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bourines are seen in the antich, d'Ercolan. bronzi ir tav. 91. 92. For other representations, where they generally appear bald Iuv. v 171 n., see 0, Jahn archäol. Beiträge 430—4. Friedländer 13 39 seq. Lamprid. Al. Sev. 34 § 2 nanos et nanas et moriones et vocales exoletos et omnia acroamata et pantomimos populo donavit; qui autem usui non erant, singulis civitatibus putavit alendos singulos, ne gravarentur specie mendicorum. They were sometimes exhibited as gladiators Stat. 8. 1 6 57 seq. DCass. LXVII 8 8 4 Fabric. Lucr. IV 162 parvula, pumilio. The Sybarites kept dwarfs and had special terms to designate them Ath. xII 518ef étrixwpiáζειν δε παρ' αυτούς δια την τρυφήν ανθρωπάρια μικρα τους σκωπαίους, ώς φησιν ο Τίμαιος, τους καλουμένους παρά τισι στίλπωνας. Like the feet of women in China, the bodies of these dwarfs were distorted and stunted by art (Longin.] de subl. 41 § 5 BOTTEP Oův (el ye pnoi TOÛTO TLOTOV ŠOTIV) ακούω, τα γλωττόκομα, εν οις οι Πυγμαίοι, καλούμενοι δε νανοι τρέφονται, ου μόνον κωλύει των εγκεκλεισμένων τας αυξήσεις, αλλά και συναιρεί δια τον προκείμενον τοίς σώμασι δεσμόν. ούτως άπασαν δούλειαν, κάν η δικαιοτάτη, ψυχης γλωττόκομον και κοινόν δή τις απεφήνατο δεσμωτήριον. The fairies of pantomimes are dwarfed among us by chemical rather than mechanical means. Philostorg. x 11 x Syrian, Antonius, of five cubits and a span, bandylegged: an Egyptian dwarf who imitated partridges in their cage ο δε Αιγύπτιος ούτω κατεβραχύνετο, ώστε μηδ' άχαρίστως τους εν τοις κλουβοϊς πέρδικας εκμιμείσθαι και συναθύρειν αυτώ προς έριν εκείνους το δε παραδοξότερον, ότι και η φρόνησις ενην το ανθρώπω ουδέν υπό της βραχύτητος καταβλαπτομένη. και γαρ και το φθέγμα ούκ άμουσος ήν και οι λόγοι του νου παρείχον οράσθαι την γενναιότητα.

ATLANTA XI 24. XIII 48. Schol. ut si nanum gigantem vocemus. cf. Verg. Aen. IV 246 seq. Ov. m. IV 630 seq. hic hominum cunctos ingenti corpore praestans | Iapetionides Atlas fuit etc. The names of heroes, Priam, Achilles etc. were sometimes given to slaves Orelli inscr. 2783. Hence Isid. orig. 1 36 24 antiphrasis est sermo e contrario intellegendus, ut .... Parcae et Eumenides Furiae quia nulli parcant vel benefaciant. hoc tropo et nani Atlantes et caeci videntes et vulgo Aethiopes appellantur argentei. cf. Mart. vı 77 7—8 non aliter monstratur Atlas cum compare ginno ' quaeque vehit similem belua nigra Libyn.

