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dasque imitata Sabina s. III 8 61. m. Xiv 797. Cic. p. Ligar. $ 32.
comm. on Aen. VIII 638. Hor. C. III 6 38–44. epod. 2 39–41. ep. 11 1 25.
Colum. I pr. § 19. Liv. I $ 4 the rugged and stern discipline of the
ancient Sabines, a race formerly surpassed in purity of manners by no
other.' Strab. v p. 228. Schwegler 1 243 n. 1. As a hardy race they
gave out that they were a colony of Sparta ib. 251–2; the resemblance
of national character was often remarked.
300—2 VULTUMQUE MODESTO SANGUINE FERVENTEM TRIBUAT NATURA. QUID
ENIM PUERO CONFERRE POTEST PLUS? XI 154. DL, VI § 54 Diogenes the
Cynic, seeing a boy blush, said, 'take heart of grace: such is the colour of
virtue. Sen. ep. 11 § 1 verecundiam, bonum in adulescente signum,

301 NATURA II 139, XIV 321, XV 132. 303 CUSTODE VII 218 n.

CUSTODE ET CURA NATURA POTENTIOR OMNI Ov. m. Ix 750-1. 758 non te custodia caro | arcet ab amplexu, nec cauti cura mariti, i

at non vult natura potentior omnibus istis. Cic. p. Rab. Post. § 4 though he had never seen his father natura ipsa duce, quae pluri. mum valet, ... in paternae vitae similitudinem deductus est. 304 VIRO often used in a pregnant sense, of one who is a man indeed (Fabri on Liv, xxII 14 § 11), who has not forfeited or tarnished his manhood e.g. by unnatural compliances Rosenbaum Lustseuche 116-140. Meier in Ersch u. Gruber 3 sect. 1x 149–189. Petron. 81 quem tamquam puellam conduxit etiam qui virum putavit. quid ille alter? qui...die togae virilis togam sumpsit; qui ne vir esset, a matre persuasus est, qui opus muliebre in ergastulo fecit. Cic. in Clod. 1 § 6 p. 90 Beier was well content with the verdict non videri virum venisse, quo iste venisset, in the sense (schol.) that Clodius was no vir. Apul. physiogn. in Val. Rose anecd. i 111 25 alius sternutamento subito virum se non esse confessus est. M. Sen. contr. I pr. § 9 p. 49 quis aequalium vestrorum, quid dicam satis ingeniosus, satis studiosus, immo quis satis vir est? emolliti enervesque quod nati sunt inviti manent, expugnatores alienae pudicitiae, neglegentes suae. Tac. XI 2. Suet. Vesp. 13. [Quintil.] decl, 3 § 3 nec pudet accusatorem apud C. Marium . . obicere militi quod vir sit. DCass, LXIII 22 8 4 of Nero τον άνδρα εκείνον, είγε ανηρό Σπόρον γεγα, μηκώς, ο Πυθαγόρα γεγαμημένος. See the lexx.

305 IMPROBITAS effrontery iv 106 n. Munro on Lucr. 111 1026 n. Caes. b. c. II 31 § 4 improbos )( pudentes. Phaedr. i 22 9. iv 8 1. Luc. v 277 i. vota. Cort. v 130 (also vi 29. Iustin. XXII 7 § 4) i. spes. VFI. v. 702 Burm. Freinsh. ind. Flor. Duker on Flor, 11 10 & 17 i. classem. Sen. Med. 340 of the Argo. Plin. ep. yii 30 5.

TEMPTARE Hor. C. III 4 70—1 integrae | temptator Orion Dianae.

306 IN MUNERIBUS FIDUCIA Stat. Th. y 167 of the doe in volucri tenuis fiducia cursu. Claud, bell, Gild. 436 in solis longe fiducia telis (Mühlmann). 307 SAEVA IN ARCE TYRANNUS a demagogue, if allowed a body-guard, Thirlwall 12 460 with its aid made the first step to absolute power by seizing the citadel : an act which might be considered a formal assumption of the tyranny, and as declaring a resolution to maintain it by force.? Hence the familiar phrase arcem occupavit='assumed the tyranny' For. tunatian, art. rhet. 1 6 p. 86 4 H. M. Sen. contr. 27 $ 2.p. 267 1. Com. pare the enterprises of Kylon (Thuc.. I 126 $$ 4-5 schol.), of Phalaris (Polyaen. v 1 § 1), of Peisistratos (Phaedr. 1 2 5 arcem tyrannus occupat Pisistratus), Dionysios the younger (Nep. 20 3 § 3 of Timoleon arcem Syracusis, quam munierat Dionysius ad urbem obsidendam, a fundamentis disiecit; cetera tyrannidis propugnacula demolitus est. YM. VI 2 E & 2. Iustin, XXI 2 S8 9-10 velut iure regnaret, arcem occupat

