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Alc. 11 you will find that some have prayed for the birth of children, and when they have been born, have fallen into the greatest calamities and sorrows' etc. Sen. ben. 11 11 § 1 in liberis tollendis nihil iudicio tollentium licet: tota res voti est. id. ep. 59 § 2 we commonly say magnum gaudium nos......ex nuptiis aut ex partu uxoris percepisse, quae adeo non sunt gaudia, ut saepe initia futurae tristitiae sint.

352-3 ILLIS NOTUM, QUI PUERI QUALISQUE FUTURA SIT UXOR Sen. cons. ad Marc. 17 § 6 (Natura speaks) tu si filios sustuleris, poteris habere formosos et deformes poteris: fortasse muti nascentur. id. ben. IV 32 g 1 it is probable that the gods are indulgent, as to some for their parents' and ancestors' sakes, so to others for the sake of their posterity. nota enim illis est operis sui series omniumque illis rerum suas per manus iturarum scientia in aperto semper est, nobis ex abdito subit et quae repentina putamus, illis provisa veniunt ac familiaria. DL. VI S 63 Diogenes, when some were sacrificing to the gods for the gift of a son, asked: Tepi Toù nodaròs εκβή ου θύετε; DCass. LΧΙΣ 20 33 το μεν γεννώμενον, όποιον αν δόξη των δαιμονίω, γίγνεται. QUALIS UXOR prov. 19 14.

354 Et not only submit to what is appointed, but also prefer a petition. et=etiam 43. 320. 1 57. II 143. III 305.

IX 27. XI 177.

XIV 4. 228 (Kiaer). 355 EXTA e.g. lungs, liver and heart. DULI DIVINA TOMACULA PORCI satirical exaggeration, Mart. x1 57 4. cf. for the tone 1 84. On the offering XIII 117—8 alba porci | omenta. A pig was slaughtered on the occasion of a marriage Varr, r. ř. 11 4 § 9 nupti. arum initio antiqui reges ac sublimes viri in Hetruria, in coniunc.. tione nuptiali nova nupta et novus maritus primum porcum immolant. § 10 Prisci quoque Latini et etiam Graeci in Italia ideni factitasse videntur. In the reliefs on the sarcophagus preserved in S. Lorenzo's church, between Rome and Tivoli, which represent marriage ceremonies, we find a popa ready to offer a swine Rossbach Untersuchungen üb. d. röm. Ehe 378–81. In the time of Iuv, it was still the practice for the bride, on entering her new home, to rub the door-posts with swine's (or wolf's) fat. ib. 356–9. Plin. XXVIII § 135 proxuma in communibus adipi laus est, sed maxime suillo, apud antiquos etiam religiosius. certe novae nuptae intrantes etiamnum sollemne habent postis eo attingere. Athen. III 962 the Argives sacrificed a pig to Aphrodite.

DIVINA a feast for gods.

TOMACULA (from réuvw) 'mince-meat,' “sausages' Petr. 31 served piping hot on a grid-iron tomacula super craticulam argenteam ferventia posita. ib. 49. Mart. 1 41 9—10 hawked about the streets fumantia qui tomacla raucus circumfert tepidis cocus popinis.

356 ORANDUM EST UT SIT MENS SANA IN CORPORE SANO Hor. C. 1 31 17–19 frui paratis et valido mihi, | Latoe, dones ac, precor, integra | cum mente. Petron. 88 quis, inquam, venit in templum et votum fecit, si ad eloquentiam pervenisset? quis, si philosophiae fontem attigisset? ac ne bonam quidem mentem aut bonam valetudinem petunt, sed statim antequam limen Capitolii tangant, alius donum promittit, si propinquum divitem extulerit, alius, si thesaurum effoderit, alius, si ad trecenties sestertium salvus pervenerit. ib. 61 omnes bonam mentem bonamque valetudinem sibi optarunt. Sen. ep. 10 § 4 votorum tuorum veterum licet deis gratiam facias, alia de integro suscipe: roga bonam mentem, bonam valetudinem animi, deinde tunc corporis. quidni tu ista vota saepe facias ? DCass. LXIX 20 $ 3 åptiuedû kal åprivovv.


