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the physician Hermocrates. VIII 74. Auson. epigr. 73–5. Artemidor. 151, anth. Pal. XI 112—126. 131 4. Molière le malade imaginaire, at the end; the candidate of medicine has three remedies, clysters, bleeding and purging, for all disorders; and swears to use none but those of the faculty, maladus dût-il crevare et mori de suo malo. He is then granted licence to bleed cut and kill all the world over. The doctors wish their new brother a thousand years of life; manget et bibat, et seignet et tuat!

222 BASILUS one of the name, a pleader, in vıı 145—7. Here a fraudulent socius i. e. member of a partnership or trading company, societas, such as existed in Rome for buying and selling slaves or produce, building, banking, education (Dig. XVII 2 71), farming the revenues etc. Because of the sacredness of the relation, a partner convicted of dolus (in an actio pro socio) incurred infamia Rein in Pauly vı 1232_-3. IV 151 B 3. Privatr. 164. 721—3. Cic. p. Quinct. ss 11–26. 52. 74.76. 90. § 16 the tie of partnership is a brotherly tie, fraterna necessitudo. $ 26 the breach of it is impious. p. Rosc. com. $ 16 if there are three private actions which touch reputation and almost life itself, they are fiduciae, tutelae, societatis. aeque enim perfidiosum et nefarium est, pupillum fraudare, qui in tutelam pervenit, et socium fallere, qui se in negotio coniunxit. $$ 17. 22. 24—6. p. Caec. SS 7. 8. ep. fam. 1x 25 $ 3. d. n. III $ 74 iudicia ... pro socio. p. Flacc. § 43 et furti et pro socio damnatus. instit. Iv 16 & 2. dig. III 2 1. A guardian who had poi. soned his ward, to whom he was heir, crucified by Galba Suet. 9. 222-3 CIRCUMSCRIPSERIT

XIV 237. XV 135_6 n. pupillum ad iura vocantem | circumscriptorem. Cic. off. 111 $ 61 circumscriptio adulescentium lege Plaetoria (erat vindicata). Sen. de ben. IV 27 § 5 dementissime testabitur, qui tutorem filio reliquerit pupillorum spoliatorem. 223 EXORBEAT cf. vi 126 consumes, used like voro, of greedy passion.

224 MAURA who hisses the altar of Chastity in vı 307—8.

DISCIPULOs on the danger to the modesty of youth in schools see vii 239 n. Pliny ep. iv 13 § 4 hearing that the boys of his native town, Comum, went to school at Mediolanum, urged the fathers to set up a school in their own town (ubi enim aut iucundius morarentur, quam in patria, aut pudicius con. tinerentur, quam sub oculis parentum ?). He offered to contribute of the expense, and asks Tacitus to recommend a master. Eunus, the lecherous Syrian, branded by Auson. epigr. 123-4. 12648, was a schoolmaster. anth. Pal. xir 222 a master of gymnastics is charged with the same breach of trust as Hamillus here. III 112 n. IX 26. Mart. XI 43 5.

HAMILLUS the Amillus of Mart. vii 62 is in character like this, but not in condition, being the son of a man of wealth, living with his father.

225 CITIUS 220 n. QUOT VILLAS XIV 86-95 n.

226 the same verse i 25. cf. XIV 315 n.

QUO 171 n. MIHI BARBA CADEBAT VI 105. One Cinnamus, a barber emancipated by his mistress and become an eques, exchanged his name for the more dignified Cinna Mart. vi 17. VII 64.

227 HIC HIC I 46 n. Obbar n. cr. on Hor. ep. 1 6 53.

COXA DEBILIS Sen, ep. 101 & 11 severely censures the prayer of Maecenas debilem facito manu, | debilem pede, coxa, / tuber adstrue gibberum, I lubricos quate dentes: 1 vita dum superest, bene est. hanc mihi, vel acuta / si sedeam cruce, sustine. 227–8 AMBOS

INVIDET 158 n. Grang. Galli dicunt "Au royaume des aveugles les borgnes sont rois.' Wander deutsches Sprichwörter-lexikon 1 779 · Es ist besser einäugis.








dann gar blind' (also dan. fr. port. sp.). 'Ein Einäugiger ist dem Lande der Blinden eine Schönheit.' Ein Einäugiger kann leicht einen Blinden übersehen.'

