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c. 9, Brandis 'Assyria' in Pauly 1', and Georgii art. Sard. ib. with the authorities cited. Modern writers place him (or them, for some make as many as four of the name) at dates varying from the 10th to the 7th cent.

In classical antiquity he is the typical voluptuary, and the last king of Assyria. Moderns (O. Müller, Movers etc.) find in him the Asiatia Hercules. W. C. Koopmans de Sard. Amst. 1819.

363 MONSTRO XIV 256. Gronovius on Sen, de ben. IV 28 shews that the word is technically used of physicians' prescriptions.

QUOD IPSE TIBI POSSIS DARE Cic, n. d. III SS 86–8 hoc quidem omnes mortales sic habent, externas commoditates, vineta, segetes, oliveta, ubertatem frugum et fructuum, omnem denique commoditatem prosperitatemque vitae a dis se habere; virtutem autem nemo umquam acceptam deo rettulit. nimirum recte; propter virtutem enim iure laudamur et in virtute recte gloriamur: quod non contingeret, si id donum a deo, non a nobis haberemus ......iudicium hoc omnium' mortalium est, fortunam a deo petendam, & se ipso, sumendam esse sapien. tiam. id. Cat. mai. § 4. Hor. ep. 1 18 111--2 sed satis est orare Iovem, qui ponit et aufert, | det vitam, det opes; aequum mi animum ipse parabo. Obbar ib. cites many parallels. cf. the distinction in Epikt. man. 1 between the things which are and the things which are not éo nuiv. It is the Stoic aútápkela Sen. ep. 9 g 19. 27 § 3 aliquod potius bonum mansurum circumspice. nullum autem est, nisi quod animus ex se sibi invenit. 31 8 3 unum bonum est......sibi fidere. 41 & 1 bonam mentem, quam stultum est optare, cum possis a te inpetrare. 80 SS3--5. Lasaulx Studien 146 adds Isokr. ad Demon. $ 34. Liv. XXXVII 45 § 11; but also passages from Bias, Pindar, Simonides, Kallimachos, which agree with Christian principle 1 Cor. 4 7. Markland cites in contrast 2 Cor. 3 5. Phil. 2 13. SEMITA properly a narrow track Phaedr. III prol. 38 ego illius pro semita feci viam. Mart. vii 61 4 et modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est. Often'used metaphorically Hor. ep. 1 18 103 fallentis semitą, vitae. Obbar on Hor. ib. 17 26.

365 366 the same verses XIV 315 316 n. NULLUM NUMEN HABES Ov. f. vi 241 Mens quoque numén habet. amor. III 9 18 sunt etiam, qui nos (poets) numen habere putent. [Sen.] Oct. 933 nullum pietas nunc numen habet. Mart. VIII 80 6 et casa tam culto sub Iove numen habet.

HABES, SI SIT 339 n.

PRUDENTIA Sen. ep. 85 e. g. § 2 prudens beatus est et prudentia ad beatam vitam satis est. 88 36—8.

366 xIII 18 n. 20. Preller röm. Myth. 552–64. Philem. in Clem. Al. str. v § 129 oủk čoTLV nuîv deula Túxn Debs. Sen. n. q. III pr. $S 11–15. ep. 74. 98 e. g. § 2 errant,......qui aut boni aliquid nobis aut mali iudicant tribuere fortunam. de prov. 6 $ 6. de const. sap. 15 § 3 vincit nos fortuna, nisi tota vincitur. cf. Haase’s ind. s. V. fortuna. Plin. II § 22 invenit......sibi ipsa mortalitas numen......toto quippe mundo et omnibus locis omnibusque horis omnium vocibus Fortuna sola invocatur ac nominatur,...... adeoque obnoxiae sumus sortis, ut sors ipsa pro deo sit, qua deus probatur incertus. Lact. III 29 & 1 fortuna ergo per se nihil est. $7 is plane vulgi et imperitorum opinionibus credit, qui Fortunam putant esse, quae hominibus tribuat bona et mala. nam simulacrum eius cum copia et gubernaculo fingunt, tamquam haec et opes tribuat et humanarum rerum regimen obtineat. § 17 Fortunae vocabulum sibi inane finxerunt: quod quam longe a sapientia sit remotum, declarat Iuvenalis his versibus NULLUM......LOCAMUS. $ 18 stultitia igitur et error et caecitas et, ut Cicero [Acad. 1 & 29] ait, ignoratio rerum atque causarum Naturae ac Fortunae nomina induxit. Aug. civ. Dei IV 18 19.