357 FORTEM POSCE ANIMUM, MORTIS TERRORE CARENTEM VIII 83—4. Cic. Tusc. II § 43. Verg. g. 11 490—2. Hor. s. 11 7 84. ep. II 2 207. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 20 e.g. § 1 o ignaros malorum suorum quibus non mors ut optimum inventum naturae laudatur exspectaturque. ep. 4 e.g. $S 3–4 nullum magnum, quod extremum est. mors ad te venit: timenda erat, si tecum esse posset. necesse est aut ne perveniat aut transeat. ' difficile esť inquis animum perducere ad contemptionem animae.'...... § 5 plerique inter mortis metum et vitae tormenta miseri fluctuant: et vivere nolunt et mori nesciunt. See many other passages in Haase's ind. mors. The Stoics argued (1) that nothing natural is evil; (2) that life as such is no good; (3) that nothing glorious is evil, but death may be glorious; and elaborated a theory of suicide, which was illustrated by many examples, esp. Catonis nobile letum. Baumhauer vet. philosoph. doctr. de morte voluntaria, Trai. ad Rh. 1842, 213—9. 320. Arr. Epikt. 1 9 SS 13 14. 24 SS 4 6 Muson. ap. Stob. fl. xxix 78 II 15 14 and 23 M. See the doctrine of Sokrates in Plat. apol. 40a seq. Phaed. 61° seq. 80b seq. Plut. cons. ad Apoll. 12—3. pp. 107–8; that of the Epicureans in DL. x SS 81. 124—7. Lucr. III 37–93. 830—977. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. hyp. III § 229 seq. Zeller 111° 1 387–8. The question whether death is an evil' is fully discussed in Cic. Tusc. I SS 9–119. See Lasaulx Studien 459–494 de mortis domi. natu in veteres.' Nägelsbach hom. Theol.2 376–80. nachhom. Theol. 392—9. Wetst. on Hebr. 2 15. The frequent occurrence of in pace, spiritus in pace, and the olive branch in early Christian inscriptions, tells of the better hope' which had lit up the grave.

358-9 QUI SPATIUM VITAE EXTREMUM INTER MUNERA NATURAE no caesura in 3rd or 4th foot, so XIV 108 inviti quoque avaritiam exercere iubentur. cf. Lachmann on Lucr. vi 1067. L. Müller de re metr. 369. With the thought cf. Cic. Cat. mai. § 5 it is not probable that Nature, like an idle poet, should slur over the last act of life. Plin. VII § 190 perdit profecto ista dulcedo credulitasque (the belief in immortality] praecipuum naturae bonum, mortem. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 19 $$ 4—5 cogita nullis defunctum malis adfici, illa quae nobis inferos faciunt terribiles, fabulam esse . . . luserunt ista poetae et vanis nos agitavere terroribus. mors dolorum omnium exsolutio est et finis. In many passages Seneca approaches to the Christian view of death and the life to come ep. 102 23 per has mortalis aevi moras illi meliori vitae longiorique proluditur. § 26 dies iste, quem tamquam extremum reformidas, aeterni natalis est. Sil. XI 186—8 nullo nos invida tanto | armavit natura bono, quam ianua mortis quod patet. cf. Zeller 11 1 187—8. Lightfoot on Phil. pp. 286. 320-—3. Wetst. on Phil. 1 21.

359 QUOSCUMQUE indefinite=quoslibet III 156. 230. XIII 56. 89. XIV 42. 117. 210. cf. x 271 utcumque. Observe the rime labores potiores labores 359–361. cf. L. Müller de re metr. 457—8 and Cic. Tusc. I $8 69. 85. Ri. Johnson against Bentley p. 87 cites Aen. III 656—7. IV 256—7. V 385-6. VI 843–4. VIII 620_1. cf. Hom. Od. ix 185—6 n. Aen. II 124-5. Ov. m. VIII 360_1. 386—7. Hor. a. p. 99–100. On the repetition of labores see n. on 191–2. XIV 47–8. 360 NESCIAT IRASCI Sen. de ir. II 6 argues against the doctrine that virtue turpibus irata esse debet. see on the Stoic apathy' Cic. fin. III $ 35. Tusc. IV SS 10 seq. 34 seq. acad. 1 $ 38. DL. VII SS 113–4. Zeller II 1 204-216.

CUPIAT NIHIL 4-5 n. Chrysippus in Sen. ep. 9 8 14 sapientem nulla re egere, et tamen multis illi rebus opus esse.

