNATA Scholte cites Varr. r. r. III 9 & 17 gallinae in ornatibus publicis solent poni cum psittacis. Sen. ep. 95 g 27 mul. torum ferculorum ornamenta coeant. Mart. XIII 91 2 ambrosias ornent munera rara dapes.

MACELLLS 10. VI 40.. Mart. x 56 3 4 dives et ex omni posita est instructa macello | cena tibi. Burn Rome and the Campagna 221. 230. Hor. 8. 11 3 229 Heind. Mar. quardt v (2) 121.

65 TIBURTINO XIV 87 n. Here Iuv. had an estate.

66 HAEDULUS Hor. s. II 2 120 121 bene erat non piscibus urbe petitis, , sed pullo atque haedo. Mart. x 48 13 14 una ponetur cenula mensa | haedus inhumani raptus ab ore lupi.

INSCIUS HERBAE unweaned. 67 SALICTI Verg. g. II 434–6 salices humilesque genestae I aut illae pecori frondem... | sufficiunt. ib. III 175. 68 ET MONTANI like ending of the verse 71. 138. II 145. III 17. 120. 273 ad cenam si. IV 87. VI 296. VIII 218. & 88. XIII 191, XIV 165. in v 38 the 4th foot also is a spondee inaequales berullo. 68 69 MONTANI ASPARAGI V 82 n. Philem. fr. inc. 13 (in Stob. LVII 6) my garden is a physician and stints me to sick man's diet, bearing Tà πετραία ταύτ' όψάρια, κάππαριν, θύμον, | ασπάραγον, αυτά ταύτα. Plin. XIX § 145 omnium in hortis rerum lautissima cura asparagis...est et aliud genus incultius asparago, mitius corruda, passim etiam montibus nascens. Celsus il 29. Apic. III 3. Macr. III 13 (=II 9) § 12. edict Dioclet.'6 34 hortulani. 35 agrestes. Ath. 62. It is the last item in the dinner of herbs (anth. Pal. xı 413) from which the guest hurried in alarm lest the next course might be grass; a jest which recals that of Tiberius (Plin. l. c.) herbam ibi (in upper Germany) quandam nasci simillimam a sparago. Hehn Kulturpflanzen? (Berl. 1874) shews that not only names of fruit trees and of the instruments and vessels used in the preparation of fruits (especially grapes) for man's use, but names of flowers and vegetables (e.g. beet, cale, cauliflower, lettuce, lentil, mint, parsley) have come with the things themselves to modern Europe from the Romans,

69 VILICA Mart ıx 60 3 seu Praenestino

I

te vilica legit in horto. id. 1 55 11 12 pinguis inaequales onerat cui vilica mensas | et sua non emptus praeparat ova cinis. id. x 48 7.

70 CALENTIA FAENO fresh eggs were carried about in hay Mart. III 47 14 tuta faeno cursor ova portabat. Others make faenum the nest.

71 MATRIBUS Mart. VII 31 1 raucae chortis aves et ova matrum.

SERVATAE the various modes of keeping grapes, in an air-tight cask, in saw-dust etc. are described by Plin. xv SS 62—7. Varro r. r. I 54. Hor, s. II 2 121 122 pensilis uva secundas et nux ornabat mensas. ib. 4 71 72 Venucula convenit ollis, / rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. Aug. de mor. Manich..g 44 uvas suspensas atque servatas fieri mitiores dulciores salubriores.

72 PARTE the abl. is seldom used to denote duration Cic. n. d. II § 130 tota a estate [Nilus Aegyptum] obrutam oppletamque tenuit. Madvig $ 235 3. 73 SIGNINUM Colum. v 10 8 18 curandum est autem, ut quam generosissimis piris pomaria conseramus. ea sunt... Signina, Tarentina, quae Syria dicuntur. Plin. xv § 55 Signina, quae alii a colore testacea appellant. Macrob. 11 15 (=111 19) $ 6. Celsus (11 24 pira, quae reponuntur, Tarentina atque Signina) recommends them as wholesome. Signia (now Segni, with ruins of Cyclopean walls), a town of Latium, east of the Volscian hills, was founded by Tarquinius Superbus Liv. 1 56.

SYRIUM Plin. xv § 53 tanta vis suci abundat-lacte hoc vocaturin his [piris] quae alii colore nigro donant Syriae. Mart. v 78 12 13 marcentes tibi porrigentur uvae, I et nomen pira quae ferunt Syrorum. Verg. g. 11 88 Servius.

ISDEM the fruit is brought in baskets, and of them there are no more than is necessary,

74 PICENIS Hor. S. II 4 70 Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia suco. ib. 3 272. The pears of Picenum (iv 40 n.) were also in repute Plin. xv 55.

FRIGORE schol. "hieme, nam sicca poma non incitant morbum umore nocivo consumpto.' Holyday • winter's cold has dried | their autumn ; their raw juice they've laid aside.' Aug. de mor. Manich. § 43 multa enim carpta de arboribus, antequam ad cibum nostrum veniant, interpositione aliqua temporis meliora redduntur; ut...uvae, mala,.. et quaedam pira: et multa praeterea, quae et colorantur melius, dum non statim ut decerpta fuerint absumuntur, et corpore capiuntur salubrius et sapiunt in ore conditius.

77–89 In the good old times such a dinner was a feast for the senate already grown less frugal. Curius Dentatus pluckt in his little garden and drest with his own hands pottage at which now a days rogues that dig in chains, pampered in the cookshops of Rome, turn up their nose. For gala days a flitch of bacon on the rack, to which might be added a chance joint from some sacrifice, was a treat to which retired consuls and dictators would hasten, shouldering their mattocks before the wonted time.

77 IAM LUXURIOSA Plin. XVIII § 18 luxuriantis iam reipublicae fuit ista mensura.

Such once were the repasts of our senators, already luxurious when compared with the holus of Curius. With the following lines cf. vi 286–91. xiv 160—72. Prop. V=IV 1. Ov. f. 1 197–218. Hor. C. II 15. III 6 33–34. Marquardt v (2) 4.

78 CURIUS etc. II 3. 153. VIII 4 n. Manil. iv 148 149 Serranos Curiosque tulit, fascesque per arva tradidit, eque suo dictator venit aratro. Plin. xix § 87 M. Curium imperatorem, quem ab hostium legatis aurum repudiaturo adferentibus rapum torrentem in foco inventum annales nostri pro-. IUV. II.

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