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Pompeius fevers for which he had done wisely to pray; but many cities and their state prayers prevailed to save him; so his fortune and the city's struck off after his defeat the head thus reprieved. This torture Lentulus escaped, this punishment Cethegus, and fell unmangled; nay, Catiline on the battle-field lay with corpse entire.

On old age see Cic. Cat, mai. Stob. fl. CXVI Yóyos yhpws. CXy έπαιvos yńpws. CXVII wisdom makes age serene and venerable. Jos. Langii polyanthea Lugd. 1659 col. 2528—2541. esp. Mimnerm. Navvó fr. 1–6 B. Theodektes in Stob. LXVIII 26 age is like marriage [Iuv. 352], we are eager to attain both, and having attained, repent. cf. Cic. Cat. mai. § 4 senectutem quam ut adipiscantur omnes optant, eandem accusant adeptam. Haase ind. Sen. senectus. senex. Hor. a. p. 169–74. Maximiani el. 1 in Wernsdorf-Lemaire vii 195—228 enumerates at length the troubles

of age.


188 DA . . . DA Pers. II 45—6. Aen. III 85. 189 RECTO ·VULTU VI 401 recta facie. with look neither downcast nor turned aside, but confronting the god, and looking him full in the face, pointblank. Bentl. on Hor. C. 1 3 18. cf. Pers. 11 6—23. Tert. de orat. 17 Christians pray with all modesty and humility ne vultu quidem in audaciam erecto [v. 1. recto).

PALLIDUS with anxious desire Hor. s. II 3 78 ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore. Pers. IV 47 viso si palles, inprobe, nummo. Prud. c. Symm. 1 207 pallere precantem.

OPTAS on the prayer for old age, and the repentance which follows when the prayer is granted, see Stob. fl. CXVI 5. 6. 8. 23. 27. Sen. ep. 101 SS 10—15.

190 Antiphanes in Stob. 1. c. 14 calls age a workshop haunted by all human ills; ib. 15 an altar, to which all ills fly for refuge.

191 DEFORMEM the same word 192. cf. 255—6 luget lugere. 3594361 labores. vi 208– 9 amanti amantis. 504_5 breve brevior. 192 DISSIMILEMQUE SUI cons. ad Liv. 85. 87 vidimus attonitum fraterna morte Neronem 1. ... dissimilemque sui. PELLEM gloss. cutis dépua åvēpumov. In the transformations in Ov. m. cutis (our • hide,' Germ. “Haut') denotes the human skin, pellis (our

fell, pelt') the hide of beasts, but the words are interchanged as ib. III 63—4 of a serpent squamis defensus et atrae | duritia pellis validos cute reppulit ictus. Hor, epod. 17 21—2 fugit iuventas et verecundus color | reliquit ora pelle amicta lurida. id. c. iv 10. 193 PENDENTISQUE GENAS Plin. h. n. XIV § 142 of the effects of drunkenness hinc pallor et genae pendulae. Ov. m. xv 231 fluidos pendere lacertos. Sen. Hipp. 364 Gron. lapsae genae. On the last day of his life Augustus (Suet. 99), calling for a mirror, ordered his hair to be brushed ac malas labantes corrigi.

ASPICE 209. II 166. V 80. vI 261,

XIII 76. XIV 275.

on the sudden use of the imper. cf. 1 73 n. Lupus 19 gives exx. of accipe, respice, audi etc.

194 THABRACA on the coast of Numidia, near the mouth of the river Tusca, which divides Numidia from its eastern neighbour Zeugitana Plin. v § 22 oppidum Tabraca civium Romanorum. Mela 17 § 1=1 $ 33. Mart. Capell. vi & 669. Here Gildo died a. D. 398 Claud. laud. Stil. 1359. in Eutr. 1 410, 11 pr. 71. It was an episcopal see Aug. c. Donat. VI § 61. Still known as Tabarca, a name also given to an island opposite. On the Phoenician trade in African apes see Movers in 93—4. Hdt. IV 194 speaks of the coast as swarming with apes. Posidonios in Strab. XVII p. 827 on a voyage from Cadiz to Italy, observed in a wood reaching to the beach apes, some in trees, some on the ground, some suckling their

XII 61.

young; and so he laughed to see some with hanging breasts, some bald, some ruptured, and suffering from other like affections. DS. xx 58 88 4–5. Ennius in Cic. d. n. 1897 simia quam similis, turpissuma bestia, nobis ! 196—7 ILLE ILLE 91 n. 1 46 n.

