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FORMOSISSIMUS

C. Silius consul designatus with Messalina and their deaths A.D. 47 in Tac. xi 12 novo et furori proximo amore distinebatur. nam in C. Silium, iu. ventutis Romanae pulcherrimum, ita exarserat, ut Iuniam Silanam, nobilem feminam matrimonio eius exturbaret vacuoque adultero poteretur. neque Silius flagitii aut periculi nescius erat : sed certo, si abnueret exitio et nonnulla fallendi spe, simul magnis praemiis, opperiri futura et praesentibus frui pro solacio habebat. illa non furtim, sed multo comitatu ventitare domum, egressibus adhaerescere, largiri opes, honores, postremo, velut translata iam fortuna servi liberti paratus principis apud adulterum visebantur. ib. 26 A.D. 48 iam Messalina ... ad incognitas libidines profluebat, cum abrumpi dissimulationem etiam Silius, sive fatali vaecordia an imminentium periculorum remedium ipsa pericula ratus, urguebat: quippe non eo ventum ut senectam principis opperirentur segniter hac voces acceptae nomen tamen matrimonii concupivit ob magnitudinem infamiae cuncta nuptiarum sollemnia celebrat. sat. XIV 329–31. DCass. Lx 31. Other paramours of Mess. Plautius Lateranus Tac. XII 11; the handsome actor Mnester ib. 28. 36 (he protests aliis largitione aut spei magnitudine, sibi ex necessitate culpam. DCass. Lx 22 SS 3—5 Claudius, at her bidding, ordered Mnester to do whatever she required of him; this was her frequent practice. 28 SS 3 4. 31 § 6), Polybius (ib. $ 2).

331 OPTIMUS the one example in Iuv. of the 2nd foot contained in one dactylic word L. Müller de re metr. 216. It is found in Catullus, Cato, Verg. Prop. and oftener in Hor. On the character of Silius DCass. Lx 31 8 7 ανήρ αγαθος ενομίζετο. Tac. XI 28 iuvenem nobilem dignitate formae, vi mentis ac propinquo consulatu maiorem ad spem accingi. cf. ib. 36 Traulus Montanus, a knight, modesta inventa, sed corpore insigni, accitus ultro noctemque intra unam a Messalina proturbatus erat, paribus lasciviis ad cupidinem et fastidia. 332 GENTIS PATRICIAE Schwegler 111 104 n. 3 “Liv. x 8 § 9 semper ista audita sunt .... vos solos gentem habere. Hence we find for ‘patrician' not unfrequently vir patriciae gentis (111_27 1. 33 § 9. VI 11 g 2. vii 39 12), a mode of expression never used of a plebeian. And for 'patrician order' patriciae gentes (x 15 § 9. Gell. x 20 § 5. xvii 21 § 27), but never plebeiae gentes.The father of S. was distinguished by victories over the Gauls and Belgae (Tac. III 4243. 45—6. Iv 18), but the Silii were plebeians. RAPITUR Heinsius on Ov. m. IV 694. 333 MESSALINAE but Messalla (Lachmann Lucr. 1 313. J. E. S.] 334 FLAMMEOLO perhaps åtag heyóuevov 11 117—24 quadringenta dedit Gracchus sestertia dotem l. segmenta et longos habitus et flammea sumit. vi 225 schol. permutatque domos et flammea conterit. Tac. XV 33 of Nero A. D. 64 nihil flagitii reliquerat quo corruptior ageret, nisi .... uni ex illo contaminatorum grege (nomen Pythagorae fuit) in modum sollemnium coniugiorum denupsisset. inditum imperatori flammeum, dos et genialis torus et faces nuptiales. Suet. Ner. 28. Plin. XXI § 46 lutei video honorem antiquissimum, in nuptialibus flammeis totum feminis concessum. Luc. II 360-1 non timidum nuptae leviter tectura pudorem | lutea demissos velarunt flammea vultus. Mart. xi 78 3. XII 42 2–5 hac qua lege viro nubere virgo solet. I praeluxere faces, velarunt flammea vultus. I ... dos etiam dicta est. Petron. 26. Claud. cons. Hon. et Mar. 285. . Tert. de virg. vel. 11 p. m. etiam apud ethnicos velatae ad virum ducuntur. Martian.

est.