solitamque sibi saevitiam exercet. coniuges principum ad stuprum rapi iubebat, virgines ante nuptias abducebat stupratasque procis reddebat. Polyaen. v 2 88 3—4. Plut. Timol. 13 S$ 2—4 e.g. Triv akpótolev kai tupavveia. 22 88 1. 2), Klearchos of Herakleia (Iustin. xvi 4 § 11). Hence the outcry against Valerius Publicola (Liv. 11 7 $$ 6–12. Serv. Aen. IV 410 who explains regium enim fuit habi. tare in arcibus propter tutelam. Schwegler 11 49 n. 4), and Manlius Capitolinus (B.C. 384 Liv, vi 19 § 1 the senate discusses de secessione in domum privatam plebis, forte etiam in arce positam, et imminenti mole libertati. 20 § 13 a law nequis patricius in arce aut Capitolio habitaret. Schwegler 111 258 n. 3. 259 n. 1. 287. 290, 299). Lucr. v 1108—9 condere coeperunt urbes arcemque locare / praesidium reges ipsi sibi perfugiumque. Contrast Liv. III 45 § 8 duas arees libertatis tuendae. VI 37 § 10. Plut. Cat. min. 33 g 3 (cf. Crass. 14 § 2) when Illyricum and Gaul, with four legions, was assigned to Caesar' for five years, Cato warned his countrymen that they were installing the tyrant in the citadel by their own votes. Geographers noted such strongholds Plin. IV § 47 Bizye arx regum Threciae. v § 50 Memphis quondam arx Aes gypti regum. III § 82 Tiberi principis arce nobiles Capreae. Plin. pan. 47 § 4 magno quidem animo parens tuus [Nerva] hanc ante vos principes arcem publicarum aedium nomine inscripserat, where the arx is that of Domitian. Iuv. iv 145 n. cf. the definitions of the grammarians Poll. Ix 8 40 τάχα δε την ακρόπολιν και βασίλειον άν τις είπoι και τυραννείον. Ascon, Cic. divin. in Caec. § 18 arx interdum sedes tyranni, id est regis, dicitur. In the rhetorical exercises on tyrannicide (Iuv. 113 n.) the citadel continually occurs Quintil. v1148 22. M. Sen, contr. 27 83 1. 2. 17. [Quintil.] decl. 274 p. 529 Burm. hominem occidere non licet, tyrannum licet: expugnare domum fas non est, arcem expugnabit optimus quisque. ib. 288 primus ty. rannus:...occupavit tamen arcem alter. ib. 267 pp. 503—4. 271 p.520. 282 tyrannus cum in arcem duci iussisset cuiusdam sororem. 329 p. 669. 345 p. 728. Calpurn. decl. 13 fin. Lucian. tyrannic. 7 fin. 9. 16. 19. cf. Stob. fl. XLIX 8. 14. Luc. IV 800 Cort. (and from him Freund s. v.). Sen. clem. i 19 $ 6. Tac. XIV 31 Ern. xv 69. Prud. cath. 5 80 arcis iustitium triste tyrannicae. Tertull. apol. 4 Herald and Oehler vim profitemini et iniquam ex arce dominationem. Polyb. in Suid. Åkpórolis. geopon. XI 2 fin. Strab. XVI p. 761 of the Jewish temple: “they observed a certain decorum with respect to their citadel, not detesting it as a stronghold of tyranny, oủx ws tupavveiov BoeAutTouévwv, but exalting and reverencing it as a sanctuary.' DChrys. 1 p. 65 R a version of the Choice of Herakles:' Hermes shews him a mountain with two peaks, the one called “the royal peak,' sacred to king Zeus, the other Tupavvikń, named after Typhon. Themist. 21 p. 2568 καθαιρετέον εξ ακροπόλεως την τυραννίδα. Sopat. in Walz rhet. v 160 1. 18. 161 a debate whether tyrannicido means 1. 1 'to expel from the citadel,' or 1. 6 'to mount the citadel, to fight with the guards, to slay a tyrant. The word is often used allegorically Phil. leg. alleg. 11 23 1 p. 83 M if you do not make war on the affections, 'gain. ing immunity and authority they will climb to the citadel of the soul, and, in tyrant fashion, will storm and ravage the soul.' id. de agric. 11 I p. 307 the tyrant and natural enemy of cities is a man, of body and soul and of all that concerns both, the most embruted mind, tnv åkpbmolv &TITETEIXLKWS ekáOTW. Arr. Epict. iv 1 $ 86–8 • how is the citadel overthrown? Not by sword, or by fire, but by rules of reason. For if we shall have demolished that citadel which is in the city, shall we have demolished that of fever also? that of fair women? in a word, the citadel within us, and have we cast out our inward tyrants? . . . With this we must begin, hence we must demolish the citadel, cast out the tyrants.' cf. Iuv. 20 n. p. 33.

