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XV 353—5 Laertes still lives, but ever prays for his release; ékmáy.ws gåp maidós ödúpetal olxouévolo. Mart. x 67 3 of a crone 'stepmother of Nestor, nurse of Priam, survivor of every crow, Laertes aviam senex vocavit.'

PAS without est Mühlmann col, 121 fin.=it is fated ib. 122 e. g. Aen. 1 206 illic fas regna resurgere Troiae. ITHACUM XIV 287.

NATANTEM tost on the seas for ten years, and swimming after shipwreck two (Od v 313—450) or nine (ib. XTI 420–450) nights and days. Prop. IV = III 12 32 totque hiemis noctes totque natasse dies. 258-71 Priam joined with Nestor also vi 321—6. Mart. (ver. 257 n.). priap. 57 4. The whole passage is from Cic. Tusc. I $ 85 Metellus had four sons, Priam 50, 17 of whom were by his lawful wife. Fortune had the same power in the case of both, but used it on one only. Metellum enim multi filii filiae, nepotes neptes in rogum inposuerunt, Priamum tanta progenie orbatum, cum in aram confugisset, hostilis manus interemit, hic si vivis filiis incolumi regno occidisset, ... utrum tandem a bonis an a malis discessisset? tum profecto videretur a bonis , at certe ei melius evenisset nec tam flebiliter illa canerentur : 'haec omnia vidi inflammari, | Priamo vi vitam evitari, Iovis aram sanguine turpari .' quod si ante occidisset, talem eventum omnino amisisset : hoc autem tempore sensum amisit malorum. Then follows the case of Pompeius. Πριαμικαί τύχαι proverbial to denote a great reverse of fortune Aristot. eth. N. 1 10 $ 14. cf. 9 $ 11. Attic. phil. in Eus. praep. ev. 796o. Plotin, enn. 1 4 5 Tàs molvo puxlntous .. IIp. T. Hence the epithets πολύτλητος, πολυδάκρυτος Pape-Benseler Πρία

Plat. Gryll. 6 § 6 p. 989 toll II piduou Bapu tot uÓTepos. id. apophth. Ages. 37 p 211* when some one was envying the Persian king, then very young, Agesilaos replied, “Priam too, at that age, was not unfortunate.' the saying of Kallimachos . Troilos wept less than Priam' is cited by Cic. 1. c.893. Plut. cons. Apoll, 24 p 114'. See the touching appeal of Priam to Hektor Il. XXII 59–76, where he laments his sons fallen, and forebode3 that he may see his daughters ravished, his infants brained, and be him. self torn by dogs. XXIV 493—506 he appeals to Achilles by the remem. brance of Peleus ; 543—50 Achilles is overcome by Priam's present sorrow, contrasted with his former glory. Suet. 62, confirming the report that Tiberius intended the destruction of all his grandchildren, identidem felicem Priamum vocabat, quod superstes omnium suorum extitisset. DCass. LVIII 23 & 4 otherwise; "he deemed Priam happy, inasmuch as country and kingdom fell with him root and branch.' ib. LXI 16 $ 1 the same words are put in Nero's mouth.

258 VENISSET AD UMBRAS Stat. 8. III 3 206 immites lente descendit ad umbras. 259 ASSARACI Ass. Ilos and Ganymedes were sons of Tros. Priam was son of Laomedon, son of Ilos Apollod. 11. 12. Heyne on Verg. g. III 35.

SOLLEMNIBUS Verg. Aen. v 605 variis tumulo referunt sollemnia ludis. VI 380 tumulo sollemnia mittent. 259-60 HECTORE FUNTS PORTANTE II. XXIV 786 εξέφερον θρασύν Έκτορα dakpuxéovtes. Cic. Tusc. 1. c. Plin. VII § 142. VM. vi 1 g 1 Q. Metellus an example of unalloyed bliss, such as heaven itself cannot boast; great domestic happiness, great public distinctions, nullum funus, nullus gemitus; and then the worthy crown of all: ultimae senectutis spatio defunctum lenique genere mortis inter oscula complexusque carissimorum pignorum extinctum filii et generi umeris suis per urbem latum rogo inposuerunt. Vell. i 11 g 7. cf. Kirchmann de fun. II 8. Becker Gallus 1113 363. Prop. v=iv 11 97—8 a deceased mother comforting her children et bene habet: numquam mater lugubria sumpsi : / venit in exequias tota caterva meas. Nep. xxi 2 § 3 of Philip of Macedon annos sexaginta natus decessit florente regno; neque in tam multis annis cuiusquam ex sua stirpe funus vidit.