229 CIBUM ACCIPIUNT DIGITIS ALIENIS Plin. ep. III 16 § 8 servulos aliquos, quorum e manu cibum capiat. He has cheragra gout in the hand.

230 AD XIII 223 n. DIDUCERE RICTUM Hor. s. 1 10 7 risu diducere rictum. ringo is allied to rima, rixor, and germ. Rachen Corssen Aussprache 1% 639.

231 PULLUS whence 'pullet,' allied to foal, filly, wlos.

231-2 PULLUS HIRUNDINIS AD QUEM ORE VOLAT PLENO • MATER TEIUNA Ηom. II. IX 323-4 ώς δ' όρνις απτησι νεοσσοίσι προφέρησιν

| μάστακ' επεί κε λάβησι, κακώς δ' άρα οι πέλει αυτή. Εust. ib. cites Achaeus x do korta leĝo uoo xou ws Xelcoóvos. Lucian Timon 21 Plutos says of those who hope to be enriched they await me gaping BOTEP Triv XeXcdova TPOOTETOMÉvny templyótes oi veottol. Plut. de audiendo 48a applies the simile to idle pupils, who expect as it were to be fed with a spoon, to have every difficulty smoothed. cf. id. 80a Wytt. 494d.

233 DEMENTIA see the answer to this reproach in Cic. Cat. mai. SS 21—6. 36—8. 49. 50. 67. [Plat.] Axioch. 367b after saying that Nature impawns old men’s sight and hearing, Tạp vụ sis Taữồes oi YếpolTes. M. Sen. contr. 12 14 and [Quintil.] decl. 346, 367 fathers accused of dementia by their sons. Quintil. has dementiae causa, d. actiones, d. iudicia, agit cum eo dementiae Bonnell lex. Quintil. vii 4 § 10.

234 NOMINA SERVORUM Stanley cites Plin. vii § 90 nothing in man so frail or so caprici

as memory: one man after a blow with a stone forgot the letters only; another after a fall from a lofty wall matris et adfinium propinquorumque cepit oblivionem, alius aegrotus servorum etiam, Messala Corvinus the orator could not recollect his own name. Add the mark of dementia (Quintil.] decl. 368 non reddita salutantibus nomina, non discretos ab inimicis amicos.

236 EDUXIT used in the sense of the cognate form edúcare (cf. dicere, dicare) in Plaut. Ter. Cic. Verg. Prop. Liv. Tac. etc. Mühlmann has 36 exx.

236–7 CODICE SAEVO HEREDES VETAT ESSE suos the testator, who had sui heredes (i.e. children, begotten or adopted, in potestate; a wife in manu; a daughterin-law in manu filii, when the son is in potestate; postumi who would be in manu, if born during the testator's life; grandchildren after the father's death Gaius 11 156—7. Ulp. XXII 14—5) must either make them his heirs, or disinherit them expressly (if a son or postumus, by name); if the son or postumus was not mentioned (was praeteritus), the will was wholly void; if daughters and grandchildren were passed over, they were entitled to share with the heirs named in the will. Sui heredes (and also parents and brothers and sisters), disinherited or passed over, might bring a querella inofficiosi (i.e. testamenti), to shew that the testator acted without sufficient cause, in error or in blind passion dig. XXVIII 3 § 1. inst. In 18. Rein Privatrecht2 817. 823–7. Such an unnatural will is called impium, inhumanum, furiosum, tabulae plenae furoris, t. iniquae ib. 824. Here the testator either expressly disinherits, or pa over, his children (for heredes vetat esse suos may have either signification). Codicillus (our • codicil') is frequent in the sense of a less formal will Dirksen manuale; from it is derived coucher,' a register.

237–8 BONA TOTA FERUNTUR AD PHIALEN like rewards for like services 1 37–42. 55—7. As a persona turpis Phiale was not intitled to inherit (Rein 130. 142. 825n); but yet, if she were in possession, and the true heirs had no advocate to assert their rights, she might oust them in defiance of the law.

238 PHIALEN fellatricem, the name of a nymph in



Ov. m. III 172.

238–9 208 n. vi 51. 301. Hor. epod. 8 19. Mart. 1 83. Arnob. 11 42, Minuc. Fel. 28 & 2. Bünem. on Lact. vi 23 § 11. comm. on Petron. 9.

239 STETERAT cf. nr 65 prostare. prostituo. prostibulum. XI 172—3 nudum olido stans | fornice mancipium. Hor. I 2 31 olente in fornice stantem. Ov. 1 10 21. Sen. contr. 2 SS 5. 7 (bis). 11.