197 MULTUM ROBUSTIOR the abl. of difference multo is more usual with the compar. Zumpt § 488 n. 2 has examples of multum, quantum etc. so used. Add Quintil. x 18 94 multum tersior. Luc. 11 225–6 multum . , maiore .. damno, where, as here, multo is avoided because of the other abl. Oud. and Burm. ib. cf. Burm, on Phaedr, III 10 5. 198—9 On the feebleness of age cf. Cic. Cat. mai. SS 27—38. Plin. VII S$ 167—8 in telling up the years of life we must strike off the hours of sleep and infancy, and senectae in poenam vivacis . . . Nature has given no better boon to men than shortness of life. hebescunt sensus, membra torpent, praemoritur visus auditus incessus, dentes etiam ac ciborum instrumenta. Plut. apophth. Cat. mai. 15 p. 199* Tộ đề γήρα πολλών αισχρών παρόντων, ήξίου μή προστιθέναι την από της kaxias aloxúvny. Lucian dial. mort. 6 § 2 pictures the 'repynpwv as having three teeth in his head, dull of hearing, leaning on three slaves, with nose and eyes running, a living sepulchre. id. gall. 10. 199 MADIDIQUE INFANTIA NASI VI 143—8 if the wife has three wrinkles et se cutis arida laxet, she is turned out of doors 'iam gravis es nobis et saepe emungeris. exi | ocius et propera.' sicco venit altera naso. Hes. sc. 267 of Sorrow oñis ģex Mèv prvớv uúčal péov. 200 GINGIVA INERMI a toothless, coughing, crone, and an orbus, courted for their decrepitude, are favourite butts of Mart. i 10.19. II 26. III 93 2. V 39. VIII 57.

201 GRAVIS UXORI NATISQUE Cic. Cat. mai. $ 7. Caecilius ib. § 25 the saddest part of old age is sentire ea aetate esse se odiosum alteri. Mimnerm. fr. 3=4 the fairest of men, when his bloom is past, ουδέ πατήρ παισιν τίμιος ούτε φίλοις. SIBI the i in ibi and ubi is only used long by Iuv. in ubique and ibidem; in mihi it is long 7 times, in tibi 12 times, in sibi vi 608. VII 21. 171. xy 142; much oftener short (Lupus 15).

202 CAPTATORI v 98 n. XII 93-130 n. even the adventurer who preys on the dying, the vulture who scents carrion from afar, sometimes feels queazy at the sight of his quarry. Friedländer 13 326–332. Arrian. Epikt. iv 1 § 148 who can tolerate you, των γραών έρώντος και των γερόντων, and blowing the noses of the old ladies, and tending them in their sickness like a slave, while at the same time you pray for their death, and consult the physicians, whether they are already at death's door ? Lucian dial. mort. 5-9. e. g. 9 § 2 what, had you lovers at your time of life, with scarce four teeth in your head ?' “Yes, to be sure, and the first men in the city: and aged as I am, and bald, as you see, and blear-eyed, and snivelling, it was their greatest delight to pay me court; he was a happy man on whom I did but chance to look.” Plin. ep. ix 30. Sen. ep. 95 g 43 a man sits up by a friend's sick bed; we commend him. --But he does it to win a legacy. vultur est, cadaver expectat. Mart. vi 62. 63.

MOVEAT FASTIDIA Mart. x111 17 1 ne tibi pallentes moveant fastidia caules. Hor, 8. II 4 78. Ov. Pont. 1 10 7. Quintil, 11 4 8 29 (sing.).

cosso unknown; one of the name is courted, not courtier, in III 184.

203 seq. on the decay of bodily appetites see Iuncus in Stob. fl. cxvi 49 (IV 84 29 M.) of the old man äriTós te kal átoros kai ávépaotos. Cic. Càt. mai. 88 7. 39–66. Plat. rep. I p. 329.