FUNUS ' corpse’ Serv. Aen. Ix 491. Prop. 1 17 8 haecine parva meum funus harena teget? Catull. 64 83. Eutr. VII 23 of Domitian funus eius cum ingenti dedecore per vespillones exportatum et ignobiliter est sepultum. [Quintil.] decl. 12 g 26 uterum funeribus gravidum. VFI. VII 643 Burm. more in Mühlmann.

260 FRATRUM 50 sons in all Il. xxiv 495. Aen, II 503. Heyne on Apollod. 111 12 5.

CERVICIBUS Luc. VIII 732 ut Romana suum gestent pia colla parentem.

261 PRIMOS EDERE PLANCTUS Il. xxiv 723. 747. 761 noxe (eñoxe) yóolo, said of Andromache, Hekabe, Helene, lamenting Hektor: in each oase the lamentation is taken up by others 746 επι δε στενάχοντο γυναίκες. 760 γόον δ' άλίαστον όρινεν. 776 επί δ' ŽOTEVE oņuos atelpwr. Heyne ad l. p. 744. So in Rome the professional mourners, praeficae, Fest. p. 223 M. dant ceteris modum plangendi. Ov. m. II 340—3. Marquardt v 1 361 on the beating the breast and scratching the cheek to draw blood. Stanley on Aesch. ch. 22. 26. 262 Cass. (Aesch. Ag.) and Pol. (Eur. Hec.) both survived Priam; but they could not follow his corpse in solemn state.

SCISSA PALLA Kirchmann fun. II 17 fin. Faber semestr. II 10 init. Stat. s. v 1 20 flere et scindere vestes. Ov. m. II 335 laniata sinus. XI 681–3. On the palla see Marquardt v 2 181—2. Ferrar, de re vest. 1 3. 18. 264 AUDACES II. v 65.

AEDIFICARE CARINAS Ov. her. 5 41—2. 16 105–110: aedificare, strictly to make a house' is used, like olkodoueiv, for “to build' generally.

265 LONGA DIES in this sense, 'period of time,' dies is fem. Plin. ep. VIII 5.8 3 dies longa et satietas doloris. QUID CONTULIT I 106 n.

265–6 OMNIA EVERSA ET FLAMMIS ASIAM FERROQUE CADENTEM Aen. II 554–8 Heyne haec finis Priami, fatorum hic exitus illum | sorte tulit, Troiam incen. sam et prolapsa videntem | Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum | regnatorem Asiae. iacet ingens litore truncus | avolsumque umeris caput et sine nomine corpus. Manil

. iv 63—5 (above p.118). everto is several times used in the Aen. of the destruction of Troy Priami regnorum eversor Achilles, eversae Troiae excidia, eversa Pergama. eversa in urbe.

266 ASIAM Aen. 111 1–3 postquam res Asia e Priamique evertere gentem | inmeritam visum superis, ceciditque superbum | Ilium et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troia. From the time of Hdt. I 3. 4. the Troian war was regarded as one stage in the long lasting feud between Europe and Asia.

267 MILES TREMULUS POSITA TULIT ARMA TIARA Aen. II 509 arma diu senior desueta trementibus aevo | circumdat nequiquam umeris et inutile ferrum | cingitur. ib. 518 21. 544—6. Cic. p. Rosc. Am. $ 90. TIARA VI 516 Phrygia vestitur bucca tiara. Aen. VII 246 - 8 hoc Priami gestamen erat; cum iura vocatis | more daret populis, sceptrumque sacerque tiaras | Iliadumque labor vestes. The upright tiara or fez was reserved for kings Sen, ben. Vi 31 § 12 rectum capite tiaram gerens . id solis datum regibus. DCass. XXXVI 52=35 $ 3 makes it identical with dládnua. cf. Rich companion. Forcell. Curt. 111 3 = 8 & 19 cidarim Persae. vocabant regium capitis insigne: hoc caerulea fascia albo distincta circumibat. Amm. XVIII 5 § 6. 88 5.