Cap. $ 114. Rossbach die röm. Ehe (Stuttg. 1853) 276. Marquardt v (1) 46 the veil reaches below the knees. Rich. cf. åvakaluntýpa Meineke on Menand. fr. n. 359. Pierson on Moeris 288. Philostr. soph. ii 25 & 4.

TYRIUS I 27 n. Catull, 64 47–9. Plin. IX $ 137 tricliniaria of purpura Tyria dibapha. GENIALIS VI 22. 226. 268. Hor. ep. 1 1 87 lectus genialis in aula

Sen. exc. contr. vi 6 p. 288 27 K versae sunt in exsequias nuptiae mutatusque genialis lectus in funebrem. Cic. p. Cluent. § 14 lectum illum genialem, quem ... filiae suae nubenti straverat, ... sibi ornari et sterni... iubet; nubit genero socrus nullis auspicibus. Ascon. in Cic. p. Mil. § 13. Serv. Aen, vi 603. Forbiger Rom 12 363. n. 248. Marquardt v (1) 53—4. Rich. Arn. II 67 cum in matrimonia convenitis, toga sternitis lectulos et maritorum genios advocatis. Also called adversus (Prop. V=IV 11 85) as fronting the entrance of the atrium.

HORTIS 1 75 n. the gardens of Lucullus on the Pincian or collis hortorum Becker 1 591. Burn Rome and the Campagna 259—60. Tac. XI 1; whither Messalina fled after the discovery of her crime (32), and where she was slain (37–8). DCass. Lx 31 g 3.

335 STERNITUR Ov. m. VI 431 Eumenides stravere toru m.

RITU ANTIQUO XIV 221. Lipsius (on Tac. ann. II 86) seems mistaken in applying the words to the amount, though decies centena (1,000,000 sesterces) was though a large, not an unusual dowry vi 137 bis quingena dedit. Sen. cons. ad Helv. 12 § 6 pantomimae decies sestertio nubunt. Mart. XI 23 3 4 decies mihi dotis in auro | sponsa dabis.

336 VENIET CUM SIGNATORIBUS AUSPEX cf. 341 n. So in the marriage of male with male 11 119 signatae tabulae, dictum 'feliciter. On the marriage tablets cf. IX 754-6 tabulas quoque ruperat. et iam | signabat. Ramsay on Cic. p. Cluent. SS 156—7. Marquardt v (1) 46. Suet. Claud. 26 quam (Mess.) cum comperisset C. Silio etiam nupsisse dote inter auspices consignata supplicio adfecit. ib. 29 illud omnem fidem excesserit quod nuptiis, quas Messalina cum adultero Silio fecerat, tabellas dotis et ipse consignaverit, inductus, quasi de industria simularentur ad avertendum transferendumque periculum, quod imminere ipsi per quaecam ostenta portenderetur. Tac. XI 27 haud sum ignarus fabulosum visum iri tantum ullis mortalium securitatis fuisse in civitate omnium gnara [Iuv. 341] et nihil reticente, nedum consulem designatum cum uxore principis [Iuv. 330], praedicta die, adhibitis qui obsignarent velut suscipiendorum liberorum causa convenisse, atque illam audisse auspicum verba, subisse, sacrificasse apud deos; discubitum inter convi. vas, oscula complexus, noctem denique actam licentia coniugali. DCass. LX 31 § 2 she would in due form of contract (katà ouußolara) have wedded all her paramours, if she had not been detected and killed tv TÝ TT PÚTŲ. Quintil. v 11 g 32 nihil obstat, quominus iustum matrimonium sit mente coeuntium, etiamsi tabulae signatae non fuerint: nihil enim proderit signasse tabulas, si mentem matrimonii non fuisse constabit.

AUSPEX 334 n. (Cic. p. Cluent.). Becker II (3) 69. Marquardt v (1) 45—6. Cic. de div. 1 $ 28 nihil fere quondam maioris rei, nisi auspicato, ne privatim quidem, gerebatur, quod etiam nunc nuptiarum auspices declarant, qui re omissa nomen tantum tenent. ib. & 3. VM. 111 § 1. Luc. II 371 iunguntur taciti contentique auspice Bruto. Serv. Aen. 1 346. IV 45. 166. Plin, x 8 21. Stat. s. I 2 229-30 socialia omina. 337 Markl. 'vel ex loco suo motus, vel spurius videtur hic versus. If

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the verse is genuine, tu must be Silius.