CASTRAVIT VI 366-378. Winer Realwörterb. Verschnittener. Rein Criminalr.2 422–4. Hdt. VIII 105. Slaves (and a Nero regarded all mankind as his slaves) were treated as chattels, and mutilated with as little scruple as the inferior animals. Paulus Aegin. VI 68 with Adams' n. “the purpose of our art being to restore those parts which are in a preternatural state to their natural, the operation of castration professes just the reverse: but since we are sometimes compelled against our will [as Heliodorus was Iuv. vi 373] by persons of high rank to perform the operation, we shall briefly describe the mode of doing it.' M. Sen, contr. 33 g 17 p. 322 28 principes ... viri contra naturam divitias suas exercent; castratorum greges habent, exoletos suos, ut ad longiorem patientiam inpudicitiae idonei sint, amputant et, quia ipsos pudet viros esse, id agunt ut quam paucissimi sint. his nemo succurrit delicatis et formosis debilibus. Fortunatian. art. rhet, i 15 p. 93 27 H the theme of a controversia tyrannidis tempore speciosum filium pater amico commendavit. vocavit ad se patrem eius tyrannus et tormentis expressit, ubi esset filius: satellites misit ad amicum, amicus puerum occidit, tyrannus re cognita se necavit: amicum mater pueri caedis accusat; adest ei pater.' hic enim dicit puerum maiore a se pudoris inuria liberatum, a parallel to Verginia's death. Nep. 21 2 8 2 of the elder Dionysius id quod in tyranno non facile reperitur, minime libidinosus. DCass. LIX 28 8 9 τά γε οικήματα [=lupαnaria] τα εν αυτώ τω παλατίω αποδειχθέντα, και τας γυναίκας τας των πρώτων τούς τε παίδας τους των σεμνοτάτων, ούς ες αυτά καθίζων ύβριζεν, εκκαρπούμενος επ' αυτούς πάντας απλώς τους μεν εθελοντάς τους δε και άκοντας, όπως μή και δυσχεραίνειν τι νομισθώσι. IXII 28 8 3 of Nero παίδα απελεύθερον δν και Σπόρον ωνόμαζεν, εκτεμών, because of his likeness to Sabina. cf. LXIII 13 § 1. LXVII 2 § 3 kalmtep kai αυτός 'Εαρίνου τινός ευνούχου έρών, όμως, επειδή και ο Τίτος ισχυρώς περί τους εκτομίας έσπoυδάκει, απηγόρευσεν επί εκείνου ύβρει μηδένα έτι εν τη των 'Pwualwv ápxôn & K tépveo bat. cf. Suet. Dom. 7. Stat. s. 1V 3 13–5. Brisson. ant. iur. 11 21. Quintil. v 12 ss 17—9. Protection was required even from the cradle Mart. ix 8 3. 5-8 iam cunae lenonis erant.

| immatura dabant infandas corpora poenas. | non tulit Ausonius talia monstra pater. | idem qui teneris nuper succurrit ephebis, I ne faceret steriles saeva libido viros. DCass. LXVIII 2 § 4 Nerva repeats the prohibition. Sen. fr. 34 in Aug. civ. D. vi 10 § 2 cruel self-mutilations of fanatics, as the Galli; no tyrant ever so cruel, as false gods: taeterrimi et in fabulas traditae crudelitatis tyranni laceraverunt aliquorum membra, neminem sua lacerare iusserunt. in regiae libidinis voluptatem castrati sunt quidam, sed nemo sibi, ne vir esset, iubente domino manus intulit. Philostr. soph. II 4 § 3 a controversia of Antiochos of Aegae: a tyrant having abdicated on the score of weak health, a eunuch, made such by him, slew him and is accused of murder. The accusers rely on the compact under which the tyrant had abdicated; the assassin replies: with whom did he make this agreement? with children, women, youths, old men, men; but I have no name in the treaty.' Io. Chrys. hom. 37=38 in Matth. p. 4235 το γαρ γυναίκας διασπών και παίδας υβρίζειν νέους ... των τας ακροπόλεις κατειληφότων εστί. 308 PRAETEXTATUM 1 78 n.

