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one side of the forum, between it and the comitium Burn Rome and the Campagna 85–86. Rein in Pauly vı 552—3. B. C. 338 the consul C. Maenius, after a great naval victory which ended the Latin war, fixed the beaks of the captured ships round the orators' platform Plin. XXXIV $ 20. Flor. II 16=IV 6 § 5 Romae capita caesorum proponere in rostris iam usitatum erat; verum sic quoque civitas lacrimas tenere non potuit, cum recisum Ciceronis caput in illis suis rostris videret nec aliter ad videndum eum, quam solebat ad audiendum, concurreretur. Rostrum used by Addison and others as=rostra, has no ancient authority.

122 O FORTUNATAM NATAM ME CONSULE ROMAM ! extracted from a poem of Cicero's on his consulship B.C. 63, from which he quotes Calliope's address to himself in the third and last book ad Att. II 3 8 3 B. C. 60. ad fam. 19 § 23 (still unpublished B.C. 54) cf. Drumann v 601–2. Suringar de Romanis autobiographis 25 seq. Baiter and Kayser's Cic. XI 130—5, where the evidence and fragments, one of 78 verses, are collected. The first book was approved by Caesar A. D. 54 Cic. ad Qu. fr. 11 16 $ 5. cf. 15 & 2. The verse was universally. con. demned, partly for its conceit Quintil. xı 1 & 24, where he is speaking of self-praise in carminibus utinam pepercisset, quae non desierunt carpere maligni, cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi,' et 'o fortunatam' etc. Sen. brev. vit. 5 § 1 quotiens illum ipsum consulatum suum non sine causa, sed sine fine laudatum detestatur ! partly and mainly for its tasteless assonance ib. ix 4 § 41 we must also avoid taking the last syllables of a preceding word as the first of the following word. The caution might seem superfluous; yet Ciceroni in epistulis excidit 'res mihi invisae visae sunt, Brute.' et in carmine o fortunatam' etc. cf. Diomed. 466 1 K. also blamed in [Sall.] decl. in Cic. & 5, and defended in [Cic.] in Sall. contr. § 7 [in Cic. ed. B. and K. x. 148. 151). On Cicero's poems see Cic. ed. B. and K. XI 89—138. Drumann V 220–1. 602. VI 681–4, Teuffel Gesch. d. röm. Liter. § 176. Cic. Phil. II § 20 n. (Ant. had taunted him on this score). M. Sen. exc. contr. III praef. § 8 Ciceronem eloquentia sua in carminibus destituit. Tac. dial. 21 Caesar and Brutus wrote poetry, not better than Cicero, sed felicius, quia illos fecisse pauciores sciunt. Mart. II 89 3—4 carmina quod scribis Musis et Apolline nullo, / laudari debes : hoc Ciceronis habes. Plut. Cic. 2 8 2 at one time he was regarded as the best of poets; but afterwards, while his oratorical fame survived, he was entirely thrown into the shade as a poet. ib. 40 g 1 he would write 50 verses in a night. schol. Bobb. on Cic. p. Sest. c. 58 p. 306 Or. The Jesuit A. Schott “Cic. a calumn. vind.' c. 10, Turnebus adv. vii 19, and others (see De La Monnoye in Menagiana, 1716, 111 188—9), also A. W. Ernesti in a feeble programme, Lips. 1785, have defended our verse. On the repetition of two syllables cf. Broukh. on Tibull. 1 1 3, esp. Näke Rhein. Mus. 1829 339 seq. Cic. off. I § 61 Beier pleniore ore. Brut. § 221 acer acerbus. de or. 1 $ 2 moles molestiarum. Ter. eun. 236 pannis annisque. Cf. Munro Lucr. ind. alliteration. Cic. Phil. 1 & 25 1. 13 n. add Plaut. Trin. 297 nil moror istos faeceos mores. ib. 669 mores hominum moros et morosos. Ter. Andr. 218 amentium haud amantium. Varro in Gell. XIII 11 § 3 a definition of a pleasant party, si belli homunculi conlecti sunt, si electus locus, si tempus lectum, si apparatus non neglectus. Aen. x 735 furto. fortibus. Nep. v 1 § 2 non magis amore quam more. Bardili ib. xvi 13 g 3. Spald. on Quintil. ix 3 $ 70 exx, of frigid jests as warnings amari | iucundum est, si curetur, ne quid insit amari;' 'àvium dulcedo ad avium ducit;' et apud Ovidium ludentem, 'cur ego