33 AETHIOPEM II 23. vi 600. Such slaves were much used in Rome v 53 n. Jebb's Theophrastus p. 199. In an entertainment given by Nero to Tiridates A.D. 66 none but Ethiopians, men, women and chil. dren, were admitted to the theatre DCass. LXIII 3 $ 1. PARVAM EXTORTAMQUE V 3 n. 4 n. 46 n. a slave who both as a dwarf and as deformed would fetch a high price. Suet. Aug. 83 • Augustus used to amuse himself with the prattling of Syrian and Moorish boys. nam pumilos atque distortos et omnes generis eiusdem, ut ludibria naturae malique ominis abhorrebat.' Quintil. 11 5 § 11 distortis et quocunque modo prodigiosis corporibus apud quosdam maius est pretium, quam iis, quae nihil ex communis habitus bonis perdiderunt. [id.] decl. 298 p. 575 habent hoc quoque deliciae divitum : malunt quaerere omnia contra naturam. gratus est ille debilitate, ille ipsa infelici. tate distorti corporis placet. Plut. de curios. 10 p. 520°. Plin. h. n. VII § 34 gignuntur et utriusque sexus quos Hermaphroditos vocamus, olim androgynos vocatos et in prodigiis habitos, nunc vero in deliciis. Pompeius magnus in ornamentis theatri mirabiles fama posuit effigies ob id diligentius magnorum artificum ingeniis elaboratas, inter quas legitur Eutychis a viginti liberis rogo inlata Trallibus enixa xxx partus, Alcippe elephantum. quamquam id inter ostenta est. ib. &3 74–75 procerissimum hominem aetas nostra divo Claudio principe Gabbaram nomine ex Arabia advectum novem pedum et totidem unciarum vidit. fuere sub divo Augusto semipede addito, quorum corpora eius miraculi gratia in conditorio Sallustianorum adservabantur hortorum; Pusioni et Secundillae erant nomina. eodem praeside minimus homo duos pedes et palmam Conopas nomine in deliciis Iuliae neptis eius fuit, et mulier Andromeda liberta Iuliae Augustae. Manium, Maximum et M. Tullium equites Romanos binum cubitorum fuisse auctor est M. Varro, et ipsi vidimus in loculis adservatos. sesquipe. dales gigni, quosdam longiores, in trimatu inplentes vitae cursum, haud ignotum est. Sen. ep. 47 8 9 ridicula mancipia. Gell. XI 13 § 10 homines insigni deformitate ad facienda ridicula. ib. v 8 8 6 fatua grandi capite. Tac. XII 49 Cappadociae procurator Iulius Pelignus, ignavia animi et deridiculo corporis iuxta despiciendus, sed Claudio perquam familiaris, cum privatus olim conversatione scurrarum iners otium oblectaret. Nikol. Dam. in Strab. xv 719 Porus an Indian king sent to Augustus among other presents a man without arms, τόν τε Ερμάν, από των ώμων αφηρημένον εκ νηπίου τάς βραχίονας, δν και ημείς είδοMev. there was a special market in Rome for these misgrowths, deliciae Ρlut. mor. 520 ώσπερ ούν έν Ρώμη τινές τάς γραφάς και τους ανδριάντας και νη Δία τα κάλλη των ωνίων παίδων και γυναικών εν μηδενί λόγω τιθέμενοι, περί την των τεράτων άγοράν αναστρέφονται, τους ακνήμους και τους γαλεάγκωνας και τους τριοφθάλμους και τους στρουθοκεφάλους καταμανθάνοντες και ητούντες, εί τι γεγένηται σύμμικτον είδος καποφώλιον τέρας. αλλ' εαν συνεχώς τις επάγη τοις τοιούτοις αυτούς θεάμασι, ταχύ πλησμονήν και ναυτίαν το πράγμα παρέξει. Clem. Αl. paed. ΙΙΙ 30 αλλ' αί γε αστειότεραι τούτων όρνεις 'Ινδικούς και ταώνας Μηδικούς εκτρέφουσιν και συνανακλίνονται τοίς φοξοις παίξουσαι, σικίννοις τερασι γανύμεναι, και τον μεν Θερσίτην ακούουσαι γελώσιν, αύται δε πολυτιμή τους ωνούμεναι Θερσίτας ουκ επ' ανδράσιν ομοζυγοις, αλλ' επ' εκείνοις αύχουσιν, και δη άχθος εστί γής, και χήραν μέν παρορώσι σωφρονούσαν Μελιταίου πολλά διαφέρουσαν κυνιδίου, και πρεσβύτην παραβλέπουσι δίκαιον, ευπρεπέστερον, oίμαι, τέρατος, αργυρωνήτου.... και εις τα αργυρώνητα ανδράποδα σπαθώσι και διαρριπτουσι τα χρήματα. Philostr. Soph. 18 4 Favorinus bequeathed to Herodes his books and house and Autolekytlius ήν δ' ούτος Ινδος μεν και ικανώς μέλας, αθυρμα δε Ηρώδου τε και Φαβωρίνου: ξυμπίνοντας γαρ αυτούς διηγεν εγκαταμιγνύς Ινδικούς 'Αττικά και πεπλανημένη τη γλώττη βαρβαρίζων. So among the slaves of Nasidienus Hor. S. II 8 14 fuscus Hydaspes.

34 the daughter of Agenor Hor. C. III 27 25 Europe niveum doloso | credidit tauro latus. Ov. m. 11

36 TIGRIS the name of one of Actaeon's hounds Ov. m. III 217.

37 ERGO since a great name is sometimes ironically applied. Plut. qu. conv. 11 1 6 § 2 dákvovou pâlov oi δια των ευφήμων ονειδίζοντες τους πονηρούς 'Αριστείδας και τους δειλούς 'Αχιλλείς καλούντες και και το Σοφοκλέους Οιδίπους: ταύτης Κρέων ο πιστός, ούξ αρχής φίλος.

