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the friends of P. had erected. DCass. XLII 5 where the contrast between the greatness of P. and his fall is drawn out at length,—victorious from a stripling in Europe, Asia, Africa, he had pacified the whole Mediterranean, and now met his death there; the former admiral of 1000 sail in a little boat; on the very day of his triumph over Mithradates and the pirates, the day of his greatest glory, he suffered the most grievous shame. VM. v 1 § 10 quam praeclarum tributae humanitatis specimen Cn. Pompeius, quam miserabile desideratae idem evasit exemplum! nam qui Tigranis tempora insigni regio texerat, eius caput tribus coronis triumphalibus spoliatum, in suo modo terrarum orbe nusquam sepulturae locum habuit, sed abscisum a corpore inops rogi nefarium Aegyptiae perfidiae munus portatum est, etiam ipsi victori miserabile. ut enim id Caesar aspexit, oblitus hostis soceri vultum induit, ... caput autem plurimis pretiosissimis odoribus cremandum curavit. Alexander Severus Lamprid. 62 § 3 cited the same exx. of great men dying a violent or early death as Iuv. does here, Alexander, Pompeius, Caesar, Demosthenes, Tullius. Sen. de tranq. 16 § 1 Pompeius et Cicero [coguntur] clientibus suis praebere cervicem. brev. vit. 13 88 6—7. VM. 1889. A very familiar commonplace on the tombs of P. and his two sons, in Africa, Europe, Asia (Iuv. 108 n.). anth. Lat. 400—4. 413—4. 454–6 R e. g. 402 (borrowed from Cart v 74. cf. Sen. ep. 71 § 9) Pompeius totum victor lustraverat orbem; | at rursus toto victor in orbe iacet. | membra pater Libyco posuit male tecta sepulcro; | filius Hispana est vix adopertus humo. | Sexte, Asiam sortite tenes. divisa ruina est: , uno non potuit tanta iacere solo. cf. 406. 415 39—40. 438. 845. The site of the tomb was Ostracine Solin. 34 § 1, near mt. Casius and Pelusium Pl. v 8 68. Strab. 760. 769. The flight of Pompeius was a topic of suasoriae in the schools Quintil. III 8 § 33 (cf. Empor. in rhet. Lat. 571 4 H) Pompeius deliberabat, Parthos an Africam an Aegyptum peteret. SS 55—7 an pro Caesare fuerit occidi Pompeium? etc. vil 2 § 6 quomodo laturus sit Caesar, si Ptolemaeus Pompeium occiderit? 286—8 HOC CRUCIATU LENTULUS, HAC POENA CARUIT CECIDITQUE CETHEGUS INTEGER VIII 231—244 n. these accomplices of Catilina, P. Lentulus Sura (consul B.C. 71, ejected from the senate for immorality 70, praetor again 63) and C. Cethegus undertook to murder the consul Cicero and the senate, and to set fire to Rome, while Catilina marched with an army from Etruria Sall. 32 § 2. Plut. Cic. 18. App. b.c. II 3. The backward. ness of Lentulus destroyed the chances of the conspiracy (Sall. 58 § 4 80cordia atque ignavia Lentuli. Cic. Brut. § 235. DCass. XXXVII 32 g 3); he was full of blind confidence, trusting to certain so-called Sibylline verses and to fortune-tellers: 'it was fated that three Cornelii should be lords of Rome,' i.e. as he supposed, Cinna, Sulla and himself Cic. Catil. III SS 9. 11. IV $$ 2. 12. Sall. 47 g 2. App. II 4. Quintil, v 10 § 30. Plat. 17 § 4. Flor. II 12=IV 1 § 8. On the night of the famous 5 Dec. 63 (Cic. p. Flacc. $ 102 nonae illae Decembris. ad fam. 19 § 12) Lentulus and Cethegus were strangled in the Tullianum, or underground dungeon beneath the Capitol (Burn Rome and the Campagna xxiii. 81) by order of the senate Sall. 55. Vell. II 34 § 4. Plut. Cic. 22 & 2. App. 11 6 fin. DCass. XXXVII 36 8 3. 39 $ 2. This illegal execution was continually cast in Cicero's teeth, as B.C. 43 by Calenus ib. xLvi 20 § 5, where is a play on Tullius and Tullianum. The mother of Antonius after his father's death married Lentulus, & con. nexion from which Plut. Ant. 2 § 1 derives the feud between Ant. and Cic. Ant. asserted that the body of Lentulus was not given up to his friends (Cic. Phil. II $ 17), or not until his wife begged it of Terentia; but none of the bodies were refused interment Plut. 1.c. Pauly 11 682—3. Drumann 11 529–33.