RAPUIT 332. VII 168 n. hence our "rape,' ravish.'

NERO Suet. 28. LORIPEDEM II 23 loripedem rectus derideat, Aethiopem albus.

JUV. IL

11

166 n.

Plin. v § 46 among the fabulous races of Africa himantopedes lori. pedes quidam quibus serpendo ingredi natura est. 309 STRUMOSUM Cic. in Vatin. § 4 Halm inflato collo, tumidis cervicibus. cf. Gesner and Forcell.

UTERO used of males, both man and beast, by Verg. Luc. Plin, Cels. Therefore the ingenious conj. of C. Vales, itero is needless. GIBBO 294 n.

310 I NUNC ET Prop. III=II 29 22 i nunc et noctes disce manere domi! Mart. spect. 23 6. i 42 6. VFI. 111 169 ‘i nunc', ait, 'Herculis armis! Aen, IX 631 i, verbis virtutem inlude superbis! Sidon. ep. I 3 pr. Sav. i nunc et.i. move.

310–1 IUVENIS SPECIE LAETARE TUI, QUEM MAIORA EXSPECTANT DISCRIMINA 295—6 n. Capitolin. Maximin. 28 § 3 infamabant eum ob nimiam pulchritudinem... maxime senatores, qui speciem illam velut divinitus lapsam incorruptam esse noluerunt. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 24 8 3 adulescens rarissimae formae in tam magna feminarum turba viros corrumpentium nullius se spei praebuit, et cum quarumdam usque ad temptandum [Iuv. 305) pervenisset inprobitas [Iuv. ib.], erubuit [Iuv. 301] quasi peccasset, quod placuerat. Tac. vi 49 Sex. Papinius committed suicide: causa ad matrem referebatur, quae pridem repudiata adsentationibus atque luxu perpulisset iuvenem ad ea quorum effugium non nisi morte inveniret: the mother was banished for ten years, donec minor filius lubricum iuventae exiret. The adulterer in Lucian Peregr. 9, who, on entrance into manhood, is taken in the act of adultery, is beaten with many stripes, and at last escapes only by leaping from the roof ραφανίδι την πυγήν βεBuojévos, is a paragon of beauty, nature's own handiwork, the ideal (kavóv) of Polykleitos. [Quintil.] decl. 18 argument speciosum filium, infamem, tamquam incestum cum matre committeret, pater in secreta parte domus torsit et occidit in tormentis.' 89 speciosus, inquit, 'fuit.' non magis hoc facinus in matre est, quam crimen in filio. Especiosus fuit:' ut hoc obici possit, ut debeat, adice, et adulter, et raptor, in illa matrona maritali dolore [Iuv. 315) paene percussus, in illa virgine publica subclamatus invidia: quamquam haec quoque intra notos decurrunt iuventutis excursus.

IUVENIS XIV 23 n. 311 MAIORA greater than those named 304–8; see 316—7. 339-45.

311-2 ADULTER PUBLICUS Hor. C. II 8 7–8 iuvenumque prodis | publica cura. M. Sen. contr. 12 § 6 p. 152 1 misit in domum nostram publicum puerum (i. e. not, as in the other exx. 'stale, common to all bidders,' but everybody's and nobody's child'). Sen. ep. 88 8 37 among idle school questions, an Sappho publica fuerit. cf. Lys. de caede Erat. & 16 p. 93 he has corrupted not only your wife, but many others, taútnu yap réxunu ēxel Anaxandrid. in Stob. f. LXVIII 1 αλλ' έλαβεν ωραίαν τις ουδέν γίγνεται μάλλον τι του γή μαντος ή των γειτόνων.

312-3 MARITI EXIGERE IRATIST [' possibly the original reading: when the st, as so often happened, was omitted, then debet or debent would be a natural addition, and P would omit exigere for the metre.' H.A.J.M.] has mariti irati debet, Rigault and Jahn maritis iratis d., many MSS. mariti exigere irati debent, which exhibits the progress of interpolation. The exigit autem of 314 refers to our exigere.

IRATI Paul. sent. II 26 & 7 inventa in adulterio uxore maritus ita demum adulterum iratus occidere potest, si eum domi suae deprehendat.