38 Tu Ponticus. CRETICUS 11 67. Q. Caecilius Metellus, cons. B.c. 69, in the two following years completed the conquest of Crete, but could not obtain a triumph until B.C. 62. He afterwards received the title Creticus (Flor. ΙΙΙ 7 8 6. Cic. ad Att. 1 19 & 2. Vell. 11 40 $ 5. App. p. 47 27 Bekker ¿O pláußevo e και Κρητικός εκλήθη). The nobility of the Metelli appears from the line of Naevius Ascon. in Cic. Verr. act. 1 § 29 fato Metelli Romae fiunt consules.

CAMERIŅUS vii 90. Ser. Sulpicius

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836 seq.

Camerinus was cons. B.c. 500, and in the early period of the republic other members of the family filled high offices. Under the empire the Camerini again appear in history DCass. LXIII 18 Lovda i klov Kajeρίνον άνδρα των πρώτων.

On the thought cf. Plin. pan. 3 & 4 non enim periculum est, ne cum loquar. de humani. tate, exprobrari sibi superbiam credat; cum de frugali. tate, luxuria m etc.

39 RUBELLI C. Rubellius Blandus married A.D. 33 Iulia, daughter of Drusus the son of Tiberius Tac. an. vi 27. 45. By her he had a son Rubellius Plautus ib. xiv 22 quasi iam depulso Nerone, quisnam deligeretur anquirebant; et omnium ore Rubellius Plautus celebratur, cui nobilitas per matrem ex Iulia familia [cf. quae sanguine fulget Iuli Iuv. 42]; ipse placita maiorum colebat habitu severo casta et secreta domo quantoque metu occultior, tanto plus famae adeptus. It was a charge against Agrippina ib. XIII 19 destinavisse eam Rubellium Plautum, per maternam origi. nem pari ac Nero gradu a divo Augusto (Plautus was greatgrandson of Tiberius, stepson of Augustus: Nero's mother, Agrippina, was daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, daughter of Augustus's daughter Iulia) ad res novas cxtollere. When he was put to death by Nero's orders A.D. 62 he left a wife and children ib. xiv 64. One son appears (as was usual) to have assumed his grandfather's cognomen, and in Iuvenal's time to have been notorious for his pride of birth. cf. infr. 42 n. Fritz Wolfgramm Rubellius Plautus und seine Beurtheilung bei Tacitus und Iuvenal. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Claudisch-Iulischen Geschlechts. Prenzlau, Uhse. 1871. 8vo.

40 TUMES Tac. h. 1 16 Nero, quem longa Caesarum serie tumentem etc. ALTO 131.

DRUSORUM 21 n. 42 QUAE Rubellius Plautus the father, who was the son of Iulia, is here confounded with his son (Haakh in Pauly).

SANGUINE Tac. an, iv 52 Agrippina calls herself caelesti sanguine ortam. ib. XII 58.

IULI 1 100 n. XII 70. Aen. I 267 at puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo. ib. 288 Iulius a magno demissum nomen Iulo. ib. vi 756 seq. id. g. 111 48. Strab. XIII p. 594 seq. •Caesar was inclined to favour the Ilians, both as a Roman (the Romans regarding Aeneas as their progenitor), and also because he was called Iulius, from Iulus one of his ancestors, who as being a descendant of Aeneas took the name from Iulus [son of Aeneas). Accordingly he gave them land and liberty and immunity from state burdens, privileges which they retain to this day.' App. b. c. 11 68. 154. 111 16. Mart. v. 3 1. On the nobility of the Iulii and their descent from Iulus see DH. 1 70. Klausen Aeneas u. d. Penaten 1059 seq. Venus genetrix is on their coins. Caesar claimed descent from Venus ib. 731. 1067. Caesar in Suet. Caes. 6. Liv. 1 3 8 2. Vell. 11 41 8 2. Tac, an. iv 9. DCass. XLI 34 § 2. XLIII 14 § 6. 22 § 2. 43 & 2. XLIV 37. LXIII 29 $ 3. cf. Schwegler 1 306. 338. Serv. Aen. I 267. So Iulius Proculus DH. 11 63. Plut. Rom. 28 § 1. AV. orig. 15, where Cato is cited, is a forgery.