203 VINI ATQUE CIBI Cic. ib. SS 44-6. 204 -9 on sexual decay cf. vi 325—6. Cic. ib. & 47. Mimnermus

fr. 1. Hor, c. Iv 13. Menand. in Stob. 1.c. 9 nothing can be more pitiable than a grey-haired lover, unless it be črepos yépwv épwv. Eurip. ibid. 38.

204 NAM Cic. Brut. § 48. Quintil. x 1 SS 12. 50 after saying that comparisons, digressions etc. are so numerous in Homer, that writers on rhetoric borrow examples from his poems nam epilogus quidem quis unquam poterit illis Priami rogantis Achillem precibus aequari? When something has been affirmed of several particulars, one of which the same thing holds true still more evidently, often follows with nam ; as here, 'as for the epilogue, I need not speak of that, the same may be said of that as a matter of course,-for-'ib. § 83. XI 3 SS 21 Spald. 27. Hertzberg on Prop. Iv=II 11 27. Hand Tursell. IV 17.

204--5 SI CONERIS, IACET on the constr. see 339 n. 205 RAMICE VI 326 Nestoris hirnea. From Lucil. ix ap. Non, ramices p. 166 quod deformi' senex, arthriticus ac podagrosus | est, quod mancu' miserque exilis ramice magno. Varr. ibid. rapta a nescio quo mulione raptori ramices rupit. ramex is a diminutive form (Roby § 777) from ramus, and denotes (1) brushwood for wattling a fence; (2) the branching air-vessels of the lungs (rumpere ramices in Plaut. etc.); (3) Celsus vii 18. 22. 24. Paulus Aegin. vI 63. 64. 66 with the commentary of Adams= κιρσοκήλη or βουβωνοκήλη, varicose enlargement of veins of the scrotum, testiculi or inguen. cf. ind. Plin., who names several specifics: perhaps all the exx. cited for meaning (2) may be referred to (3). NERVUS Schol. penis. add to lexx. IX 34. Apul. m. 11 16 Hild. Tert. apol. 8. Arnob. v 18. Aug. de gen. ad litt. XII § 37 (very singular phenomena, resembling those of mesmerism). Much information respecting the sexual disorders of Greeks and Romans is contained in the work of a physician Jul. Rosenbaum Geschichte der Lustseuche im Alterthume, Leipz. 1845; e. g. p. 417 nervus. Casaub. on Ath. I p. 5d veupov,

206 vi 238. 325—6. Mart. xi 22. 29. 208 SUSPECTA 238. the obscene arts, known as irrumatio and fellatio (Rosenbaum 219–250) were condemned by public opinion; the graffiti of Pompeii shew that no imputation was more common; we may question therefore the truth of much of the scandal against Tiberius in Suet. 44. 209 Mart. 1 94. III 75. 87. IV 50.

VI 26.

XI 25. 46. XII 97.

ASPICE 193 n.
PARTIS the ear.

211 CITHAROEDO VI 76. 378-391. VIII 198, 220. 225. 230. musician,

ET QUIBUS i. e. et quibus aliis 178 n. ‘and other players on harp and flute.'

QUIBUS AURATA MOS EST FULGERE LACERNA Suet. Ner. 25. ad Heren. IV $ 60 • as a harper, when he has come before the public in rich attire, palla inaurata indutus, cum chlamyde purpurea, coloribus variis intexta, et cum corona aurea, magnis fulgentibus gemmis illuminata, citharam tenens exornatissimam, auro et ebore distinctam, if his own person and stature are of a piece with his attire, and then, when public expectation is aroused, and there is a dead silence, he utters a harsh note accompanied with ungainly gestures, the scorn with which he is hissed off the stage is the greater in proportion to the great hopes which he had awakened.' cf. the tibicen Princeps in Phaedr. v 7 all in white down to his shoes; ib. 33–35 the separate seats for equites [Iuv. ver. 213]. cf. Arion's costume Hdt. i 24 88 4—5. Lucian adv. indoct. 8-10 a Tarentine Euangelos, who aspired to the Pythian crown, sang to a golden and jewelled lyre, in a robe embroidered with gold, and was flogged out of the theatre for his incapacity; and the prize was assigned to the Elian Eumelos, whose only ornament was his skill. Hor.




a. p. 214–5 luxuriem addidit arti | tibicen traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem. cf. Marquardt v2 183. These artists were highly paid Iuv, vi 380. VII 176 n. cf. the foppish attire of pleaders vii 124—140; of authors reciting their works Pers. 1 15–18 Jahn. III 148 n. 213 MAGNI THEATRI the numbers of seats in the three theatres of Pompeius, Balbus, and Marcellus, are variously given, the highest number is 40,000 in the theatre of Pompeius (Plin.), the lowest 11,510 in that of Balbus, (curiosum, but the notit. gives 30,085) Friedländer 12 297.