CECIDIT Gebhard on Nep. iv 1 § 2. CETHEGUS II 27 si . .. Clodius accuset moechos, Catilina Cethegum. VIII 231 n. He was one of the young (Sall. 52 § 33) rakes, who joined in the democratic plot as a means of cancelling all debts. Having undertaken to dispatch Cicero and knowing well the value of time, he constantly complained of the sloth of Lentulus; for even among conspirators the hierarchy of office was respected; if a consular joined the movement, he must take precedence Sall. 43 SS 244 e.g. natura ferox, vehemens, manu promptus erat; maxumum bonum in celeritate putabat. Cic. Catil. III § 10. 16 I foresaw remoto Catilina non mihi esse P. Lentuli somnum nec C. Cethegi furiosam temeritatem pertimescendam. IV § 11 aspectus Cethegi et furor in vestra caede bacchantis. Luc. II 541–3 nec magis hoc bellum est, quam cum Catilina paravit | arsuras in tecta faces, sociusque furoris 1 Lentulus exsertique manus vesana Cethegi.

288 INTEGER Apul. vii 24 moriturus equidem nihilominus, sed moriturus integer. Here 'entire')( 'beheaded;' generally)(saucius Mühlmann col. 1201—2.

IACUIT CATILINA CADAVERE TOTO XIV 41. Corn. Sev. ap. Sen. suas. 6 § 26 31–5 (first compared by Barth) after speaking of Cicero's mutilation (Iuv. 120 n.) hoc nec in Emathio mitis victoria Perse, I nec te, dire Syphax, non fecit in hoste Philippo. I inque triumphato ludibria cuncta Iugurtha | afuerunt,nostraeque cadens ferus Hannibal irae | membra tamen Stygias tulit inviolata sub umbras. The restless energy and great capacity of L. Sergius Catilina is attested by his enemy Cic. p. Cael. gs 12–4. Catil. 111 SS 16—7. Having been one of the most bloodthirsty agents of Sulla (Sen, de ir. 111 18 &$ 1—2) he threw himself into the democratic movement with characteristic ardour, declaring that, there being two parties in the state, the one (the aristocracy) feeble, with a weak head (Cicero), the other strong, but without a head; so long as he lived, it should never want a head Cic. p. Mur. § 51; and indeed, beside the plunder of the capitalists, the renewal of the days of C. Marius the democratic captain, and the exaltation of Marius' nephew Caesar against Pompeius, were the chief aims of the conspirators. Catilina joined battle early in B.c. 62 with the troops of the proconsul C. Antonius, led by the capable veteran M. Petreius, at Pistoria in Etruria; during the engagement he discharged the duties of a brave soldier and consummate commander, and when all was lost, charged into the thick of the enemy, and fell fighting Sall. 60—1. DCass. XXXVII 39—40, who contradicts Iuv. 40 & 2 Antonius sent his head to the city, in order that, being assured of his death, they might be relieved from fear.' Cic. p. Sest. &$ 8–12. Flor. II 12 =IV 1 § 12 Catilina was found far from his own lines, among corpses of the enemy, pulcherrima morte, si pro patria sic concidisset. Ben Jonson in his Catiline has worked up the evidence with a master's hand.

CADAVERE TOTO Luc. VIII 697—9 litora Pompeium feriunt, truncusque vadosis ) huc illuc iactatur aquis: adeone molesta | totum cura fuit socero servare cadaver? 707—10 e. g. nulla que manente figura, i una nota est Magno capitis iactura revulsi. 736 lacerum corpus. 752 truncum. 773 trunci cineres. IX 53 truncus. x 379—80 tumulumque e pulvere parvo | adspice, Pompeii non omnia membra tegentem.