268 RUIT ANTE ARAM SUMMI IOVIS Aen. Il 501—2. 5144525. 550—3 altaria ad ipsa trementem | traxit. cf. Heyne exc. XI. Arktinos in his 'Ιλίου πέρσις made Priam take refuge at the altar of Zeus épreîos Welcker ep. Cyclus IL JUV. II.

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522. Lesches of Lesbos, author of the little Iliad,' said that Priam was not slain on the hearth of Zeus épreios, but at the doors of the house after he had been dragged from the altar Paus. x 27 82. Other authors follow Arktinos Eur. Tr. 17. 483. Hec. 23 with schol. ib. 21. 24. Quint. Smyrn.. XIII 222 (Priam wishes, 231—3, that he had died before Troy was in flames). Tryph. 400 prophecy of Kassandra. 635. Paus. II 24 § 5=3. IV 17 § 4=3 Neoptolemos atoned for his sacrilege, being himself slain at Delphi, Ov. ib. 282. On this altar Alexander sacrificed, in order to. expiate the sacrilege of Neoptolemos Arr. 1 11 § 8; it was shewn by the local cicerone Luc. Ix 979 Oud. Herceas, monstrator ait, non respicis, aras? DChrys. or. 11 ad fin. Priam king of Asia, wounded in extreme old age near the altar of Zeus, from whom he was descended [Verg. g. III 35], was slain upon it. Dict. Cret. v 13. Markland conj. Hercei Iovis.

RUIT ANTE ARAM VM. v 6 E § 3 of Themistocles ante ipsam aram quasi quaedam pietatis clara victima concidit.

UT VETULUS Bos the monosyllabic fall from Aen. v 481 sternitur exanimisque tremens procumbit humi bos. the simile from Od. iv 535 is tis te katéktave Boûv ÉTÈ pátvy. Ov. m. v 122 procubuit terrae mactati more iuyenci. 269–70 COLLUM PRAEBET 345 n.

270 AB used even with names of lifeless things, when they are represented as feeling or acting Hand Tursell. I 27. Cic. p. Cluent. $ 110 locum ...a tribunicia voce desertum, Stat. S. III 1 111 inmenso non umquam exesus ab aevo,

AB INGRATO IAM FASTIDITUS ARATRO it was only in exceptional cases that oxen from the plough were sacrificed K. Fr. Hermann gottesd. Alterth. & 26 20. Ael. v. h. y 14 Kuhn. Wetstein on Mark 11 2. Macrob. III 5 8 5 iniuges. Verg. g. IV 540. Aen. yı 38. Sen. Oed. 300. Lexx. dverós. àvinulo åperbs. Valck. and Wess, on Hât. II 65. Yet Lucian sacrif. 12 says with Iuv. 'they bring their sacrifices, the husbandman his ploughing ox.' So Ov, m. xv 120–142. Lasaulx Studien 269 n. 242. In Israel also the compromise between religion and avarice, the offering of blind, lame, torn, sick victims, was not unknown Mal. 17. 8. 13.

271 UTCUMQUE 359 n. used, like quicumque and many other relatives, as indefinites without a verb in the silver age. at any rate;' 'however his end was, it was at least human.'

Plin, ep. V 5 § 2 sed hoc utcumque tolerabile; gravius illud. ib. 1 12 & 2. Tac. Agr. 39. Bonnell lex. Quintil. has 3 exx. 271–2 TORVA CANINO LATRAVIT RICTU, QUAE POST HUNC VIXERAT UXOR from Ov. m. XIII 517—22 where Hecuba says quo me servas, annosa senectus ? | quo, di crudeles, nisi quo nova funera cernam, | vivacem differtis anum ? quis posse putaret | felicem Priamum post diruta Pergama dici? | felix morte sua est, nec te, mea nata [Polyxena), peremptam | aspicit, et vitam pariter regnumque reliquit. cf. 462–4. 481–575. 542 torvos sustollit ad aethera vultus. 568–70 rictuque in verba parato | latravit conata loqui , locus extat, et ex re | nomen habet . i. e. Strab. XIII p. 595 Kuvos onua. Ov. m. XIII 620. Eur. Hec. 1265 Pors. DChrys. or. 11 1 369 R. 33 11 29. Quint. Smyrn. XIV 343–53. anth. Pal. xi 212. Tryph. 401–2. Plaut. Men, 71348 do you know why Hecuba was called a dog? •No.' Because she did what you are doing now . omnia mala ingerebat, quemquem aspexerat: 1 itaque adeo iure coepta appellarist Canis. anth. Lat. 105 R. Cic. Tusc. III § 63. Hygin. f. 111 Muncker, 243, Sext. Emp. adv. gramm. i 12 § 264. Aus. epit. 25.