QUA PARTE whether in the orchestra (111 178) as a senator, or in the 14 rows behind the orchestra as an eques ib. 154. Hor. ep. 1 185. 187. s. 1 10 76. Cic. Cat. mai. § 48 ut Turpione Ambivio magis delectatur qui in prima cavea spectat, delectatur tamen etiam qui in ultima, sic adulescentia voluptates propter intuens magis fortasse laetatur, sed delectatur etiam senectus procul eas spectans tantum quantum sat est. ib. § 50 after speaking of the intellectual pleasures of age quae sunt igitur epularum aut ludorum aut scortorum voluptates cum his voluptatibus comparandae? Sen. de ben. vir 12 $$ 3–4 equestria omnium equitum Romanorum sunt, in illis tamen locus meus fit proprius, quem occupavi, etc.

214 CORNICINES ATQUE TUBARUM CONCENTUS III 34. Hor. s. 1 6 43–4 magna sonabit, ! cornua quod vincatque tubas at a funeral. Trumpeters were employed in the concerts Sen. ep. 84 § 10 in commissionibus nostris plus cantorum est quam in theatris olim spectatorum fuit. cum omnes vias ordo canentium inplevit et cavea aeneatoribus cincta est et ex pulpito omne tibiarum genus organorumque consonuit, fit concentus ex dissonis.

EXAUDIET Lucr. III 467—8 of one in lethargy unde neque exaudit voces noscere vultus | illorum potis est.

216 QUEM DICAT VENISSE PUER it was the office of the cubicularius to announce callers Marquardt v 1 149. Cic. ad Att. vi 2 § 5. See the famous story id. de or. II § 276 Nasica called on Ennius; the maid replied that he was not at home.' Nasica detected the conventional fib. A few days after Ennius called on Nasica, cum ad Nasicam venisset Ennius et eum a ianua quaereret; Nasica cried out se domi non esse. Tum Ennius, 'quid, ego non cognosco,' inquit, 'vocem tuam?' Hic Nasica · homo es impudens. ego cum te quaererem, ancillae tuae credidi te domi non esse, tu mihi non credis ipsi?' Macr. 1 7 § 1 unus e famulitio, cui provincia erat admittere volentes dominum convenire, Evangelum adesse nuntiat.

QUOT NUNTIET HORAS sundials- and waterclocks were found in private houses (Cic. ad fam. XVI 18 g 3. dig. XXXIII 7 12 § 23), but more commonly slaves watched the public dials on temples or basilicae, and reported the time to their masters, much as the watchmen of the last generation cried the hours. Plaut. in Gell. 111 3 8 5. Cic. Brut. § 200 a judge yawning, chatting, mittentem ad horas. Plin. vii § 182 Cn. Bebius Pamphilus died cum a puero quaesisset horas. cf. ib. ss 212—5 on clocks of various kinds. Sen. de brev. vit. 12 § 6 quos quando lavari debeant, quando natare, quando cenare, alius admonet, et usque eo nimio delicati animi languore solvuntur, ut per se scire non possint, an esuriant. id. de morte Claud. 2 § 3 horam non possum certam tibi dicere: facilius inter philosophos quam inter horologia conveniet: tamen inter sextam et septimam erat. Mart. VIII 67 1 horas quinque puer nondum tibi nuntiat. word sent to a guest that the dinner hour is come Ter, haut. 169-171. Sidon. ep. 11 9 nuntium per spatia clepsydrae horarum incrementa servantem. Suet. Dom. 16 just before the murder of Domitian horas requirenti pro quinta, quam metuebat,


