Page images
PDF
EPUB

CONCESSIT

silent,’ συ δε μοι . την μοιχείαν αυτού διέξει και τα δεσμά. Clem. A. protrept. 2 § 33. Firm. Matern. 9. 13. Minuc. Fel. Oct. 22. Arnob. v 41. Lact. epit. 8. inst. I 10. Aug. de util. ieiun. § 9 Vulcanus et Mars inimici sunt, et iustam causam habet Vulcanus .... odit enim miser uxoris adulterium; nec tamen audet cultores suos a Martis templo prohibere . . . . Eunt de templo Martis ad templum Vulcani : magna indignitas ! nec tamen ne sibi irascatur maritus, quod ad eum venitur de templo Martis adulteri. habent cor, sciunt lapidem sentire non posse. id. civ. D. 111 3. Greg. Naz. or. 4 116. 5 32. Athanas. or. c. Graec. 12 1 p. 13 Ben. Prud. perist. 10 183—5 of the pagan heaven incesta fervent; furta moechorum calent; | fallit maritus, odit uxor paelicem, | deos catena e conligant adulteros. cf. 212—3.

UT IN LAQUEOS NUMQUAM INCIDAT Vulcat. Avid. Cass. 2 ipse sponte ... fatales laqueos inciderit. 314–6 EXIGIT ILLE DOLOR PLUS QUAM LEX ULLA DOLORI dolor is technical in this use Aen. ix 137. Ov. m. 1 736—7 Iuppiter to Iuno numquam tibi causa doloris | haec erit. Phaedr. 111 10 16. 28. [Quintil.] decl. 277 p. 535 Burm. hoc ius scriptum est mariti dolori, i.e. p. 536 adultera dimissa non redit in manum mariti. nec hoc tantum in lege est, ut adulterae supplicium differri non possit: sed illud etiam, ut non tantum adulterae pereant. nam lex, cum occidere mihi adulterum cum adultera permittat, manifeste illud ostendit, non posse eos diversis temporibus occidi. ib. 279 p. 542 of a boy husband puto nondum habebat mariti dolorem. ad vulnera adulteri et caedem et tristissimum occidendi hominis ministerium, magno quodam impetu et, ut sic dixerim, furore opus est. ib. 18 & 9 (ver. 310 n.). Paul. sent. 11 26 $ 5 maritum, qui uxorem deprehensam cum adultero occidit, quia hoc impatientia iusti dolorisadmisit, lenius puniri placuit. dig. xxix 5 3 8 3 if the husband, having taken his wife in adultery, slay her, because he is forgiven, we must say that the slaves not of the husband only, but of the wife, must be set free, si iustum dolorem exsequenti domino non restiterunt. ib. XLVIII 5 2 § 8 the husband to be preferred to the father of the guilty wife as accuser: nam et propensiore ira et maiore dolore executurum eum accusationem credendum est. ib. 39=38 § 8 bis. cod. ex 9 $ 4 si legis auctoritate cessante inconsulto dolore adulterum interemit, quamvis homicidium perpetratum sit, tamen, quia et nox et dolor iustus factum eius relevat, potest in exilium dari. ib. 15 vindictam . .., quam maritali dolore percussus reposcis. ib. 30=29 verus dolor. anth. lat. 253 R 160 of Vulcan vix sufficit ira dolori. 164–6 multum dolor addidit arti. | quam cito cuncta gerunt ars numen flamma maritus | ira dolor!

315-6 PLUS QUAM LEX ULLA DOLORI CONCESSIT Hor. $. II 7 46—71. In Athens (and according to Lys. de caede Eratosth. § 2 cl. Xen, Hier. 3 § 3 in other Greek states) the man who detected another in unlawful commerce with his wife, mother, sister, daughter, concubine, might avenge himself (Lys. ib. SS 25 -34. Dem. in Aristocr. SS 5346 p. 637. Polyb. II 56 § 15. Plut. Sol. 23 § 2. Paus. Ix 36 § 8) by slaying the offender. Sometimes the adulterer was fettered until he gave security for the payment of a fine; he might bring an action for unjust detention, αδίκως είρχθήναι ως μοιχόν, but if he lost it, his adversary was allowed to take vengeance upon him at his pleasure, only dvev éYXElpidiou (Dem. in Neaer. 8 66 p. 1367). Such vengeance sometimes took the form of παρατιλμός and ραφανίδωσις (corresponding to the Roman vengeance with the mugilis, and intended no doubt to brand the culprit as a pathic Aristoph. nub. 1083 cf. Ael. v. h. XII 12.