TORVA Mart. II 41 13-4 vultus indue tu magis severos , quam coniunx Priami.

272 QUAE POST AUNC VIXERAT UXOR Sen. ep. 47 g 12 (and Macr. 1 11 § 7) at ego,' inquis, 'nullum habeo dominum.' bona aetas est: forsitan habebis. nescis, qua aetate Hecuba servire coeperit, qua Croesus? Sen. Agam, 705–9 tot illa regum mater et regimen Phrygum, | fecunda in ignes Hecuba fatorum novas | experta leges [Iuv. ver. 251] induit vultus feros. I circa ruinas rabida latravit suas, 1 Troiae superstes Hectori Priamo sibi. anth. Lat. 1246 11–2 M an felix aegrae potius subducta senectae ? | sic Hecuba flevit Penthesilea minus. Liban. ep. lat. 16 p. 739a W liberrimus quisque urgente fortuna servus fieri potest. servivit Hecuba, servivit. Croesus. «The fate of Hekabe,’ τα της 'Exáßns, proverbial Plut. comp. Thes, et Rom. 6 § 9. Pelop. 29 § 4. anth. app. 102 71.

273 REGEM PONTI VI 661. XIV 252—5 n. There is a brilliant account of Mithradates vi Eupator (cir. B. c. 130~+63, the year of Cicero's consulship) in Mommsen's history. If he shared with Priam etc. the sorrow of losing wife, brother, sister, and children before his death, the fault was his own, for many of them died by his orders (App. Mithr. 112). Gigantic of stature, hardy and fleet of foot, restless in enterprise, he fought in the thickest of the fight in his old age, could speak all the 21 tongues spoken by his subjects, and was the one formidable obstacle to Roman power in the east before the Parthian wars. To Pontus he added at different times Skythia, Kappadokia, Paphlagonia, Galatia, Bithynia, Lykia, Pamphylia, Bosporos, Kolchis, pushed his frontiers to Caucasus, and gained a footing in Greece proper, where his forces held out at Athens against Sulla, B. C. 86, one of the most memorable of sieges. In his three wars with the Romans he encountered Q. Oppius, L. Cassius, M'. Aquilius, Sulla, Fimbria, Murena, Cotta, Fabius, Triarius, Lucullus, Pompeius; and formed an alliance with Sertorius. From his last battle with the Romans at Nikopolis B.c. 66 he fled with only three attendants, and had a price set upon his head by Tigranes. Even after this (Plut. Pomp. 41 & 2. App. Mithr. 101. 109) he formed a plan for the invasion of Italy. His son Pharnakes, whom he designed for his successor, formed a plot against his life; being deserted by every one, he took poison, but in vain (Iuv. XIV 252 n.); and fell by the hand of a faithful Gaul App. 111. Pauly vi 100—12. DCass. XXXVI 11 he planned the invasion of Italy, choosing rather to die with his kingdom than to survive ingloriously. Cic. acad. II § 3 Lucullus called M. the greatest king since Alexander; cf. p. Mur. § 32. App. 112.57 years a king, he waged war 40 years with Rome, was master of the sea from Kilikia to the Ionian gulph.' ib. 119.

274 CROESUM the beautiful story of the interview of Croesus with Solon was questioned on chronological grounds in antiquity (Plut. Sol. 27 § 1); Grauert, Grote book 11 c. 11 fin., Curtius, have shewn that, as reported by Hdt., it cannot have taken place; though the two may have met at another time; the travels of Solon lasted from B.C. 593–583; Croesus came to the throne B. C. 560; however DL. I SS 50. 62 and Suid. speak of later travels; Solon died in Kypros. Duncker Gesch. d. Alterth. 12 596—7 accepts the story in the main, and dates the interview B. Ć. 560 or 559. M. Sen. contr. 9 8 7 p. 119 29 ille Croesus, inter reges opulentissimus, memento, post terga vinctis manibus deductus est. The story of Croesus, like that of Polykrates, well illustrates the Greek belief in divine Nemesis (ver. 42 n.). After his accession to the throne of Lydia, he added largely to his dominions by conquest (Hdt. 1 26—8): many Greeks famed for wisdom came to Sardis, and among them Solon (29). When Solon had seen all the royal treasures, Croesus asked, who was the happiest man that he knew. He