289-345 With low whisper, at sight of Venus' temple, the eager mother craves beauty for her boys, for her girls aloud, even to a very daintiness of desire. Yet why rebuke?' she asks; 'Latona's self takes pride in her fair Diana.' Yet Lucretia's fate forbids the wish for features like Lucretia's; Verginia would fain take Rutila's hump, giving Rutila in exchange her own faultless shape. Still greater dangers await the beau : a blooming son keeps his parents on the rack with fear: so seldom is beauty mated with chastity. [ chaste is no epithet to suit with fair']. Though the plain home, taking after the ancient Sabines, may have handed down from sire to son spotless manners, though boon Nature may have done her part, dealing with liberal hand chaste affections, and a face flushed with modest blood (for what more can Nature bestow on a boy, Nature mightier than every keeper and every safeguard?) still the well-favoured youth may never be man; for the seducer's lavish hardihood is bold to bribe the very parents to their children's sin: such trust have they in the power of gifts. No tyrant ever in his cruel fortress un. manned a misshapen stripling, no Nero ever ravished a lad bandy-legged or wen-throated, gorbellied at once and hump-backed. Go to now, and rejoice in your spruce youth, whom greater perils await: he will turn adulterer general to the city and will fear vengeance, such as a wrathful husband may take, nor will be a luckier gallant than Mars that he should never be entrapped. Sometimes however that indignation takes more licence than any law has allowed to indignation; one stabs the paramour to death, another draws blood with the lash; some lechers also are clystered with the mugilis.—But your Endymion, I say, will prove the adulterer of a wedded dame whom he loves; presently, when Servilia comes, money in hand,—of one whom he loathes; he will strip her of all her bravery; for what sacrifice will not any matron, be she Oppia or more profligate Catulla, make to her lusts? woman's whole character has its root there. But what harm does beauty to the chaste? nay, what good had Hippolytus of his temperate resolve, or what Bellerophon? For Stheneboea and Cretan Phaedra alike reddened as scorned by this rebuff, both took fire, both shook for rage: when shame goads bate, then it is that a woman is most ruthless. Choose what advice you think best for him whom Caesar's wife is bent on wedding in her husband's lifetime. The fairest at once and best of a patrician house is hurried off, to be slain poor soul by Messalina's eyes: long since she is seated in state, the flame-red wedding-veil is ready, the coverlet of Tyrian purple is spread on the marriage-bed for all to see; the million sesterces of dowry will be made over in ancient form, witnesses will come to set their seal to the contract, the auspex to declare it blessed of heaven. You thought this a secret, entrusted to a few; she will not marry but in due form of law. Say, Silius, what is your choice. Refuse, and you are a dead man before the lamps are lit; commit the crime, and a little respite will be granted, till the news, stale to the city and to all subjects, may reach the ears of Claudius. He will be the last to learn the stain on his home; meanwhile do you, if a few days' life is worth the price, obey the behest of Messalina: in either case, whichever event you think better and easier, this fair white neck must be offered to the headsman's sword.

289-97 on the fond prayers of parents see Sen. ep. 94 $S 53–4 nulla ad aures nostras vox inpune perfertur: nocent qui optant

illorum amor male docet bene optando. mittit enim nos ad longinqua bona et incerta et errantia, cum possimus felicitatem domi promere. non licet, inquam, ire recta via.

trahunt in pra. vum parentes. ib. 60 § 1 etiamnunc optas, quod tibi optavit nutrix tua aut paedagogus aut mater? nondum intellegis, quantum mali optaverint? o quam inimica nobis sunt vota nostrorum! eo quidem inimiciora quo cessere felicius. iam