ADDENDA.

30 Greg. Νaz. Οr. 4 72 την Ηρακλείτου κατήφειαν. 36 four white horses Serv. Aen. IV 543. cf. DH. II 34.

50 VERVECUM Synes. 516 el yàp émbol pilogopelv Tois kplois. In the schools Odysseus and Demokritos were the stock examples of the topic though he came of a little birthplace, he won renown' Theon progymn. in Spengel rhet. Ir 111 23.

55 GENUA Serv. Aen. III 607 physici dicunt esse consecratas numinibus singulas corporis partes......genua Misericordiae: unde haec tangunt rogantes.

71 EPISTULA Tac. III 44 many blamed Tiberius, because in tanto rerum motu libellis accusatorum insumeret operam. an Sacrovirum maiestatis crimine reum in senatu fore? extitisse tandem viros, qui cruentas epistulas armis cohiberent.

117 custos ad Herenn. IV $ 65 pedisequo puerorum. App. b.c. II 30.

271 272 CANINO RICTT Serv. Aen. III 6.
274 R. Schubert de Croeso et Solone fabula. Reg. 1868.

277 Ov. Pont. IV 3 45–47 ille Iugurthino clarus Cimbroque triumpho, ' quo victrix totiens consule Roma fuit, I in caeno Marius iacuit canna que palustri. ib. 37 38 Croesus (Iuv. 274 .275). 41–43 Pompeius (Iuv. 283–6).

314 LAQUEOS Sen. Hippol. 124 125 Venus | per nos catenas vindicat Martis sui.

325 HIPPOLYTO Welcker gr. Trag. 394-402.

XI

At the time of the Megalesian games (193), early in April, Iuv. invites his friend Persicus to a frugal dinner.

THE rich epicure is admired; the poor, derided: our housekeeping and our whole plan of life should be in just proportion to our means (1-38). Many, it is true, neglect this golden rule; they riot for a while at Romé, and then retire to Baiae, to avoid their creditors (38—55).

To-day, my friend, you may judge whether I practise the frugality which I preach; whether I live like the worthies of those good old times when heaven itself guarded our city (56—119), or, like their pampered descendants, can relish no meal but such as is served on the costliest tables, by the most expert and elegant slaves (120–161). Let richer men enliven their feasts by voluptuous songs and dances: here you may listen, if you will, to Homer or his rival Virgil (162—182).

Leave then all care behind you; leave to younger men the dissipation of the Circus, and spend the festival with me in enjoyments better suited to our years (183—208).

Whether Persicus is a real or fictitious character does not appear; it is not certain that Iuvenal would have hesitated to address a living friend in such verses as 186 seq.

Cf. Hor. 8. II 2. ep. 1 5. Mart. ~ 78. X 48. XI 52. Plin. ep. 1 15; on luxurious furniture Clem. Al. paed. II C. 3; and on the frugal life of the old Romans VM. IV 4.

1-23 the cost of our table must be proportioned to our means; what is due state in Atticus, is stark madness in Rutilus. Many men waste their estate in dainty living, till at last they are fain to enlist as swordplayers, and put up with the hodge-podge of the trainer's barrack. 1 21 22. 171–8. cf. VIII 182 n.

ATTICUS Ti. Claudius Atticus (father of Herodes Atticus), who discovered an immense treasure, the entire enjoyment of which was allowed him by Nerva (Philostr. soph. 111 g 3. Zonar. XI 20). He was twice consul (Philostr. § 1. Suid. 'Hpúons), the first time before 859 u.c., for he must have been the Atticus consular legate of Syria in the tenth year of Trajan (Eus. h.e. III 32 88 3. 6).' BORGHESI Quvres y 532—3. LAUTUS I 67 n. Varro in Gell. XIII 11 $ 5.

2 RUTILUS XIV 18 a MAIORE CACHINNO III 100,

CACHINNO III 152–3 n. 3 APICIUS IV 23 n. Apion the grammarian wrote a mono.

poor noble.

THERMAE

graph on his luxury Ath. 294.