[ocr errors]

mour.

Hor. 8. 1 2 45, see schol. and comm. on Aristoph. Plut. 168. ran. 516. Lysistr. 89. 151. eccles. 724. Lucian. Peregr. 9. Suid. Morxós ad fin. trapaτίλλεται. ώ Λακιάδαι. Κuster ib. ραφανίς. comm. on Ηesych. Λακιάδαι. padavidwoņval. Otelléav. paroem. gr. 1 467 L. Taylor lect. Lys. XI pp. 301 -8. Meier u. Schömann att. Proc. 327–332. Becker Chariki, 1112 320-6. Pauly 12 194–5. The sanctity of Roman marriage was guarded in the earliest times by the patria potestas ; the husband who surprised his wife in the act of adultery, might slay her on the spot (Cat. in Gell. x 23 $ 5), and kill (Calp. Flacc. decl. 11. schol. Cruq. Hor. 8. 1 7 61. Sen. de ira 1 21 § 3 sub gladium mariti venit uxor morte contempta, ex. of libido magni animi), flog or mutilate (Plaut. Curc. 25–38. mil. 1395—1426. Poen. IV 2 40. Ter. eun. 957. Mart. 11 60. 83. III 85.92. cf. Deiphobus in Aen. Vi 494–501. the threats of Progne in Ov. m. VI 612—8) the para

If the father or husband killed one of the guilty parties, he was required to kill both schol. Cruq. Hor. s. II 7 61. M. Sen. contr. 4 p. 83. 24 p. 243. Quintil. v 10 $ 104. vii 1 $$ 6–8. decl. 284. 291. 335. 347. 379. In order to check the growing laxity of manners (Hor. C. III 6 17 -32) Augustus ordained the lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis B.C. 17 Hor. C. IV 5 21–4. Ov. f. 11 139: Plut. apophth. Aug. 9 p. 207. Iuv. II 37. Brisson ad leg. Iul, in op. min. ed. Trekell 178–226. dig. XLVIII 5. cod. Theod. ex 7. cod. ex 9. inst. Iv 18. Paul. II 26. collat. iy. The guilty wife forfeited half her dos and a third of her estate; marriage with her was counted lenocinium; the adulterer forfeited half his estate; the two were relegated to different islands Paul. ib. & 14. Tac. an. II 85. Plin. ep. vi 31 SS 4–6. Private revenge was restricted: the father, adoptive or natural, might kill the daughter still under patria potestas, or given by him in manum viri, in his own or his son-in-law's house; but he must be called in by the son-in-law, and kill at once (in continenti, prope uno ictu) both the criminals Quintil. 11 11 § 7. v 10 $ 104. collat. IV 2 SS 2–6. cc. 8. 9. 12 SS 1–2. Paul. ib. SS 1–2. dig. ib. 21—24 (=20—23). 33=32. The husband was no longer allowed to kill the wife at all, nor the adulterer unless he were a freedman, slave, gladiator or bestiarius, pandar, actor, stage-dancer or singer, who had been condemned in a public trial collat. IV 3. 10. 12. Paul. ib. SS 4—7. dig. ib. 23=22 $ 4. 25=24, 39=38 § 9. 43=42. cod. ix 9 4. See Rein Criminalr. 835—856, who gives all the known exx. of trials for adultery. id. in Pauly 1195—7. Rudorff röm. Rechtsgesch. 1 87—9. Quintil. III 6 SS 17. 27 case in which what may legally be done in one way is charged to have been in another: adulter loris caesus vel fame necatus. cf. § 52. v 10 § 39 occidisti adul. terum, quod lex permittit; sed quia in lupanari, caedes est. vil 1 88 7 -8. Fortunatian. 1 6 in rhet. lat. p. 85 24 H. ib. 9 p. 88 1. 11. 316–7 SECAT ILLE CRUENTIS VERBERIBUS Hor. 8. 1 2 37–46 audire est operae pretium, procedere recte i qui moechos non vultis, ut omni parte laborent, , utque illis multo corrupta dolore voluptas | atque haec rara cadat dura inter saepe pericla. I hic se praecipitem tecto dedit: ille flagellis , ad mortem caesus: quin etiam illud | accidit, ut cuidam testis caudamque salacem | demeterent ferro. iure omnes : Galba negabat. Ascon. vit. Sall. ap. A.cron. ib. 41 says that Hor. alludes to Sallust, who, when detected by Milo in adultery with his wife Fausta, Sulla's daughter, was by him caesus flagellis. cf. Varr. in Gell. xvii 18. VM. vi 1 § 13 ut eos quoque, qui in vindicanda pudicitia dolore suo pro publica lege usi sunt, strictim percurram, Sempronius Musca C. Gellium deprehensum in adulterio flagellis cecidit, C. Memmius L. Octavium similiter deprehensum pernis contudit, Carbo Attienus a Vibieno, item

carus

[ocr errors]