sextu es industria nuntiata est. Petron. 26 Trimalchio has horologium in triclinio, et bucinatorem habet subornatum, ut subinde sciat, quantum de vita perdiderit. A letter from Theodoric to Boethius, requesting him to construct a sundial and water-clock for the king of the Burgundians Cassiod. ep. 1 45. Vitruvius ix 9 ingenious clocks for measuring the vari. able hours. The gods also must be informed of the time of day Sen. fr. 36 in Aug. civ. D. vi 10 alius horas Iovi nuntiat. Mart. x 48 1 to Isis. Apul. xi 20. Becker Gallus 113 351–62. Marquardt v 1 262. 2 370-381. Boscovich in giorn. di Roma 1746. Sallier in mém. de l'acad. des inscr. IV 148. F. Woepke disquis. archaeol. math. circa solaria veterum, Berol. 1842. Pitiscus s. v. clepsydra. 217 GELIDO Aen. v 395—6. 218 FEBRE CALET SOLA Stanley cites Mart. 111 93 on a hag, toothless, wrinkled, croak. ing, blind, fetid, a very carcase 16—7 cum bruma mensem sit tibi per Augustum | regelare nec te pestilenties possit. FACTO III 162. Verg. g. Iv 167 of bees. Aen. I 82 of winds. VIII 595.

219 MORBORUM OMNE GENUS Ter. Phorm. 575 senectus ipsast morbus. Sen. ep. 108 g 28 the grammarian remarks that Verg. always couples diseases and age; and with good reason too; senectus enim insanabilis morbus est.

219–20 SI QUAERAS, EXPEDIAM on the constr. (exp. fut. ind.) see 340 n. Ov. m. xv 293—4 si quaeras, . invenies. 220–6 a parody of passages like Ov. tr. iv 1 55—60. Pont. 11 7 25— 30. cf. Ariosto xiv 99 (Düntzer), in which the greatness of a number is expressed by comparison: sooner can you count the thyme of Hybla, the ears of African corn, the birds of the air, the fishes of the sea, the fruits of autumn, the flakes of winter snow. Cf. Jani art. poet. 499–500. Boileau iv 31–4 imitates these verses.

220 PROMPTIUS an adv. of common use in the silver age; first used apparently by Hirt. and VM. cf. 225. XV 19. XVI 32 citius.

EXPEDIAM unfold, draw out at length, detail.


AMAVERIT commonly used of illicit intrigue 11 168. VI 548. Hor, s1255 Heind, amator. Sen fr. 845 in Hieron. adv. Iovinian. I 30 Sextius in sententiis 'adulter est,' inquit, 'in suam uxorem amator ardentior.'... nihil est foedius quam uxorem amare quasi adulteram .... nec amatores uxoribus se exhibeant sed maritos. Ter. Andr. 191 omnes, qui amant, graviter sibi dari uxorem ferunt. Hor. 8. 11 3 250. M. Sen, contr. 14 § 4 PAPIRIUS FABIANUS non est luxuria tua qualem videri velis. non simulas enim ista, sed facis, nec amantem agis, sed amas, nec potantem adumbras, sed bibis.

OPPIA 322. 221 THEMISON Schol. archiater illius temporis, cui detrahit. Dr Greenhill (dict. biogr.) follows the scholiast in distinguishing our Themison from the Laodicean physician a contemporary of Pompeius, founder of the sect of the Methodici, said to have been the first to employ leeches: Sen. ep. 95 g 9 alia est Hippocratis secta; alia Asclepiadis, alia Themisonis. Plin. XXIX § 6 etc. He is often cited as an authority, esp. by Cael. Aurel. It was usual for artists of every kind to assume the name of former emi. nent professors Friedländer 112 459—64 Pylades, Bathyllus, Paris, Memphis; of physicians Asclepiades, Antigenes, Alcon. So Apul. mag. 33 Themison servus noster, medicinae non ignarus. AUCTUMNO IV 56 n. Burn Rome and the Campagna 22—7. OCCIDERIT Stob. fl. cii 6a the pleader and physician alone are chartered to kill without being killed for their pains, αποκτείνειν μέν, αποθνήσκειν uń. A standing jest in every age Mart. 1 30. 47. VI 53 Andragoras, in rude health at supper, found dead in the morning, having seen in a dream

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