361 HERCULIS II 19-20 peiores, qui talia verbis | Herculis invadunt. VIII 14 n. HERCULIS AERUMNAS Plaut, Pers. I 1 2 seq. cf. the labours of Bellerophon, Perseus, Theseus, Ulixes, and of Psyche in Apuleius (Friedländer 13 445 seq.). Cic. fin. II § 118 to an Epicurean percontare ipse te, perpetuisne malis voluptatibus perfruens in ea quam saepe usurpabas, tranquillitate degere omnem aetatem sine dolore,... cum de omnibus gentibus optime mererere, ......vel Herculis pati aerumnas? sic enim maiores nostri labores non fugiendos tristissimo tamen verbo aerumnas etiam in deo nominaverunt. ib. v § 95 ut ubi virtus sit resque magnae et summe laudabiles virtute gestae, ibi esse miseria et aerumna non possit, tamen labor possit, possit molestia. A Stoic paradox was that virtue is sufficient for happiness Cic. parad. II 16 nec vero ego M. Regulum aerumnosum nec infelicem nec miserum umquam putavi. id. fin. III § 42. v SS 79—83 Regulus as happy as Metellus. Quintil. VIII 3 § 26 aerumnas quid opus est [dicere]? tamquam parum sit si dicatur quid horridum. cf. Forcell. Orig. c. Cels. III 66 cites as acknowledged examples of perfect life, among heroes Herakles and Odysseus. Sen. const. sap. 2 g 1 the gods have given to us in Cato a more certain model of a sage than they gave to early ages in Ulixes and Hercules. hos enim Stoici nostri sapientes pronuntiaverunt, invictos laboribus, contemptores voluptatis et victores omnium terrarum. id. ben. 1 13 g 3 in contrast with Alexander, a brigand from childhood, Hercules nihil sibi vicit: orbem terrarum transivit non concupiscendo, sed vindicando. cf. the famous myth of Prodicus (Xen, men. II 1 $ 21, Cic. off. I § 118 Beier). Hercules is distinctly called a phi. losopher. Max. Tyr. 21 § 6 Herakles was wise; yet not for himself wise, but his wisdom extended over every land and sea. It was he that was the exterminator of beasts of prey, chastiser of tyrants, liberator of slaves, legislator of the free, establisher of righteousness, inventor of laws, truthful in words, reformer in deeds. But if Herakles had chosen to retire and live at ease and in leisure, and to pursue an inactive wisdom, he would have been instead of Herakles a sophist, and no one would have dared to call him son of Zeus. ib. 3 $ 7. 58 8. 31 § 7. 38 8 7 on the pleasure and reward which he derived from his labours, chron. pasch. 1 78 Bonn 'in the days of king Phoenix was Herakles the philo. sopher, surnamed the Tyrian, who discovered the purple dye.' Tzetz. chil. v 129–33 Herakles wrote an inscription (in hexameters which are given 135—7), for he was universally accomplished, poet, astrologer, philosopher, magician, physician, and all else that Orpheus and other authors describe him to have been. Serv. Aen. I 741 constat enim Herculem fuisse philosophum: et est ratio, cur omnia illa monstra vicisse dicatur. More than one treatise of Antisthenes, founder of the cynic school, bore the name of Herakles DL. VI SS 16. 18. He shewed that labour was a good by the examples of Herakles and Cyrus ib. § 3. Eus. praep. eV. XV 13 8 7 p. 8165 'Αντισθένης, Ηρακλεωτικός τις ανήρ το opovnua. epist. Socrat. 9 Aristippos to Antisthenes in mockery: 'I will send you large white beans, that when you have exhibited Herakles to your pupils, you may have something to munch.' cf. Auson. epigr. 27. 28. Kleanthes was called a second Herakles DL. VII $ 170. Apul. Al. IV 22 of Crates, follower of Diogenes, quod Herculem olim poetae memorant monstra illa immania hominum ac ferarum virtute subegisse orbemque terrae purgasse, similiter adversum iracundiam et invidiam atque libidinem ceteraque animi humani monstra et flagitia philosophus iste