790 seq.

non dicam, Furia te furiam?' id. iv pr. § 2 honorem... oneris. Jani art. poet. 423. Herzog on Caes. b. G. VIII 48 p. 657. Plin. ep. 15$ 8 plane mane. Fabri on Liv. XXII 30 & 4. A single syllable often recurs. Iuv. III 92. 58. VII 162. 168. x 1. XIV 30. xv 71. 74. Dryden imitates the, assonance Fortune foretun'd the dying notes of Rome, | till I, thy consul sole, consol'd thy doom. So Gifford How fortunate a natal day was thine, I in that proud consulate, o Rome, of mine! Martignac o Rome fortunée | sous mon consulat née. For the thought cf. Cic. p. Flacc. g 103 O nonae illae Decembres, quae me consule fuistis ! quem ego diem vere natalem huius urbis ... appellare possum. Iuv. VIII 231–44.

123 ANTONI GLADIOS POTUIT CONTEMNERE from (cf. 125) Cic. Phil. 11 & 118 contempsi Catilinae gladios, non pertimescam tuos. The first Philippic was delivered before the senate 2 Sept. B. C. 44; 19 Sept., when Cic. was absent for fear of his life, Ant. replied in a bitter invective; the fierce second Philippic, which sealed its author's fate, was never spoken, but professes to be an answer delivered on the spot. I have collected the evidence in Cic. Phil. Il intr. pp. lii—lvi. cf. Drumann i 193–201. VI 344. Suringar 444 seq.

Cic. in a letter to Cassius XII 2 8 1 (cf. Phil. III § 33) anticipated that Ant. would begin the massacre with him. Two rhetoricians in M. Sen, suas. 6 88 5. 7 cite passages from the 2nd Philippic huic tu saevienti putas Ciceronem posse subduci? § 9 Albucius the chief cause of the proscription was Cic.;' of all the declaimers he (Alb.) alone ventured to say non unum esse illi Antonium infestum. § 17 Livy .Cic. knew that he could not be rescued from Ant., any more than Cassius and Brutus from Caesar.' cf. anthol. lat. Riese 603. 607–613; and on Antonius' hatred of Cicero Nep. xxv 10 & 4. 123—4 POTUIT, SI SIC DIXISSET Madvig § 348 n. Zumpt $ 518. Gernhard opusc. Lips. 1836 i art. 2. Haase on Reisig 518. Cic. Phil. II $ 99 n.

124 RIDENDA POEMATA Sen, de ir. III 37 85 Cicero, si derideres carmina eius, inimicus esset. 125 CONSPICUAE DIVINA PHILIPPICA FAMAE in a speech for Lamia Asinius Pollio wrote, but did not dare to repeat the calumny in his history, that Cic. was willing to abjure the Philippics, to answer them himself with the utmost pains and to recite the answers in full assembly M. Sen. suas. 6 § 15. It was a hackneyed topic, introduced into the schools by Pollio (ib. § 14. Quintil. 111 8 8 46), which is discussed in suas. 7 Deliberat Cicero, an scripta sua conburat, promittente Antonio incolumitatem, si fecisset.' § 1 Q. Haterius says to Cic. ne propter hoc quidem ingenium tuum amas, quod illud Antonius plus odit quam te? remittere ait se tibi ut vivas, commentus quemadmodum eripiat etiam quod vixeras. § 7 Argentarius ignoscentem illum tibi putas qui in genio tuo irascitur? § 10 Cestius 'tis a poor exchange: dari vitam, eripi ingenium. The 2nd Philippic is often quoted by Quintil, and the other rhetoricians. Vell. 11 64 SS 3—4 haec sunt tempora, quibus M. Tullius continuis actionibus aeternas Antoni memoriae inussit notas; sed hic fulgentissimo et caelesti ore,

tribunus Cannutius continua rabie lacerabat Antonium. utrique vindicta libertatis morte stetit; sed tribuni sanguine commissa proscriptio, Ciceronis velut satiato Antonio paene finita (i.e. ended, because on receiving Cicero's head, Ant. exclaimed that the proscription had done its work Plut. Cic. 49 g 1). Tac. dial. 37 not the defence of P. Quinctius or of Licinius Archias make Cic. a great orator: Catilina et Milo et Verres et Antonius hanc illi famam circumdederunt.