4 CONVICTUS I 145 n. Quintil. vi 3 § 27 in convictibus et quotidiano sermone.

Mart. XII praef. civitatis aures, quibus assueveram, quaero, et videor mihi in alieno foro litigare. si quid est enim, quod in libellis meis placeat, dictavit auditor. illam iudiciorum subtilitatem, illud materiarum ingenium, bybliothecas, theatra, convictus, in quibus studere se voluptates non sentiunt, ad summam omnia illa, quae delicati reliquimus, desideramus quasi destituti. cf. Friedländer 13 333. 343–8. VII 233 n. Mart. v 20 8—10 of an easy life of enjoyment, sed gestatio, fabulae, libelli, | campus, porticus, umbra, virgo, thermae, | haec essent loca semper, hi labores.

STATIONES Plin. ep. i 13 § 2 plerique in stationibus sedent, tempusque audiendi fabulis conterunt. ib. 119 5 5 ambio domos stationesque circumeo. Gell. XIII 13 § 1 cum ex angulis secretisque librorum ac magistrorum in medium iam hominum et in lucem fori prodissem, quaesitum esse memini in plerisque Romae stationibus ius publice docentium aut respondentium, an quaestor populi Romani a praetore in ius vocari posset. dig. XLVII 10 15 8 7 ad stationem vel tabernam. Thorlacii prolusiones et opusc. acad. Copenh. 1806 n. 5. oUOTáoels. Néoxal. Special stationes near the forum for provincial towns Suet. Ner. 37. Plin. XVI S 236.

5 DE RUTILO supply loquuntur XIII 181. XIV 189. Madvig § 447 d. Nägelsbach § 183. VALIDA AC IUVENALIA MEMBRA as ) ( iuvenilis iuvenalis connotes praiseworthy qualities, manly vigour. Verg. Aen. v 475 quae fuerint iuvenali in corpore vires. Ov. am. 1 5 22 quam iuvenale femur! So iuvenaliter. See Mühlmann and Döderlein Synon. v 49. 6 GALEAE VII 33 patiens cassidis. he might have won honour in the field of battle (Quintil.] decl. 9 § 9 facinus indignum, illum animum, illum ardorem non contigisse castris, non bellicis certaminibus, ubi verae virtuti nulla pugnandi lege praemium praescribitur! Calpurn. decl. 50 'INFAMIS NON MILITET. vir fortis in piratas incidit; rescripsit patri de redemptione; illo cessante, redemit eum lanista et rudem ei in harena dedit. reverso belli tempore denuntiat militiam imperator.' cf. Iuv. VIII 199 n.

FERTUR ‘is reported;' it is the fabula of every lounge.

7 COGENTE VIII 193 n. The tribune (cf. VII 228 n.) has not indeed assigned over Rutilus's estate to his creditors, and so driven him to engage himself to the lanista for his bread; (Rutilius is not damnatus ad ferrum dig. XXVIII 1 8 § 4. Gai. 1 13. Ulp. I 11); but yet he has not interposed to save him from a degradation worse than slavery (VIII 199 n.). Prohibeo was the technical form of intercessio on behalf of a citizen Gell. vI=vir 19 g 5, and the chief function of the tribunate was jealously to guard the freedom of Roman citizens. Mommsen Staatsrecht 12 27 n. 2. 255 n. 2. 266 n. 7.

SED NEC Ov. Pont. 1 1 19 nec vos hoc vultis, sed nec prohibere potestis. Mart. VỊ 75 4. X 18 2 (cited XII 97 n.) Hand. rv 117.

NEC PROHIBENTE Stat. S. 1 2 193 nec me prohibente.

8 v 122 n. Sen. ep. 87 and 99 (cited viii 199 n.). Quintil. decl. 9. 302 'quidam ut patrem sepeliret, auctoravit se: die munere productus sub titulo causae rudem postulante populo accepit: postea patrimonium statutum per leges equitibus acquisivit, prohibetur gradibus' (the law enacting ‘gladiator in quattuordecim gradibus ne sedeat') p. 586 Burman si creditor post datam pecuniam operas remisisset, diceres eum gladiatorem fuisse!...illum ergo maiores prohibuerunt theatro, qui utilitate, qui gula se auctorasset. Freemen who engaged themselves as gladiators (se auctorabant), were sworn to obedience Petron. 117 in verba Eumolpi sacramentum iuravimus,