43 CONDUCTA Tibull. 1 6 79 firmaque conductis annectit licia telis.

AGGERE v 153 n. vi 588 plebeium in circo positum est et in aggere fatum. Hor. 8. 1 8 15 aggere in aprico spatiari. This mound, which lay to the east of Rome, is ascribed to Servius Tullius (Liv. 1 44 aggere et fossis et muro circumdat urbem. Strab. v p. 234 Servius enlarged the city by the addition of the Esquiline and Viminal hills. These also are open to assault from without. Accordingly they dug a deep trench, throwing up the earth inside, and carried a mound six stadia in length

VULGI PARS ULTIMA

IMA PLEBE

along the inner brink of the trench; on this they raised a wall and towers from the Colline gate to the Esquiline. Halfway in the mound is a third gate, bearing the same name as the Viminal hill') or to Tarquinius Superbus. Plin. h. n. III § 67 clauditur ab oriente [Roma] aggere Tarquinii Superbi, inter prima opere mirabili; namque eum muris aequavit, qua maxime patebat aditu plano. Perhaps Tarquin completed and enlarged the work of Servius DH. IV 54. The thickness of the mound was 50 feet, its gth 7 stadia ib. ix 68, but see Strab. l. 1. Cicero de rep. in 6 calls it maximus. Plin. xxxvI $ 104 a ggeris vastum spa. tium. From hence criminals were precipitated Suet. Cal. 27. Schwegler 1 727 4. 44 INQUIS says Rubellius. Luc. vi 590—1 non ultima turbae | pars ego Romanae, Magni clarissima proles. Sen. brev. vit. 13 § 7 ultimo mancipio. 45 iv 98 n.

46 CECROPIDES 53. cf. 1 100 n. VI 187 Troiugenae.' Iustin. II 6 & 7 ante Deucalionis tempora regem habuere [Athenae] Cecropem. Apollod. 11 14 1 § 1 Kékpoy ajróxowr.. tñs ’AT. τικής εβασίλευσε πρώτος. Lucian Timon 23 ευγενέστερον.... του Κέκροπος ή Κόδρου.

VIVAS “long life to you.' DCass. LXXII 18 § 2 Commodus after despatching 100 bears in the amphitheatre took a draught of sweet wine iced in a cup shaped like a club; on which the populace and we all τούτο δή το εν τοις συμποσίοις ειωθός λέγεσθαι εξεβοήσαμεν ζήσειας.' cf. υίυα, υive. όναιο της ευγενείας. “I wish you joy.

47 cf. 237 seq. Hor. . I 6 6 seq. TAMEN though you scorn the poor. Ov. m. Ix 306 una ministrarum media de plebe Galanthis. QUIRITEM not used in the sing. by good prose writers. It is found in poets and in some legal formulae Neue Formenlehre i 456. cf. Iuv. 26 procerem. Becker II 1 21.

48 FACUNDUM ) ( v. 145. 49 NOBILIS INDOCTI nobilis is used as a substantive cf. 11 233 plurimus aeger.

VII 30 dives avarus. 130 veteres caecos. XIII 124 dubii aegri. Cic. Lael. § 54 insipiens fortunatus. Gossrau on Verg. Aen. II 562. Eur. Oed. fr. 6. Andr. 631. Liv. v 20 § 6 otiosorum urbanorum. IV 48 § 13 Weissenb. XXII 34 § 8 plebeios nobiles. Luc. v 699 felix naufragus. yı 373 sacros canos. VENIET QUI VII 184.

TOGATA opposed to armis industrius. Among low-born civilians will be found great lawyers, among low-born soldiers great captains. On the toga as the garb of peace and of the law-courts cf. 240 n. Two examples of orators, who raised themselves from the lowest rank by their talents, are given by Tac. dial. 8 quo sordidius et abiectius nati sunt quoque notabilior paupertas et angustiae rerum nascentes eos circumsteterunt, eo clariora et ad demonstrandam oratoriae eloquentiae utilitatem illustriora exempla sunt, quod sine commendatione natalium · per multos iam annos potentissimi sunt civitatis.

50 IURIS NODos Gell. XIII 10 § 1 Labeo Antistius was a master of mmar, logic, etymology, eaque praecipue scientia ad enodandos plerosque iuris laqueos utebatur. cod. iv 29 23 pr. antiquae iurisdictionis retia et difficillimos nodos resolventes et supervacuas distinctiones exsulare cupientes. AENIGMATA SOLVAT cod. i 14 12 8 1 legum aenigmata solvere et omnibus aperire.

SOLVAT students of law in their fourth year were termed lytae (Murai), in their fifth prolytae dig. prooem. $ 5.