Hercules fuit. eas' omnes pestes mentibus exegit, familias purgavit, malitiam perdomuit; seminudus et ipse et clava insignis. id. mag. 22 for the resemblance in exterior between the hero and the Cynics. They bear the club Aug. civ. D. XIV 20 we still see Cynic philosophers; hi enim sunt, qui non solum amiciuntur pallio, verum etiam clavam ferunt. id. c. Acad. III § 17 of the braggart Academic de omnium scholis non ferulis, quod esset deformius quam molestius, sed illorum palliatorum

lavis et fustibus proicietur. non enim magnum negotium erit contra communem pestem velut Herculea quaedam postulare auxilia Cyni. corum. Sidon, ep. IV 11. Ix 9 p. 579 non caesariem pascere, neque pallio aut clava velut sophisticis insignibus gloriari, Prud. hamart. 401 hinc gerit Herculeam vilis sapientia clavam. The Cynic Alkidamas Lucian conviv. 16 to a bride προπίνω σοι, ω Κλεανθι, Ηρακλέους αρχηγέτου. And when all laughed, έγαλάσατε, ώ καθάρματα, εί τη νύμφη προϋπιον επί του ημετέρου θεού του Ηρακλέους; he then compares himself to his patron god in indomitable strength, in freedom of mind, in robust body, which he exhibits in order to prove his point; he might have done some mischief with his club, if he had not chanced to espy & large cake. The Cynic asks ib. Cynic. 13 do you think that Herakles, the bravest of all men, a man divine and justly esteemed a god, roamed abroad because of his unhappiness, with no attire but a skin, and with none of your wants ? nay, he was not unhappy, who relieved others also from suffering ; nor yet poor, who was master of earth and sea,' etc. id. vit. auct. 8 Diogenes is asked Whom do you emulate ?' Herakles." Why then do you not also don the lion's skin? for as to the club, in that you are like him.' “ This threadbare cloak is my lion's skin, like him I wage war upon pleasures, not by order, but of my own free will, making it my vocation to purge life of them.” id. Demon. 1 Sostratos of Boeotia, & contemporary called Herakles by the Greeks, for his bodily strength and his labours in suppressing brigandage, making roads through trackless wilds and building bridges. DChrys. or. 4 1 151–2 R‘men of old called by the name of sons of Zeus those who enjoyed virtuous training, and were brave of soul, trained like the famous Herakles. Iulian or. 6 p. 187 S the more generous Cynics aver that the great Herakles also, as he became the author of our other blessings, so also left to mankind the chief pattern of this (Cynic] life too.' Eus. pr. ev. xv 4 797b • those Herakleian and divine doctrines, that virtue is a thing strong and exquisitely fair, never lacking anything for happiness, never parted from it, but though poverty, disease, disgrace, torments, burning pitch and the cross, and all sufferings of tragedy should pour upon him at once, still the just man is happy and blessed The Christian fathers have an easy task in accepting the challenge Quis pituperavit? [Iust. mart.] or. ad gent. 3. Theodoret. gr. aff. cur. VIII p. 113 27 άνδρα ου σώφρονα ουδέ φιλοσοφίαν ηγαπηκότα, αλλ' ακολασία και λαγνεία ξυνεβηκότα. . Clem. Al. protr. 2 § 33. Arnob. IV 26. (Partly from Brucker. I have not seen G. C. Mezger de Hercule sapientis stoici exemplo. Aug. Vind, 1829. 4to). 362 PLUMA 1 159 n. Tibull, 1 2 77. Sen. de prov. 3 § 10 of Maecenas tam vigilabit in pluma, quam ille (Regulus) in cruce etc. Mart. ix 92 3 4 dat tibi securos vilis tegeticula somnos, | pervigil in pluma Gaius ecce iacet. Cypr. ad Donat. 12 of the rich man cum epulis marcidum corpus torus mollior alto sinu condidit, vigilat in pluma nec intellegit miser, speciosa sibi esse supplicia, auro se alligatum teneri, et possideri magis quam possidere. Cic. Att. « 8 $ 7 nisi forte me Sardanapalli JUV. II.


vicem in meo lectulo mori malle censueris quam in exsilio Themistocles. Max. Tyr. 10 $ 9.