DIVINA very common in this application Mühlmann. Bonnell lex. Quintil.

126 VOLVERIS in the scroll.

A PRIMÁ PROXIMA 247 n. Ov. rem. am. 404 & prima proxima segnis erit. Cic. orat. § 217 proximus & postremo. Ov. ex Pont. 11 8 37 a Caesaro proxime Caesar. Quintil. 1 7 § 16 proximam ab ultima litteram. Plin. ep. vir 20 § 6 mihi primus qui a te proximus. See Hand Turs. I 42 (prope ab). 43–4 (quartus, secundus, nonus, proximus, alter ab). ILLUM Demosthenem.

128 TORRENTEM 9 n. 119. Hor. 8. I 7 27-8. Heind. Lamb. Quintil. x 7 § 23.

PLENI MODERANTEM FRENA THEATRI the assemblies of the people were held in theatres, as at Ephesus Wetst. on Acts xIx 29. Conybeare and Howson St Paul 11í 77. Bernecc, on Iustin. XXII 2 $ 10. Herald. advers. I 16. Tac. h. II 80. D'Orville on Chariton p. 374 Lips. Schömann de comit. 56-7. K. Fr. Hermann Priv. Alt. $ 18 14. Thuc. VIII 93 8 1. Frontin. strat. III 2 8 6. IV 7 $ 22. VM, II 2 § 5 of ambassadors sent to Tarentum, in theatrum, ut est consuetudo Graeciae, introducti, legationem . peregerunt. DS. XVI 84 § 3-85 $ 1 B.C. 338 in the alarm before the battle of Chaeronea the people hurried to the theatre at day-break, without waiting for the usual summons. After the post had told the news, silence and fear seized on the audience; none ventured to address the assembly, in reply to repeated invitations. Every eye was fastened on Demosthenes; he cheered the people, urging them to make an alliance with the Boeotians, whereby they doubled their forces and recovered from their despair. Ath. v 213d • temples shut, gymnasia mossgrown, Oéatpov dverkanoiaotov, the courts without suits.' Plut. Dion 43 8 1. Phoc. 34 § 2. Sidon. C. XXIII 136—7 qui Pandioniam movebat arte | orator caveam tumultuosus. MODERANTEM FRENA Ov. m. VIII 796.

FRENA VIII 88. very frequent in the metaphorical sense Mühlmann 564—5 f. pudoris. f. licentiae inicere. voluptates tenere sub freno. So Shaksp. 'to bridle passion.''the bridle of your will.' [Eur. Andr. 178 dvoîv yuvalkoiv άνδρ' έν' ηνίας έχειν. Lucian amores 37 ουδενός αυτού την διάνοιαν ηνιοχεϊν duvauévou loyco uoû. BÖTTIGER). The familiarity of either metaphor (torr. fr.) helped to disguise their incongruity when taken together. Cf. Shaksp. take up arms against a sea of troubles. Hor. quanta laborabas Charybdi | digne puer meliore flamma.

THEATRI of Bacchus Pollux VIII 133. Auson. lud. VII sap. 6—7. 10–1. Atticis quoque, | quibus theatrum curiae praebet vicem. l. una est Athenis atque in omni Graecia | ad consulendum publici sedes loci.

129 DIS ILLE ADVERSIS GENITUB FATOQUE SINISTRO according to the general belief of antiquity that suffering was a special mark of heaven's displeasure. cf. Job's friends. Io. 9 2. Acts 28 4. Plaut. mil. 314 quis magis dis inimicis natust quam tu atque iratis? Liv. Ix 1 § 11 cum rerum humanarum maximum momentum sit, quam propitiis rem, quam adversis agant dis. Pers. IV 27 huno dis iratis genioque sinistro. Sen. de ben. IV § 3 quis tam duro fato et in poenam genitus? lud. de morte Claud. 11 § 3 dis iratis natum. Hor. 8. II 3 8 Lambin. 7 14. Phaedr. IV 19=20 15. Brisson, de formul. 1 184. The 'frown of heaven' implies all the difficulties which beset D., from his guardians' injustice and the physical defects which he overcame, to his exile and death VM. VIII 7 E § 1 proeliatus est cum rerum natura et quidem victor abiit.