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non admiror, si omnia nos a prima pueritia mala sequuntur: inter
execrationes parentum crevimus. Hor. ep. 1 4 6-8 to Tibullus
di tibi formam, di tibi divitias dederunt artemque fruendi. , quid
voveat dulci nutricula maius alumno?
tataque murmura of the votary of Osiris. Sen. ep. 10 5 (cf. Macr. I
7 $ 6) verum est quod apud Athenodorum inveni : 'tunc scito esse te omni.
bus cupiditatibus solutum, cum eo perveneris, ut nihil deum roges,
nisi quod rogare possis palam.' nunc enim quanta dementia est
hominum! turpissima vota dis insusurrant: si quis admoverit
aurem, conticescent, et quod scire hominem nolunt, deo
narrant. vide ergo, ne hoc praecipi salubriter possit: “sic vive cum
hominibus, tamquam deus videat: sic loquere cum deo, tamquam
homines audiant.' id. ben. II 1 § 4 vota homines parcius facerent,
si palam facienda essent; adeo etiam deos, quibus honestissime sup-
plicamus, tacite malumus et intra nosmetipsos precari. ib. VI
38 SS 2–5 esp. quam multa sunt vota, quae etiam sibi fateri
pudet! quam pauca, quae facere coram teste possimus! Tibull.
II 1 85 Broukh. Hor. ep. 1 16 59—60 Obbar. Luc. v 104–5 haud illic
tacito mala vota susurro | concipiunt. Pers. II 3—75 Cas. Mart. I
39 5—6 siquis erit recti custos, mirator honesti, / et nihil arcano qui
roget orē deos. Gataker on Anton. III 4. Cf. the Pythagorean rule
Clem. Al. str. IV 26 S 173 uerd pwvñis eöxeral; so Iustinian novell. 137 6
orders the prayers in the administration of the sacraments to be uttered
uera owns, with a loud voice,' as our rubrics enjoin. cf. Beveridge on
art. 24.

290 ANXIA MATER Prop. III=11 22 42 tutius et geminos anxia mater alit.

291 USQUE AD DELICIAS VOTORUM IV 4. VI 47. 260. XIII 140-1 ten -0 delicias-extra communia censes ponendum ? deliciae and delicatus connote something foppish, fantastic, whimsical, capricious, vain, fine, exquisite, fastidious, nice, choice, geziert; in style (Bonnell lex. Quintil.) affected and farfetched; deliciae 'a pet,' fondled with a doting love. Here the fond mother does not limit her prayers to plain, solid benefits to satisfy her children's wants, but asks heaven for something out of the common way, to content her vanity, to indulge her to the top of her fancy; she will pray e.g. for any charm that happens to be in fashion Sen. ben. iv 5 § 1 unde illa quoque luxuriam instruens copia ? neque enim necessitatibus tantummodo nostris provisum est: usque in delicias amamur.

Plin. II § 157 of the earth quas non ad delicias quasque non ad contumelias servit homini? ...

aquis, ferro, igne, lapide, fruge, omnibus cruciatur horis, multoque plus ut deliciis quam ut alimentis famuletur nostris. Ambr. de paenit. 1 $ 42 deliciosus.. et fastidii plenus. cf. ind. Plin. Dryden “they must be finished pieces.'

292 PULCHRA GAUDET LATONA DIANA Hom. Od. vi 102—8 as Artemis strides down the hill véynte te opéva Antw. she towers above all her nymphs by the head and shoulders, and is conspicuous among all, though all are fair. Aen. 1 498—502 as on the banks of Eurotas or ridges of Cynthus Diana leads the dance, encompassed by a thousand Oreads, but she outtops them all: Latonae tacitum pertemptant gaudia pectus. 293 LUCRETIA Liv. 1 57 $ 10 B.C. 510 Sex. Tarquinius was seized with a guilty passion for Lucretia : cum forma, tum spectata castitas incitat. The story is admirably told ib. 57—8 and by Ov. f. 11 721—852: authorities in Schwegler 1 776 n. 5. Tertullian (exhort. cast. 13. monog. 17. ad mart. 4) applauds her suicide; so Hieron. adv. Iovin. 1 49 fin.; Aug. civ.