Pontius a P. Cerennio deprehensi castrati sunt. Gnaeum etiam Furium Brocchum qui deprehenderat familiae stuprandum obiecit. quibus irae suae indulsisse fraudi non fuit. Quintil. v 10 § 8 iuris confirmatio huiusmodi est: ex maiore, si adulterum occidere licet, et loris caedere.

317 QUOSDAM MOECHOS ET MUGILIS INTRAT Schol. 'a fish with large head, tapering off to the tail, qui in podicem moechorum deprehensorum solebat inmitti. Catull. 15 15—19. A scorpion was employed for the same purpose Plat. com. in Ath. p. 5d Casaub. The mugilis (m. cephalus Linn. Keotpeùs Bonitz ind. Aristot. Athen. 306e -308d with Schweigh. n. IV 285. Cuvier hist. des poissons, Par. 1836, XI 19 cited by Siebold) was chosen from its wedge-like form (Ath. 307boonvéas). The law allowed personal vengeance dig. XLVIII 5 23=22 § 3 qui occidere potest adulterum, multo magis contumelia poterit iure adficere. cf. Valck. on Eur. Hipp. 415. Lips. exc. on Tac. an. IV 42. On the form see Phocas 11 5 p. 414 20 K hic pugil hic mugil; sed Iuvenalis hic mugilis nominativum dixit.

318 SED FIET ADULTER resuming the fiet adulter of 311: so igitur, verum, verumtamen, are used Zumpt § 739. Hor. s. 11 27 Heind, sed tamen.

TUUS ENDYMION your blooming son cf. 1 61 n. v 139 Aeneas. Apul. m. 1 12 hic est . . Endymion, hic catamitus meus. Endymion is a patronymic from čvôvuos, and that from évòów; i.e. according to some, Endymion is a personification of sleep, and the name denotes the stealthy approaches of slumber; according to Welcker Götterl. 1 557–9 it denotes the visit of the goddess, her entrance into Endymion's cavern; the lingering of her rays on the grey rocks of Latmos, as it stands out in sharp outline against the blue sky, became in the legend the parting kiss with which she reluctantly tears herself from her Endymion. The image of the setting moon, when Selene was changed into the coy Artemis, became a handsome huntsman resting in the cavern, or a shepherd of the hills. He who is wedded to a goddess cannot live, and so Endymion sleeps in his adyton on mt. Latmos in Karia (Paus. v 1 § 4=5) a sleep that knows no waking (Welcker). The Eleians also laid claim to Endymion and shewed his tomb (Paus. ib.), as did the Karians in a cave near the river Latmos Strab. p. 636. Hes. 8. v. Sleep appears by his side in many sarcophagi and pictures (described by 0. Jahn archäol. Beitr. 51–. 73; e.g. the well-known bas-relief in the capitol). Näke on Valer. Cato 165—9 has collected the jests to which the story gave rise. Plut. Num. 4 § 3 has some interesting remarks on legends like this, comparing that of Egeria etc. John Fletcher the faithful shepherdess i 3 (11 38—9 Dyce) tells the tale of love' well: ‘how the pale Phoebe, hunting in a grove, I first saw the boy Endymion, from whose eyes / she took eternal fire that never dies ; | how she convey'd him softly in a sleep, | his temples bound with poppy, to the steep | head of old Latmos, where she stoops each night, I gilding the mountain with her brother's light, I to kiss her sweetest.' See Theokr. 111 49 schol. xx 37. Apollod. 1 7 5. Schol. Apollon, IV 57. Catull. 66 5—6. Prop. III=11 15 15—6. Cic. Tusc. If 92. Ov. tr. II 299. a. a. III 83. her. 17 63—4. amor. 1 13 43–4 aspice, quot somnos iuveni donarit amato | Luna. neque illius forma secunda tuae. Lucian deor. dial. xi. Quint. Smyrn. x 128—137. Hyg. f. 271. Serv. g. III 391. Nonn. ind. ed. Köchly. Claud. nupt. Hon. 114—5. Rationalistic explanations in Plin. II § 43 of the moon's changes quae singula in ea deprehendit hominum primus Endymion, ob id amore eius captus fama traditus. Fulgent. myth. II 19.