51 Hic another plebeian cf. hic 48. EUPHRATEN 169. serves against the Parthians and Armenians. See the

I

stations of the fleets and armies of Rome in Tac. an. IV 5 praecipuum robur Rhenum iuxta, commune in Germanos Gallosque subsidium octo legiones erunt .... dehinc initio ab Syria usque ad flumen Euphraten, quantum ingenti terrarum sinu ambitur, quattuor legionibus coërcita, accolis Hibero Albanoque et aliis regibus, qui magnitudine nostra proteguntur adversum externa imperia. Stat. 8. Υ 1 86-91 magnum late dimittere in orbem | Romulei mandata ducis viresque modosque | imperii tractare manu ; quae laurus ab arcto, | quid vagus Euphrates, quid ripa binominis Istri, I quid Rheni vexilla ferant, quantum ultimus orbis | cesserit et refugo circumsona gurgite Thule. Philo leg. ad G. 2 11 547 M in a striking description of the greatness of Rome αρχήν... των πλείστων και αναγκαιοτάτων μερών της οικουμένης, ά δή και κυρίως άν τις οικουμένην είπoι, δυσι ποταμοίς οριζομένην, Ευφράτη τε και Ρήνω τώ μεν αποτεμνομένω Γερμανίας και όσα θηριωδέστερα έθνη, Ευφράτη δε Παρθύης και τα Σαρματων γένη και Σκυθών, άπερ ουχ ήττον εξηγρίωται των Γερμανικών. BATAVI the Batāvi or Batăvi (Lucan 1 431), a German people (Tac. Germ. 29. h. IV 12), who occupied the country between the rivers Rhine Waal and Maas. They made an unsuccessful attempt under Claudius Civilis (Α. D. 69) to shake off the yoke of Rome ib. 12-37. 54-79. ν 14--26. ib. 1 59 ferox gens. id. G. 29 omnium harum gentium virtute praecipui Batavi... nec tributis contemnuntur nec publicanus atterit : exempti oneribus et collationibus et tantum in usum proeliorum sepositi, velut tela atque arma, bellis reservantur. Sil. III 607—8 to Domitian at tu transcendes, Germanice, facta tuorum | iam puer auricomo praeformidate Batavo.

52 INDUSTRIUS Sen. cited on 70.

53 CECROPIDES 46 n. The son of Cecrops (king of Athens) is aptly compared to a Hermes. HERMAE a bust supported on a quadrangular pillar Plut. an seni sit ger, resp. 28 8 4 p. 797 των Ερμών τους πρεσβυτέρους άχειρας και αποδας. Themist. or. 26 p. 316» προ μεν Δαιδάλου τετράγωνος ήν ου μόνον ή των Ερμών εργασία, αλλά και η των λοιπών ανδριάντων. The noble, who has nothing but his birth to recommend him, is as useless as if he had neither hands nor feet. DL. ν 8 82 ιδών ποτε [Demetrius Phalereus] νεάνισκον άσωτον ιδού' έφη τετράγωνος Ερμής έχων σύρμα, κοιλίαν, αιδοίον, πώγωνα. Stob. 4. ΙV 68 Φίλιππος τους Αθηναίους είκαζε τους Ερμαίς, ως στόμα μόνον έχουσι και αιδοία μεγάλα. Sidon. ep. IV 12 illum ipsum Hermam stolidissimum, of a blockhead. Liban. ep. 1308 pâllov αν τις τοις ανδριάσιν αιτίαν επήνεγκεν ερωτικήν ή τούτω. id. Οr. I 200 of students at lecture some stand like stocks with wrist idly resting on wrist, λιθίνοις έoικότες, καρπό καρπόν επιβάλλοντες. Εur. Electr. 383 seq. ου μή φρονήσεθ', οι κενών δοξασμάτων | πλήρεις πλανάσθε, τη δ' ομιλία βρoτους | κρινείτε και τους ήθεσιν τους ευγενείς ; | οι γάρ τοιούτοι τας πόλεις

; οικούσιν εύ και δώμαθ', αι δε σάρκες αι κεναι φρενών | αγάλματ' åropâs elolv. Cic. in Pis. § 19 truncus atque stipes. p. red, in sen. § 14. Apul, apol. 66 fin. frutex cf. Plaut. most, 1 1 12. Strab. cited on 33.

55 MARMORETM XIII 115. IMAGO 'you are a breathing statue :' there seems to be also an allusion to the imagines maiorum, which were & .chief distinction of nobles.

56 TEUCRORUM PROLES i 100 n. Tac. an. IV 55. Hieron. ap. 108=27 3 Paula, whose mother was descended from the Scipios and Gracchi, her father from Agamem. non, married ib. 4 Toxotius, qui Aeneae et Iuliorum altissimum sanguinem trahit. unde etiam filia eius Christi virgo Eustochium

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