338 NON NISI LEGITIME VULT NUBERE II 135—6 liceat modo vivere: fient, 1 fient ista palam, cupient et in acta referre. Sen. Thyest. 689—90 servatur omnis ordo, ne tantum nefas / non rite fiat. 695 nulla pars sacri perit. AV. Caes. IV § 6 of Messalina quasi iure adulteris utebatur.

QUID PLACEAT, DIC Sen. ben. II 21 g 2 quid ergo placeat dicam.

339 NI VELIS, PEREUNDUM ERIT 141—2 n. 205. 340. 365. VII 50,

XI 16. XII 115. Ov. amor. 1 2 38. tr. II 33—4. v 12 51—2. Quintil. pr. § 25. Mart. 1 68 4. Tac. an. III 54 pr. Zumpt § 524 n. 1. Madvig $ 348 e. Aristot. eth. N. VII 14 & 8 ei Tov ή φύσις απλη είη, αεί ή αυτή πράξις ήδίστη έσται. ib. 1 10 8 8 Zell. Xen. mem. 1 5 § 2. Kühner 819 b. Matth. § 524 3. _Madvig gr. Synt. § 135 1 b.

PEREUNDUM ERIT Tac. XI 36 nec cuiquam alii ante pereundum fuisse, si Silius rerum poteretur. as Vinicius had been poisoned by Messalina DCass. LX 27 8 4 οργή ότι ουκ ήθέλησεν oi ovyrevéobal. So C. Appius Silanus ib. 14 SS 2–3. Tac. XI 12 (quoted on 330). AV. Caes. IV SS 6–8 exstincti cum suis plerique ingenio seu metu abstinentes, dum pervagatis mulierum artibus peti se a petitis criminatur. dehinc atrocius incensa nobiliores quasque nuptas et virgines scortorum modo secum prostituerat, coactique mares uti adessent. quod si quis talia horruerat, adficto crimine in ipsum omnem que familia m saeviebatur. LUCERNAS Hdt. VII 215 § 1 tepi lúxvwv åpás. 340 SI ADMITTAS, DABITUR 339 n.

SCELUS ADMITTAS 255. VI 494. So Plaut. Ter. Cic. MORA Mühlmann do col. 500 cites exx. of dare pausam, tempus, moram.

340-1 DUM RES NOTA URBI ET POPULO CONTINGAT PRINCIPIS AUREM DCass. Lx 31 SS 3 4 Messalina gave a sumptuous marriage feast, and presented Silius with an imperial mansion, into which she conveyed the most precious treasures of Claudius, and finally declared him consul. All this, heard and seen before by all others, was unknown at least to Claudius.' ib. 18 $$ 1—2 she made many ladies prostitute themselves in her palace, before their husbands' eyes; the husbands who refused to be parties to their own dishonour she put to death; yet all these scandals, so heinous and so notorious, Tòv Klaúdlov ÉTÈ Theotov ē labev. 22 $$ 3–5 she issued coinage bearing the head of the dancer Mnester, who resisted all her advances, until she requested Claudius to order him to obey her in all things; το δ' αυτό τούτο και προς άλλους συχνούς έπραττεν ως γάρ ειδότος τε του Κλαυδίου τα γιγνόμενα και συγχωρούντός οι ακολασταίνειν έμοιχεύετο. 28 SS 34 a tumult arose when Messalina withdrew Mnester from the stage; Claudius expressed his wonder, and the people, “believing that he was really ignorant of what was going on, were grieved that he alone knew not what was being done in his palace, news which had already found its way to our enemies. cf. Tac. XI 36. ib. 13 after the open adultery of Messalina with Silius Claudius matrimonii sui ignarus. Narcissus (Iuv, XIV 329—331 divitiae Narcissi, | indulsit Caesar cui Claudius omnia, cuius | paruit imperiis uxorem occidere iussus) informed Claudius of the mar. riage by means of two of his mistresses (Tac. XI 29): Calpurnia falling on Caesar's knees exclaims that Messalina has married Silius, and requests that Narcissus may be called; who says that he will not reproach Silius with the adultery or reclaim the plate, slaves and other property that Messalina had conveyed to him; he might enjoy them Tac. XI 30 sed redderet uxorem rumperetque tabulas nuptiales. an discidium?