319 CUM DEDERIT SERVILIA NUMMOS VI 355—305..

320 ILLIUS Serviliae.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

321–3 Iuv. lashes the follies, vices and crimes of women i 22—3. 37– 44. 55—7. 69–72. II 689. III 45. VI. VIII 128--130. x 220. 223—4. XI 186—9. XIII 19142, XIV 25–30.

322 OPPIA 220.

CATULLA II 49. Mart. VIII 53. 323 DETERIOR Mart. 11 34 6 o mater, qua nec Pontia deterior.

TOTOS HABET ILLIC FEMINA MORES ad Heren. iv § 23 maiores nostri, si quam unius peccati mulierem damnabant, simplici iudicio multorum maleficiorum convictam putabant. 'quo pacto ? quoniam, quam impudicam iudicarant, ea veneficii quoque damnata existimabatur ... viros ad unum quodque maleficium singulae cupiditates impellunt: mulieres ad omnia maleficia cupiditas una ducit. DH. 11 25. Quintil. v 11 g 39. M. Sen. contr. 18 § 6 p. 205 12. Tac. an. IV 3 neque femina amissa pudicitia alia abnuerit. 324 CASTO QUID FORMĀ NOCET? Ov. m. II 572 forma mihi nocuit.

QUID PROFUIT ib. 589 quid tamen hoc prodest? 325 HIPPOLYTO BELLEROPHONTI the Joseph, as Ph. and Sth. are the Potiphar's wife, of Greece. paroem. gr. 1 257 Leutsch 'ITTÓAutov ucunσομαι, επί των σωφρονείν βουλομένων. ib. 20 η. ΙΙ 76 n. and on B. ib. 1 54. 11 751. cf. Tenes (Bayle s. v. Muret. v. l. 1 12). Serv. Aen. III 209 Phineus ... Cleobulam ... habuit uxorem et ex ea duos filios, quibus superinduxit novercam; quos noverca ad patrem tamquam stupri adfectatores detulit: ob quam rem eos Phineus caecavit. Apul. x 2-12.

HIPPOLYTO Ov. f. v 309–310 Hippolyte infelix, velles coluisse Dionen, | cum consternatis diripereris equis. Mart. VIII 46 2. Auson. id. 15 24—5 pudicum perdidit Hippolytum non felis cura pudoris. cf. Hofman lex. Pauly s. v. Virbius. In tragedy Sophokles treated the subject in his Phaedra (fr. 600—20 Dind.) which Welcker identifies with his Theseus fr. 333 a. 333 b. The Hipp. of Eurip., which won the prize B.c. 428, and is therefore called oteparlas, )( the lost 'I. kaluttbuevos (Poll. ex 50. schol. Theokr. 11 10) the veiled H.', in which Phaedra had unblushingly declared her passion, and which failed to gain the prize; it is this first Phaedra (for so it is often called) that drew forth the wrath of Aristoph. thesm. 153. 497. 546—550. ran. 849–50. 1043—-52 where Ph. is coupled with Stheneboea, as corrupting the morals of the spectators. cf. Bode hell. Dichtk. III 1 482 ; see the fragments 431–50 Dind. In the existing play the two goddesses, Artemis and Aphrodite, are as deeply interested as the human actors; the choice of Hippolytos between the two is well compared by Welcker (kl. Schriften ii 472–4) to the choice of Hercules' Iuv. 361 n.

See on both plays Welcker gr. Trag. 736–49. Sen. Hippolytus (or Phaedra). Ov. m. xv 497 seq. Paus. I 22 § 1 his tomb was shewn at Athens; a curse was said to have occasioned his death ; no barbarian who has but learnt the Greek language is ignorant of Phaedra's passion, and her nurse's bold attempt to gratify her. § 2 a tomb of H. is also at Troezen; where is a myrtle, with the leaves perforated, not by nature,, but by Phaedra with her hair-pin in an access of passion. 11 31 8 6=4 Pausanias saw at Troezen a temple of Artemis built by H. ib. 32 & 10 and also the tree in which the reins were entangled, when H. was thrown out of

ib. § 1 virgins before marriage offered their hair to H., whose tomb was known, but not exhibited; the Troezenians would not admit that he had been torn asunder by horses, but identified him with the constellation auriga. § 3 stadium of H. and the temple of Aphrodite the watcher (katao kotla) above, on the spot where Ph. used to watch the athletic feats of Hipp. cf. ix 16 g 4.