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D. i 19 condemns it (a favorite topic in the schools, for he gives speci. mens of declamation: mirabile dictu; duo fuerunt, et adulterium unus admisit.' si adulterata, cur laudata? si pudica, cur occisa ?"). She is the model of a Roman matron (M. Sen. exc. contr. vi 8 § 3 p. 409 4 quodsi utique laudare vis nuptias, narra Lucretiam); and of homely chastity id. contr. 5 § 3 p. 89 15 refer nunc Verginiam, refer Lucretiam: plures tamen Sabinae sunt. VM. vi 1 § 1 dux Romanae pudicitiae Lucretia.

294 VERGINIA her story B.C. 449 is told by Liv. III 44-51 e. g. 44 SS 1–3 an attempt on female honour the cause of the downfal of the decemvirs as of the kings. App. Claudius was smitten with a passion for the daughter of L. Verginius, a man exemplary in peace and war and in the government of his home. He had betrothed his daughter to L. Icilius: hanc virginem adultam, forma excellentem Appius, amore amens, pretio ac spe pellicere adortus, postquam omnia pudore saepta animadverterat, ad crudelem superbamque vim animum convertit. 48 § 7 after Verginius had stabbed his daughter Icilius Numitoriusque exsangue corpus sublatum ostentant populo; scelus Appii, puellae infelicem formam, necessitatem patris deplorant. 50 S 8 Verginius says, filiam, quia non ultra pudica victura fuerit, miseram, sed honestam mortem occubuisse. DH XI 28—40 calls V. (28) 'fairest of all Roman maidens;' 35 V. before Appius in sordid attire with downcast looks still 'enchanted all men's eyes, so superhuman a grace and charm was in her.' 39 pity for the maiden who had suffered δεινά και περα δεινών δια το åtuxés kállos.' Cf. 41. authorities for Verginia's fate in Schwegler III 52 n. 2. Over and above its poetical and moral and historical interest the story is of importance as a case in the law of vindiciae in libertatem, and as an example of the early betrothals (and marriages Friedländer 13 467—72) customary in Rome Schwegler 52–65. Oros. III 13 pius parricida.

GIBBUM 309. vi 108—9 mediisque in naribus ingens / gibbus: the word denotes any swelling or hump. 295—7 FILIUS 224 n. VII 218 n. 239 n. Cic. p. Cael. § 6 quod obiectum est de pudicitia, . id numquam tam acerbe feret M. Caelius, ut eum paeniteat non deformem esse natum; sunt enim ista maledicta pervul. gata in omnes, quorum in adulescentia forma et species fuit liberalis. SS 8. 9 quoad aetas M. Caelii dare potuit isti suspicioni locum, fuit primum ipsius pudore, deinde etiam patris diligentia disciplina que munitā: qui ut huic virilem togam dedit,... nemo hunc M. Caelium in illo aetatis flore vidit nisi aut cum patre aut mecum aut in M. Crassi castissima domo. SS 10, 11. Plin. ep. III 16 § 3 filius decessit eximia pulchritudine, pari verecundia. vii 24 § 3 conspicuus forma omnes sermones malignorum et puer et iuvenis evasit. [Quintil.] decl. 292.

297–8 RARA EST ADEO CONCORDIA FORMAE ATQUE PUDICITIAE [Ov.] her. 15=16 288 lis est cum forma magna pudicitiae. Ov. amor. III 4 41—2. f. 11 161. Petron. 94 raram fecit mixturam cum sapientia forma. Sen. ben. III 16 § 3 argumentum est deformitatis pudicitia. 298–9 SANCTOS LICET HORRIDA MORES TRADIDERIT DOMUS VI 10. VIII 116. XI 152–5. Vell. 11 11 g 1 C. Marius ... natus agresti loco, hirtus atque horridus vitaque sanctus. Plin. ep. III 3 $ 5 vir est emendatus et gravis, paulo etiam horridior et durior, ut in hac licentia temporum. More in Mühlmann,

299 VETERES IMITATA. SABINOS III 85. 169 n. vi 163—4 intactior omni | crinibus effusis bellum dirimente Sabina, Ov, amor. 18 39–40. II '4 15 aspera si visa est rigi:




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