CARCERE of the cella, from its darkness and foulness (olens, olidus f.).

FORNICIS III 156. vi 121-32. Rosenbaum Lustseuche 97—116.

240 ur though VIII 272. VF1, iv 705. several exx. of ut followed by tamen in Bonnell lex. Quintil. 926 B b.

DUCENDA FUNERA I 146 n. [Ov.] cons. ad Liv. 27 funera pro sacris tibi sunt ducenda triumphis.

241 FUNERA NATORUM Cic. Cat. mai. § 12. Aen. vi 308 inpositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum. It was usual to pray that any one dearly beloved might survive the petitioner (luv, vi 567—8. Hor. c. III 9 11–2. 15—6. Henzen inscr. 7388. DCass. Lxxv 15 & 2), but most of all a son or daughter Eur, suppl. 174-5 Pors. Plaut. asin. i 1 1 Taubm. Ter. haut. 1030 Calp. Hor. epod. 5 101. Ov. her. 1 101 Burm. Ruhnk. Verg. catal. 14 7-8. Vell, 1 11 8 6. Luc. III 747. Quintil. vi pr. 88 4–13. Stat. 8. III 3 25–6 felix, et nimium felix, plorataque nato l umbra. Mart. 1 36 4. 93 2. 114 4. Plin. ep. 1 12 & 11. Not only the natural sorrow over "fair flowers, no sooner blown but blasted,' and the natural dread of bereavement, prompted such prayers, but a feeling that the holy order of nature was reversed as by a curse, when the child went before his father, Cic. d. n. II § 72 derives superstitio from superstes: those who offered sacrifices and prayers that their children might outlive them, were named superstitious. id. Tusc. 1 $ 85. M. Sen. contr. 27 § 5 MENTO 'As I hope to live and die free, as I hope that my son's hands may close my eyes. Sen. ad Marc. 1 § 2 you loved your father not less than your children, excepting only quod non optabas superstitem: nec scio an et optaveris. permittit enim sibi quaedam contra bonum morem magna pietas. ib. 10 g 3 all our relations, et quos superstites lege nascendi optamus et quos praecedere iustissimum ipsorum votum est. cf. ver. 259 ạ. and (Ov.) cons. ad Liviam. 242 URNAE VII 208.

243 DATA POENA 146 n. dare here to assign, but dare poenas = doûvai dianu, to pay a penalty Mühlmann do 485-6.

244-5 on the repetition cf. 9n.

245 NIGRA VESTE III 213 n. Varr. de vit. pop. R. In in Non. p. 549 funere ipso ut pullis pallis amictae (lugerent). ib. 550 propinquae adulescentulae etiam anthracinis (coal-black attire) proxumo amiculo nigello, capillo dimisso sequerentur luctum. Tibull. III 2 18. Prop. V=Iv 7 28. DH. VIII 62. VM. 11 § 15. Tac. an. 111 2 atrata plebes. Apul. met. 11 23. Serv. Aen. III 64. Artemid. 11 3 a dream of black signifies recovery; for not the dead but the mourners wear such clothes. cf. Kirchm. de fun. 11 17. Lips. exo. M ad Tac. an. 11 75. Marquardt v 1 361. 246 REX PYLIUS VI 326. XII 128. Cic. Cat. mai. & 31. in Hom. Il. I 247—252 Nestor has outlasted two yeveal, and is reigning over the third. cf. Od. 111 245. Reckoning three generations to the century (Hdt. I1 142 82. so saeculum in Liv. 1x 18 8 10), we obtain 70 or 80 as his age before Troy. Laevius in Gell. xix 7 8 13 trisaeclisenex. Tibull. iv 1 48–51. Hygin. f. 10. [Lucian] macrob. 3. Ov. m. XII 187-8 takes saeculum for a century; for Nestor says vixi | annos bis centum , nunc tertia vivitur aetas. See Censor. 17. Foro. saeculum. Pitiscus seculum. Marquardt iv 332–3. Müller Etrusker 11 331–7. Ideler Chronol. II 82 -9.