313—4 NEC ERIT FELICIOR ASTRO MARTIS, UT IN LAQUEOS NUMQUAM INCIDAT i.e. nec erit eius astrum felicius etc. 247 n. 'nor will he be more fortunate than Mars, whom Vulcan ensnared in the arms of his wife Venus.' The story was sung by Demodokos the minstrel at the court of Alkinoos Hom. Od. VIII 266—369; esp. the comments of the gods 329. 332 oủk åpeta kakd čpya... TO kai polgáypi' ó élel. In Hom. Il. v 363 Ares gives Aphrodite his chariot; complains to Zeus (ib. 883) on her behalf against Diomedes; she takes him by the hand (xxI 416), when he is wounded by Athene. In Hes. theog. 939 cl. 945 they are man and wife. cf. VF1. 11 208 Mavortia coniux. Stat. s. 1 2 53. schol. Aristoph. av. 835. Ov. a. a. II 561–590 fabula narratur toto notissima caelo, / Mulciberis capti Marsque Venusque dolis, etc. 578 disponit laqueos. 580 impliciti laqueis. id, amor. 1 9 39–40. tr. II 377–8. m. iv 171-189 adulterium Veneris cum Marte. cf. Iuv. vi 59. xvi 5. comm. on Hyg. f. 148. Fulgent. myth. II 10. VF1, II 98—100. Verg. g. IV 345–6. Stat. 8. 1 2 59-60. Th. III 273–6. VII 62. Philostr. Ap. VII 26 g 5. Nonn. v 578—585. Wernsdorf-Lemaire p. l. m. III 324—343 (or anth. lat. 253 R) Reposiani concubitus Martis et Veneris e.g. 143-6 criminis exemplum si iam de numine habemus, | quid speret mortalis amor ? quo vota ferenda ? | quod numen poscat, quo șit securus adulter? | Cypris amat, nec tuta tamen, anth. ib. 202, 272. 749. Nikolaos in Walz rhet. gr. 1 384 speech of Zeus on seeing Ares deo júrns. In art Ares and Aphrodite are often grouped together, as on the chest of Kypselos Paus. v 18 g 5. cf. Xen. Ephes. I 8. The scene was represented on the stage Cypr. ad Donat. 8 p. 10 17 exprimunt inpudicam Venerem, adulterum Martem. Arnob. IV 25 who has related that Mars dum genialibus insultat alienis, haesisse in laqueis involutum ? non commentarii vestri, non scaenae ? esp. Lucian de salt. 63 where a dancer acts in dumb show each character in turn. Claud. Magnes 22—39 a description of a Venus of loadstone attracting a Mars of iron. The comic and satirical writers did not overlook so obvious a subject of banter Lucian deor. dial. 12 g 2. 15 g 3. 17. 20 § 2. gallus 3. philopatr. 6—7; see generally on the adulteries of the gods id. Prom. 16—7. necyom. 3. Philosophers from very early times took exception to the gross anthropomorphism of such teaching e. g. Xenophanes fr. 7 Homer and Hesiod ascribed to the gods all lawless deeds which are among men a shame and reproach, κλέπτειν μοιχεύειν τε και αλλήλους απατεύειν. . Plat. Rep. III 390C expressly condemns, as injurious to morals, the hearing "Αρεός τε και 'Αφροδίτης υπό Ηφαίστου δεσμόν. Αristot. pol. 11 9 1269b 28 sees in the legend an allegory of the chivalrous gallantry of warlike races: cf. Plut. Pelopid. 19 § 2 Harmonia rightly called child of Ares and Aphrodite, for states live in concord when strength is wedded to sweetness. [Plut.] vit. Hom. 101–2 gives a physical interpretation : Aphrodite is the pixia .attraction,’ Ares the veikos repulsion,' of Empedokles; Helios detects them, Hephaestos binds them, Poseidon looses them; i. é. the warm, dry element, and its opposite, the cold and moist, by turns combine and dissolve all things. Harmonia is their daughter, for a due combination of high and low notes produces harmony. Athen. I. p. 14° (cf. schol. and Eust. Hom. Od. viii 267) regards Demodokos as curing the voluptuous Phaeakians by a homoeopathic remedy. Many other attempts to escape the difficulty in Eust. and schol. ib. 266369. The most tasteless of all makes of the loves of Ares and Aphrodite a conjunction of their planets (Lucian] de astrol. 22. The Christian fathers follow in the steps of the philosophers, [Iust. mart. ] or. ad gent. 3 'Let Hephaestos put away jealousy, and not be envious because, elderly as he was and lame, he had been hated, and Ares, as young and fair, loved.' id. de monarch. 6 calls Ares and Aphrodite tous rîs Monxelas åpxn yoús. Tatian apol. 34. Athenag. 21 bids Homer.be

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