uri, vinciri, verberari ferroque necari et quicquid aliud Eumolpus iussisset, tamquam legitimi gladiatores domino corpora ani, masque religiosissime addicimus. Sen. ep. 37 ss 1 2 illius tur. pissimi auctoramenti verba sunt: "uri, vinciri ferroque necari.' ab his, qui manus harenae locant et edunt ac bibunt, quae per sanguinem reddant, cavetur, ut ista vel inviti patiantur. cf. [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 22 venit in harenam homo nec sceleratus nec infelix. ecquando, iudices, hoc audistis! cf. Hor. S. II 7 59 Heindorf. The lanistae are called doctores (VM. II 3 & 2 ex ludo C. Aurelii Scauri doctoribus gladiatorum arcessitis vitandi atque inferendi ictus subtiliorem rationem legionibus ingeneravit. Quintil. decl. 302. Friedländer 113 where e.g. doctores myrmillonum from inscriptions) or magistri (Cic. de or. III 86 magister hic Samnitium...quotidie commentatur); their lessons, dicțata Suet. Caes. 26 Casaubon. Tert. ad mart. 1 nec tantus ego sum, ut vos alloquar; verumtamen et gladiatores perfectissimos non tantum magistri et praepositi sui, sed etiam idiotae et supervacui quique adhortantur de longinquo, ut saepe de ipso populo dictata suggesta profuerint.

SCRIBTURUS esse cf. publ. sch. Lat. gr. & 99 1 a p. 346.

LANISTAE III 158 n. Sen, ep. 87 § 15 quod contemptissimo cuique contingere ac turpissimo potest, bonum non est; opes autem et lenoni et lanistae contingunt. Spartian. Hadr. 18. Quintil. decl. 9 § 22. 278. The fallen noble's rex, from whom he receives laws, is a lanista! cf. v 170—3 n. on the voluntary slavery of trencher-knights. [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 7 tenenti servilia arma et ignominiosa morte perituro. § 22 illud vero existimo gravius, nomen gladiatoris accipere, subire dominum lanistam. an ille animus rediret in cellulam, ferret saginam, magistrum, personam denique sceleris ? ib. § 15 fin. piratis lanistisque. § 12 fin, calamitatum mearum gradus, piratam, lanistam.

10 Hor, s. 1 2 9 omnia conductis coemens obsonia nummis.

MACELLI 64 n. v 95 n. Ter. eun. 255—8 ad macellum ubi advenimus, | concurrunt laeti mi obviam cuppedinarii omnes, | cetarii, lanii, coqui, fartores, piscatores, | quibus et re salva et perdita profueram.

11 QUIBUS IN SOLO VIVENDI CAUSA PALATO EST XII 50 51. Gell. xix 2 8 7 (thence Macr. II 8 § 16. cf. Wytt. on Plut. II 21) Socrates quidem dicebat multos homines propterea velle vivere ut ederent et biberent, se bibere atque esse ut viveret. Aug. de magistro 9 $ 26. VIVENDI CAUSA VIII 84 n.

12 EGREGIUS many exx, of such forms (e.g. sobrior, industrior) in Kühner (1877) 1 370. Haase on Reisig p. 172. Neue 112 112—4. 689. cf. Madvig adv. I 117. Sen, de clem. 1 13 8 2 noxior. Piissimus, which Cic. ridicules as a barbarism in Antonius (Phil. 13 § 43), is found in Tac. Sen. etc.

13 ET CITO CASURUB I 33 34 magni delator amici | et cito rapturus. On the rare use of the part. see Kiaer 185.

II 78. Sen. Herc. f. 1001 perlucet omnis regia. Holyday 'he's set on riot most, that still is most in debt, I and soon must fall; you may see through the rent.' 14 INTEREA while ruin threatens.

Gustus here (cf. visus) con. crete of the thing tasted=sapores. Colum. III 2 8 5 a site for a vineyard in quo gustus nobilis pretiosusque fluit. Petron. 77 fin. profer et unguentum et ex illa amphora gustum (of wine), ex qua iubeo lavari ossa mea.

ELEMENTA through air, earth, and water v 94 n. Luc. x 155—169 e.g. infudere epulas auro, quod terra, quod aer, I quod pelagus, Nilusque dedit, quod luxus inani | ambitione furens toto quaesivit in orbe, I non mandante fame. Quintil. v 10 & 21. Gell. vi=VII 16 8 6 peragrantis gulae et in sucos inquirentis industriam atque has undique

PERLUCENTE

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