replied Tellos of Athens, for he had begotten good sons, who had also children; and when he died fighting for his country, they all survived (30). Next to Tellos Solon ranked Kleobis and Biton of Argos, who died the night after they had drawn their mother, a priestess, to the temple (31). Croesus being angry with his guest for not naming him as the happiest of men, Solon reckons up the days in a life of 70 years, each day exposed to its own accidents; and shews that happiness does not increase in propor. tion to wealth : in every thing we must have regard to the end, how it will fall out at last: for God has shewn prosperity to many, whom afterwards he has plucked up by the roots' (32). Croesus dismisses Solon, thinking him very simple, blind to present prosperity, while he insists on keeping the end in view (33). Vengeance begins to fall on Croesus for his pride; he dreams that his son Atys is killed by the thrust of a spear (34. 38–9). The dream is fulfilled, and Croesus spends two years in mourning (35–46 $ 1). Fearing the growing power of Persia, he consults the oracle, which declares, that by crossing the Halys he will ruin a mighty empire (46–56 $ 1). He invades Kappadokia (69–71. 73. 75); after an indecisive engagement returning to Sardis, he is besieged by Cyrus, who takes him prisoner, and orders him to be burnt. On the pyre, remembering Solon's lesson, he calls thrice, Solon, Solon, Solon. Cyrus enquiring the meaning of the cry, hears the tale; fearing divine vengeance, and remembering that his own fortune is as uncertain as his captive's, he orders the fire to be quenched; which the bystanders cannot do, when Apollo, moved by the prayers of Croesus, sends a heavy shower (76–87). On the proverbial wealth of Croesus see Pape-Benseler Kpołoos.

274-5 CROESUM QUEM VOX IUSTI FACUNDA SOLONIS RESPICERE AD LONGAE IUSSIT SPATIA ULTIMA VITAE this maxim (Hdt. 1 86 § 3) undeva είναι των ζωόντων όλβιον (cf. c. 33 Solon δε τα παρεόντα αγαθά μετείς την TENEUTTiv mavtos xońuatos opâv ékéleve) is very frequently cited, esp. in tragedy, of which it is the key-note DL. 18 50 ta Opuloúmeva. Soph. Trach. 1–3. Ded. r. 1528–30 Erf. Eur. Andr. 100—2 Barnes. El. 952–6. Tr. 510. Iph. A. 161–2. Aristot. eth. N. 1 10=11 § 3. Cic. fin. I1 $ 87 Dav. in $ 76. Ov. m. III 135—7. Sen, de tranq. an. 11 § 12 rex es : non ad Croesum te mittam, qui rogum suum et escendit iussus et extingui vidit, factus non regno tantum, sed etiam morti suae superstes. Ios. b. I. v 11=29 $ 3 applies the saying to Antiochos Epiphanes of Commagene, who aided Titus at the siege of Jerusalem; Arr. vir 16 § 7 to Alexander, who was felix opportunitate mortis. Hence the proverbs paroemiogr. 1 315 η. τέλος όρα βίου. II 187 Λυδος αποθνήσκει σοφός ανήρ, said of Croesus. ib. 665 τέρμα δ' οράν βιότοιο, Σόλων ιεραϊς εν Αθήναις. Μeurs. Solon c. 26. cf. ecclus. 11 28. Plin. Vii § 132 alius de alio indicat dies, et tamen supremus de omnibus, ideoque nullis credendum est. Charon in Lucian contempl. 10 takes Solon's maxim as a compliment to him and his ferry-boat. cf. all's well that ends well.' •Ende gut, alles gut.' *Finis coronat opus.' and many other proverbs Wander s.v. Ende. 276—282 from Vell. 11 19 B.C. 88 Sulla returned to Rome, occupied it by force of arms, and drove out from the city twelve ringleaders of revolution, among whom were Marius with his son and P. Sulpicius, ac lege lata exules fecit; . . . Marius after his sixth consulship and his 70th year, naked and overwhelmed with mire, eyes only and nose rising above the water, was dragged forth from a bed of reeds hard by the swamp of Marica, wherein he had concealed himself when flying from the pursuit of Sulla's cavalry. A halter being thrown over his neck, he was led to the prison of the Minturnensians by order of the duumvir. A public

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