[ocr errors]

his car.

GRAVE PROPOSITUM see Phaedra's threat Eur. Hipp. 730—1 tậs vorov od τήσδε μοι | κοινή μετασχών σωφρονείν μαθήσεται. 994—9. 100248 (passages of an Orphic cast). ib. 102 åyvbs. 79—87. 102–113. 1454. 1364-9 όδ' ο σεμνος εγώ και θεοσέπτωρ | όδ' ο σωφροσύνη πάντας υπερσχών | προυπτον ες "Αιδην στείχω κατά γης / ολέσας βίοτον, | μόχθους δ' άλ. λως της ευσεβίας | εις ανθρώπους επόνησα. Sen. Hipp. 229-32. 236. 483-579.

BELLEROPHONTI accused by Sth. (in Hom. Anteia) wife of his host Proetus Il. VI 150—211. Soph. treated the subject in his lobates, Eur, in his Sth. Hor. C. 111 7 13 ut Proetum mulier perfida credulum | falsis impulerit criminibus nimis | casto Bellerophonti, maturare necem refert. The 'labours' of Bellerophon (Chimaera, Solymi, Amazons) are nearly as famous as those of Hercules Pauly 12 2338. 326 NEMPE 110 n.

HAC Haupt conj. Jahn? haec P w. Haec would grammatically refer to Sth., but ver. 327 requires that it should denote Phaedra. [Markland haec ex hac voce videtur patere excidisse aliquid, in quo nomen Phaedrae positum fuerit: aliter enim nemo scire potest vocem haec ad Phaedram referri, ut debet.'] hac repulsa (so w. Haupt. Jahna. repulso PS)=castae formae repulsa, the chaste beauty of H. and B. was a rebuff to Ph. and Sth. Stheneboea is subject to erubuit. Kiaer cites iy 60-1. VI 248–50. VII 20–1. 63–5. X 41-2. 287_8.

CEU not used (Ribbeck) for the explicative ut, but rightly (in comparison) as vi 573. VII 237. IX 2.

x 231. tamquam really is often used as Ribbeck takes ceu here sat. 111 222 n. add Tac. XVI 8 pr. Silanum increpuit, tamquam disponeret imperii curas. Plin. ep. IV 22 § 2. Eutr. 1 13 (12). cf. Tursellinus c. 261. Dräger synt. Tac. p. 69. So quasi Plin. ep. 1 16 8 5 and often in Gellius. Kiaer (who strangely takes repulsa as partic., and omits haec altogether) rightly interprets • as if she had been slighted,' which she had not been, though Ribbeck says 'das erlittene fastidium ... ein sehr reelles ist.' It was not from disrespect that Hipp. turned a deaf ear to Phaedra's suit. She who had done the wrong, is indignant as if she had suffered wrong: he must sin to please her, or he affronts her. She treats incest as a compliment due to her, its refusal as scorn and disdain. An exact parallel' in III 278_301, where the drunken buck summons the man whom he has assaulted.

327 CRESSA Phaedra, daughter of Minos, king of Krete. See Racine. Sen. Hipp. 85–91. 113—128 Phaedra traces in her passion the inheritance of her mother Pasiphaë, e. g. 127—8 nulla Minois levi | defuncta amore est. iungitur semper nefas. cf. 143–52. 170. 176—7 natura totiens legibus cedet suis, I quotiens amabit Cressa? 688–93. Pasiphaë is named Eur. Hipp. 358 cf. 716. Ov. her. IV 53. m. xv 500.

EXCANDUIT excandesco does not, as Ribbeck thinks, mean “erblassen.'

see lexx. pride, fired at the cold refusal-burns.' 328 SE CONCUSSERE Flor. 1 35=111 1 pr. non leviter se Numidia con. cussit.

MULIER etc. 329 Aen. v 5 6 duri magno sed amore dolores | polluto, notumque furens quid femina possit.

STIMULOS Luc. II 234 irarum movit stimulos. Cic. p. Sest. § 12 quos stimulos admo. verit homini. id. Tusc. III 8 35.

330 SUADENDUM theme of a suasoria i 16 n. cui ei, cui. NUBERE 338.

CAESARIS UXOR 333. vi 115—135 respice rivales divorum, Claudius audi | quae tulerit. dormire virum cum senserat uxor etc. The marriage of (Sen. apocol. 13 & 4)

• Her

321 n.

« PreviousContinue »