142 was the great authority, whose testimony was invoked by historians, geo. graphers, rhetoricians, grammarians Quintil, x 1 88 46–51 with my n. For the form of the caveat cf. Thuc. 1 9 § 4 et tu ikavds tekunplwoai. 10 8 3 etc. Sen, n. q. vi 26 § 1 si Homero fides est. priap. 80 5 si quid credis Homero,

MAGNO HOMERO Hor. 8. I 10 52. Ov, amor. 1 8 61. rem. 365. tr. II 379. Pont. III 9 24. SI QUIDQUAM CREDIS 'if you put any trust in,' a cognate acc, Madvig § 229. Zumpt § 385. Heind. on Plat. Phaed. & 21. 247 A CORNICE SECUNDAE 126 n, Hor. S. 11 3 193 Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus.

CORNICE=cornicis vita III 74 n. The great authority for the crow's longevity is Hes. in Plut. def. orac. 11 p. 415d εννέα του ζώει γενεας λακέρυζα κορώνη | ανδρών ηβώντων έλαφος te terpakópwvos. Aristoph, av. 609 schol. Cic. Tusc. 18 77. III $69. Hor, c, III 17 13 annosa cornix. IV 13 25. Ov, amor, 11 6 36. m. VIL 274 novem cornicis saecula passae. Phaedr. app. 24 7 gives the crow 1000 years of life, priap. 57 1. 61 11. Plin. h. n. Viif 153. Mart. x 67 5. Macrob. vii 5 § 11. Auson, id. 11 11–2 who also compares the crow with Nestor. 18 3.

249 suoS IAM DEXTRA COMPUTAT ANNOS Iuv. takes the reveá or saeculum as į of a century; Nestor, who has lived three saecula, is beginning (iam) to tell his years on the right hand. Nicol. Smyrn. p. 477 Schn. units and tens were counted on the left hand, hundreds on the right. Bed. p. 143 for 100 place the nail of the index finger on the middle joint of the thumb. Plaut, mil. 20249 e. g. dextera digitis rationem computat. Ov. f. 111 123 digiti, per quos numerare solemus. id. Pont. II 3 18. Sen. ep. 88 & 10 arithmetic teaches me to count and avaritiae commodat digitos. Plin. XXXIV § 33 the fingers of the Ianus geminus dedicated by Numa (?) indicated 365. Quintil. i 10 § 35. XI 3 § 117 gestum ... numerum quingentorum flexo pollice efficientis

ne in rusticis quidem vidi. Suet. Claud. 21 the emperor counted voce digitisque the gold pieces given to victorious gladiators. Macrob. vi 13 § 10. Plut. apophth. p. 1746 as the fingers of arithmeticians stand now for units, now for myriads, so the friends of kings at one moment are all-powerful, at another powerless. Suid. 'AppaŠáklos. DCass. LXXI 32 § 1 Reim. anth. Pal. xI 72 the garrulous crone δι' ην Νέστωρ ουκέτι πρεσβύτατος, | η φάος αθρήσασ' ελάφου πλέον, η χερι λαιη γήρας αριθμείσθαι δεύτερον αρξαμένη; the left hand, applied to different parts of the body, expressed numbers from 10,000 to 90,000 (Rhabanus). DChrys. 4 p. 169 fin. R. Tert. apol. 19. S. Aug. tract. in Io. 122 8 7 in summa centenarii numerus ad dexteram transit. Sidon. Ix 9 Sav. pp. 579. 587–8 from Iuv. your life has had a double lustre, ut quandoquidem tuos annos iam dextra numeraverit, saeculo praedicatus tuo, desiderandus alieno, utraque laudabili actione decedas. Hieron. adv.. Iovinian. 1 3 1 240 Vall. where is much allegorical trifling, see the Bened. n. Cassian. collat. XXIV 26. Iren. 1 13. Petr. Chrysol. serm. 168 the loss of a unit had broken up the round hundred, and brought the total from the right hand to the left . . . . 99 lies imprisoned in the left; add one, mox dextrae transit ad palmam, mox centenarii numeri pervenit ad coronam. Martian. Capell. VII 8 729 the goddess Arithmetic salutes Iuppiter with the number 717. Eighteen positions of the fingers of the left hand expressed the 9 units and 9 tens; the same on the right hand the 9 hundreds and 9 thousands ; 10,000 and higher numbers were expressed by moving the hand to various parts of the body. Hence the word digit and the denary scale of notation; on digitus as a measure seo XII 58 n. See Nicolaos Smyrn, ěkopaois Toll daktuikoll uét pov (publ. with Beda by Morell Par. 1614, a very rare book; also, in part at least, in Schnei. der eclog. phys. I 477–80, with the notes II 316–9). Beda de computo vel loquela digitorum (c. 1 of the treatise de temporum ratione vi 141 Giles), printed in Graev. thes. xi 1699, and with cuts by Wüstemann in Jahn's Jahrb. suppl. xv (1849). Rhabanus of Fulda de computo (in Baluz, misc. Par. 1678 1 10—12) c. 6 quomodo [numeri] digitis significentur ? c. 76 pp. 70–1 is a method of calculating the epacts on the fingers. The most exhaustive treatise, in which oriental authorities are cited, is by Rödiger in Jahresber. d. deutschen morgenl. Gesellsch. für 1845. Leipz. 1846, 118 seq. cf. E. H. Palmer journ. of philol. 11 247–52, where he explains misunderstood passages of Firdausí and Hariri. More in Fabricius-Ernesti biblioth. lat. 111 384–5. Colv. on Apul.apol. p. 579 Oud. Wouwer polymathia c. 7 (in Gronov. thes. gr. x). Counters were also used Iuv. IX 40—2.