SARDANAPALLI schol. S. rex Assyriorum luxuriosus. de quo Tullius in tertio de republica sic ait: S. ille vitiis multo quam nomine ipso deformior. Contrasted with Hercules also by Kleomedes meteor. ΙΙ 8 91 εί τις τον Σ. επινοήσεις περί καρτερίας το Ηρακλεί συγκρίνεσθαι επιχειρούντα. His effeminacy proverbial paroem. gr. II 207 Leutsch Eapo. ÉTÈ Tv åßpodialtwv. ib. 600 πάναβρος Σ. επί των τρυφώντων και πολυόλβων. ib. 1 449. Epiktet. diss. 1 22 30 Happiness is not in royalty. Else Nero would have been happy and Sard. See Bähr's Ctesias 424-436. DS. II 21–28. Iust. 13 S. the last king of Assyria, vir muliere corruptior. Arbactus, general of the Medes, having with difficulty gained admission to his presence, found him inter scortorum greges purpuras colo nentem et muliebri habitu, cum mollitia corporis et oculorum lascivia omnes feminas anteiret, pensa inter virgines partientem. quibus visis indig. natus tali feminae tantum virorum subiectum tractantesque ferrum et arma habentes parere, progressus ad socios quid viderit refert: negat se ei parere posse, qui se feminam malit esse quam virum. The plot is successful; Sard. burns himself with his treasures. cf. Oros. 1 19. Plut. de Alex. fort. 1 2 p. 326f Fortune placed the royal diadem on the head of S. troppúpav čalvovti. ib. 2 3 p. 336 anyone seeing the life or tomb (for they are the same thing) of S. would say that it was a trophy constructed of Fortune's blessings. id. comm. notit. 13 § 4 p. 1065. [Plut.] pro nobil. 10 § 2 in Stob. fl. LXXXVIII 12 Sokrates more noble than 8. Lucian dial. mort. 2 § 1 s. in the lower world laments, remembering rîs tollas Tpuoñs. ib. 20 8 2 Menippos wishes to cuff, or to spit upon S. åvopoyúvų ye Örti. cf. necyom. 18. rhet. praec. 11 právaßpóv tuva 2. Iupp. conf. 16 2. Onlus óv. Iupp. trag. 48 think of the poverty of Sokrates, Ari. steides, Phokion, εν όσοις δε αγαθοίς Καλλίας και Μειδίας και Σ. υπερτρυPôrtes. DChrys. 1 1 1 12 D. not even Marsyas or Olympos could have roused S. ek toll Oaláuov tapà twv yuvalkwy. ib. 2 1 27 20 his jewels. ib. 3 1 51 27 proverbial for his softness. ib. 62 11 202 full account of his effeminate dress, attitude, complexion, 8v ook qv diayvoval Twy mallakwv. ib. 64 11 207 28. 78 11 280 8 .thinking S. to be envied, who said that he spent his life in feasting and wantonness with eunuchs and women.' Tert. de pallio 4 p. 938 Oehler. Mart. xi 11 5 6 te potare decet gemma, qui Mentora frangis ( in scaphium moechae, Sardanapalle, tuae. Athen. 294o. 412d. 528–530€. Aug. civ. Dei 11 20 fin. DCass. LXXVIII 22 85. LXXIX 1 § 1. 2 § 4. 10 & 2. 11 § 3. 13 (in this book a nickname of Avitus or Pseudantoninus). Clem. Al. str. 1 § 159. paed. III § 70. Opposed to Cyrus Max. Tyr. 21 & 8. ib. 1 $ 5. 3 SS 3. 9. 13 § 7. The authorities for two epitaphs of S. are collected in Näke's Choerilus 196—256; the one in Assyrian characters at Anchiale Strabo 672 (cf. Arr. anab. 11 58 4. Ath. 530b) S. son of Anakyndaraxes built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day: eat, drink, and be merry, čo0le, Tive, taige, for all else is not worth this' (a snap of the fingers, cf. 1 Cor. 15 32): the other a Chaldean inscription on the tomb of Sard. at Nineveh, translated by Choerilus (Ath. 529f) into Greek. DChrys. 4 1 89 20 Dind. Ath. 335f seq. 4124, Clem. Αl. str. ΙΙ 8 118. DS. II 23 ταύτ' έχω όσσέφαγον και εφύβρισα και μετ' έρωτος | τέρπν έπαθον, τα δε πολλά και όλβια κείνα λέλειπται, an epitaph, as Aristotle (Cic. Tusc. .v § 101 Dav. finn. II § 106. cf. Ath. 335*) says, fitter for an ox than a king. On S. the conqueror, the mighty hunter, his stately palaces, and rich library of brick books, of which fragments are preserved in the British Museum, see Rawlinson's five great monarchies

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