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inquit 'tuum nosti? nam matrimonium Silii vidit populus et senatus et miles: et ni propere agis, tenet urbem maritus.' On the stolid apathy of Claudius cf. ib. 35. 37. 38. Iuv. 111 238 n.

342 DEDECUS ILLE DOMUS SCIET ULTIMUS Tac. XI 25 isque illi [to Claudius] finis inscitiae erga domum suam fuit: haud multo post Hagitia uxoris noscere ac punire adactus. Pompeius in Luc. V 778—9 quod si sunt vota deisque | audior, eventus rerum sciet ultima coniux. Sen. fragm. 63 L. Sullae, felicis, si non habuisset uxorem, Metella palam erat impudica, et, quia novissimi mala nostra discimus, id Athenis cantabatur et Sulla ignorabat, secreta que domus suae primum hostium convicio didicit. So B. C. 2 the flagrant excesses of Iulia in the very forum and rostra came late to the knowledge of Augustus DCass. Lv 10 & 12 oyé trote pwpdoas. & 13 he conjectured before that her life was irregular, but was not assured of it; of γάρ τοι τας ηγεμονίας έχοντες πάντα μάλλον ή τα σφέτερα γιjućokovot. Nep. ix 3 § 1 defecerat a rege Tissaphernes, neque id tam Artaxerxi, quam ceteris, erat apertum. 345 PRAEBENDA EST GLADIO PULCRA HAEC ET CANDIDA CERVIX 269–270. Gron. on Liv. xxv 16 & 19 praebentes corpora pecorum modo inulti trucidentur. Sen. tranq. an. 11 § 5 eo magis convolneraberis et confodieris, quia nescis praebere iugulum: at tu et vives diutius et morieris expeditius, qui ferrum non subducta cervice nec manibus oppositis, sed animose recipis. ib. 16 § 1. id. vit. beat. 27 g 3 Socrates says praebeo me non aliter quam rupes aliqua in vadoso mari destituta, quam fluctus non desinunt...verberare. id. brev. vit. 13 § 7. ep. 4 § 7 Gaius Caesar iussit Lepidum Dextro tribuno praebere cervicem, ipse Chaereae praestitit. ib. 82 § 12 Brutus...cum periturus mortis moras quaereret,...evocatus ad mortem iussusque praebere cervicem: ‘praebebo’inquit ' ita vivam.' Savaro on Sidon. ep. 1 11 fin. p. 90 has other exx, of pr. cervi.

Plin. VIII § 58 of a lion which had a bone sticking in its throat, one Elpis evellit praebenti et qua maxime opus esset adcommodanti. M. Sen, contr. 25 § 8 p. 253 (iubet) miserum stare ad praebendas cervices immotum. Serv. Aen. x 867 explaining TERGO EXCEPTUS equo se praebente susceptus. Prud. perist. 1 55. Ov. her. 7 126 praebuerim sceleri bracchia nostra tuo. Ov. m. XIII 475–6 ipse etiam flens invitusque sacerdos | praebita coniecto rupit praecordia ferro. Sen. de ir. 1 16 g 5 cervicem noxio imperabo praecidi. cf. Lips. on Tac. xv 67 admonitusque fortiter protendere cervicem. Passive, unresisting, tame submission is commonly connoted by praebeo (praehibeo=Tapexw); and in fact Silius when brought to the tribunal did not attempt a defence or ask for a delay; but only that his death might be hastened Tac. XI 35. The kneeling gladiator, awaiting the mortal stab, is said praebere iugulum. Arr. Epikt. i 1 § 19 Lateranus [Iuv. 17 n.] stretched out his neck to the headsman's sword a second time, after one ineffectual stroke.