251 ATTENDAS VI 66 of a spectator in a theatre.

LEGIBUS FATORUM Mart. v 37 15 pessimorum lex amara fatorum. Luc. VIII 568 fatorum leges. 252 STAMINE III 27.

253 ANTILOCHI BARBAM ARDENTEM Schol. lamenting Antilochus, slain at Troy by Memnon, when he was hastening to rescue his father; thence called pilotdtwp Xen. cyn. 1 § 14. Nestor in Homer only alludes to his son's death Od. 111 111 there lies my dear son, άμα κρατερός και αμύμων,...πέρι μεν θέειν ταχύς ηδε μαχητής {acris). cf. iv 187–8. 199—202. Pind. Pyth. vi 28–42 the lament of Nestor Μεσσανίου δε γέροντος | δονηθείσα φρών βόασε παίδα όν. The ilial sacrifice and burial of A. were celebrated in the Aethiopis of Arktinos Prokl. chrestom. Welcker ep. Cyclus 11 173 seq. 521. Soph. Phil. 42445 grief of Nestor. Quint. Smyrn, 11 243–344 death of A. Tryphiod. 18. Tzetz. posthom. 260–5. Philostr. im. II 7. Prop. III=11 13c 45–50 whom Iuv. follows nam quo tam dubiae servetur spiritus horae ? | Nestoris est visus post tria saecla cinis. , cui si tam longae minuis. sent fata senectae l... Iliacis miles in aggeribus, non ille Antilochi vidisset corpus humari, | diceret aut, 'o mors, cur mihi sera venis? Hor. c. II 9 13—5. Auson. epitaph. 7 4—5 servato Antilochus Nestore patre abii. , non hic ordo fuit: sed iustius ille superstes. ib. 8 on Nestor. Dict. Cret. iv 6.

BARBAM he had never shaved off his beard, which was done in early manhood 111 186 n. VI 105. Marquardt y 2 199—201. Philostr. im. 11 7 8 4 of the dead A. ήβάσκει μεν υπήνης πρόσω, κομα δ' έν ήλιώση κόμη. 253–4 AB OMNI, QUISQUIS ADEST SOCIUS the antecedent inserted in the relative clause iu 91 n. Ruddim. 11 18.

254 CUR HAEC IN TEMPORA DURET [Ov.] cons. ad Liv. 104 accusatque annos, ut diuturna, suos.

255 Serv. Aen. Ix 497 quando aliter nequeo crudelem abrumpere vitam. 'hinc traxit illum colorem Iuv. quod facinus' etc.


XIII 237. Stav. on Nep. XV 6 8 3.

256 PELEUS XIV 214. That Achilles was doomed to an early death, was well known to himself and to his mother Thetis Il. I 352. 416. IX 410-6 he had the choice between a short and glorious, and a long, inglorious life. XVIII 440—1. 458. 408–23 his horse Xanthos warns him. XXIV 534–42 he pities his father's approaching bereavement. cf. Od. XI 494—503. To escape this doom Achilles had been sent by Thetis to Skyros Stat. Ach. 1 25–39. 256271. Pind. Pyth. In 100—3. Quint. Smyrn. III 450–8 lament of Aias over A. perhaps the tidings will be the death of Peleus, and better so than that he should waste his days with mourning etc. 483—9. VII 249.

257 ALIUS 171 n. 110 n. Hom. Od. I 189–93.

VI 494.


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