346–366 Conclusion. Is nothing then to be sought by our vows? If you wish my counsel, leave the gods themselves to decide what is meet for us, what can promote our welfare. Do they withhold what we like? They will bestow instead what is best. Dearer to them is man than to himself. Transported by passion and blind desire we ask for wife and child; what children they will be, and what manner of wife, is known to heaven. Still, that you may also put up some petition and offer some humble meat-offering, ask for a mind sound in a sound body; a spirit brave, fearless of death, reckoning life's close one of kind Nature's boons,

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equal to any toil, ignorant of anger or of desire, esteeming the labours
and cruel pains of Hercules choicer than all Sardanapallus' dalliance
and feasts and couches of down. I point to nothing but what yourself
may give to yourself. The only road to peace lies through virtue. For.
tune, thou hast no divinity, if but wisdom be with us; it is we that make
of thee a goddess and set thee high in heaven. Upton (Spenser 11 650—1)
compares modern poets and some of our collects.
346—353 Xen. mem. 13 $ 2 Sokrates prayed to the gods for the gift
of good things generally, årl@s, considering that the gods know best what
kinds of things are good.' [Plat.] Alc. II 143“ a prayer Zeû Baoileû,
μεν εσθλά και εύξαμένους και ανεύκτοις | αμμι δίδου, τα δε δεινά και εύξαμένοις
ámepúkov. ib. 148° ' the Lakedaemonians also, either as vying with this
poet, or from their own judgement, both officially and individually offer
up on all occasions & prayer of this kind, τα καλά επί τοις αγαθούς τους
θεούς δούναι κελεύοντες αυ σφίσιν αυτοίς. one will never hear any of them
praying for more than this.' So Pythagoras DS. x 9 87 declared that
the wise ought to pray for good things from the gods on behalf of the
foolish; for the foolish do not know what is really good. $ 8 in prayers
we ought to pray for good things årlūs, not naming any in particular, as
authority [Iuv. 56—113], beauty [Iuv, 289—345), wealth (Iuv. 12—27],
and the like; for each of these often ruins those who obtain it at their
desire; their prayers are a curse. cf. DL. VIII S 9. ib. vi § 42 Diogenes
blamed men for praying for reputed, not real, goods. Menand. monost.
336 μή μου γένοιθ' ά βούλομαλλ' ά συμφέρει. Gataker on Antonin. V8 7.

à
Max. Tyr. 11=30. Epiktet. enchir. 8 $ 52. Euseb, in Stob. fl. 185 (1 39
10 M). Matt. 26°39. Wetstein on Matt. 6 10.
346 NIL ERGO OPTABUNT HOMINES? Lupus (19 20) cites other exx. of
interruptions like this i 101. 160 seq. II 70. 132--5. IV 130. V 74.
135. 166. VI 136. 142. 161. 219. 286. 492. 642. VII 98. 158. 215.
VIII 39. 183. 211. x 67. 71. 81-8. XIII 71. 174_5. XIV 60—2.

347-8 PERMITTES IPSIS EXPENDERE NUMINIBUS, QUID CONVENIAT NOBIS REBUSQUE SIT UTILE NOSTRIS Plaut. Ps. 68345 stulti hauscimus frustra ut simus, quom quid cupienter dari 1 petimus nobis: quasi quid in rem sit possimus noscere. I certa amittimus, dum incerta petimus. VM. VII 2 E 81 Socrates, an earthly oracle as it were of human wisdom, thought that we ought to beseech the immortal gods only to give us good things, because they alone knew quid cuique esset utile, nos autem plerumque id votis expeteremus, quod non inpetrasse melius foret...... desine igitur stulta (mortalium mens] futuris malorum tuorum causis quasi felicissimis rebus inhiare et te totum caelestium arbitrio permitte, quia qui tribuere bona ex facili solent, etiam eligere aptissime possunt. Plat. legg. 111 687° we must not pray that all things may follow our will, but rather that our will may follow wisdom. ib. VIII 801. Plat. Kriton 43d a saying of Sokrates: “if such be heaven's will, so be it.' Epikt. fr. 15 in Stob. A. IV 92. Herakleitos ib. III 83. Arr. Épikt. 11 16 SS 28. 42. 46–7. early all of these passages are compared by Schneider christliche Klänge, Gotha 1865, with the Christian rule Matt. 6 8 and 10. 20 22. Lu. 22 42. Jo. 5 30. cf. Leighton's works ed. West v 248.

350 CARIOR EST ILLIS HOMO QUAM SIBI XY 143—8. Grang. cites the beautiful words of Sen. ben. II 29 e.g. $ 6 carissimos nos habuerunt di immortales habentque, et qui maximus tribui honos potuit, ab ipsis proximos conlocaverunt: magna accepimus, maiora non cepimus. ib. IV 4–9.

351-2 CAECA MAGNAQUE CUPIDINE DUCTI CONIUGIUM PETIMUS PARTUMQUE UXORIS [Plat.]

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