130 PATER ARDENTIS MASSAE FULIGINE LIPPUS as a blacksmith : so the elder Demosthenes appears in VM. III 4 E 2 (a retail cutler). Lucian somn. 12. rhet. praec. 10. Sidon. carm. 11 187—8 fabro progenitus, spreto cui patre polita | eloquiis plus lingua fuit. XXIII 142—3. Martian. Capell. v $ 429. On the mythical corruptions of Greek literary biography see n. on 28–53 p. 75. The biographers Plut. Dem. 4 § 2 (citing Theopompos fr. 105 in evidence that the father was a gentleman tw kalci kal éyalwv), Liban. p. 2 B (citing Aeschines adv. Ctes. & 171 p. 78 .his father was free; for one must not lie'), Zosimus (p. 146 R) testify that the father was called

the cutler,' but explain that the sword-factory was only one source of his wealth; of the 14 talents which he left behind him, not a fourth part was invested in that business Arn. Schäfer Demosth. u. seine Zeit 1 235– 44. In the speeches against his fraudulent guardians the son makes honorable mention of him p. 833 26. 842 21; also de cor. 228 18. So the biographer of Sophokles contradicts the statements of Aristoxenos that he was a carpenter or smith, and of Istros, that he was a sword-cutler, allowing that he may have had slaves of those occupations. So Işokrates was satirised by Aristophanes and Strattis as a futemaker, because he had slaves who made flutes (Plut.] vit. x or. 836°. Philostr. soph. 1 17 $ 4. Schäfer p. 235 n. 2.

132 LUTEO VULCANO dingy Vul. can,' a humorous designation of a smith. cf. iv 133 n. "Prometheus.'

AD RHETORA MISIT the orator was far too young (being only 7 years of age Dem. 814 9) to have entered the school of rhetoric at his father's death. He complains (828 5) that his teachers were defrauded by Aphobos; Plut. Dem. 4 8 2 adds that he thereby lost the opportunity of a good education, and that his mother kept him back on the score of his weak health; but Aeschines (3 § 255 p. 90) ridicules his boyish indifference to hunting and games, in comparison with the art of rhetoric; and Dem. himself (312 21. 315 7) declares that he went in due course to school. His master in oratory was Isaeos (Plut. Dem. 5 § 3. Schäfer 1. c. 252–8), whom he kept in his house for four years [Plut.] vit. x or. 8445, in order to prepare himself for the charge of embezzlement against his guardians; a fee of 10,000 drachms recompensed Isaeos, on leaving his school for a single pupil ib. 839. Schäfer treats at length, ib. 272—308, of the later studies of Demosthenes, and the traces of his model Isaeos in his earlier speeches.

133—187 Spoils of wars, a corslet hung on stumps of trophies, a cheekpiece dangling from the battered casque, a chariot yoke short of its pole, & flagstaff from a prize galley, and a pensive prisoner carved high on the triumphal arch, these are ranked as more than human blessings. To this a Roman, Greek and barbarian captain has raised his soaring thoughts; toys like these have been the mainsprings of his hazard and his toil. So much fiercer is the thirst of renown than of virtue; for, bate hep rewards, who wooes bare virtue for herself? Yet their country was long ago sunk by the pride of a few, by their itch of applause and of an epitaph that might cleave to the stones that guard their ashes; stones to spring which there needs but the mischievous growth of the wild-fig tree, since tombs themselves have their appointed hour of doom. Lay Hannibal in the scale; how many pounds will you find in that greatest of commanders ? yet this is he for whom Africa has not room, Africa lashed by the Atlantic main to the west, stretching eastward to lukewarm Nile, and again southward to the Ethiopians and their tall elephants. Spain is added to his rule, he scales the Pyrenees: Nature reared a barrier of Alp and snow, he rends the rock and blasts the mountain with the steam of vinegar. Now Italy is won, yet still he pushes onward: "Nothing,' he cries, is done, unless we storm the gates with our Carthaginian power, and I plant my colours in mid Subura.' O what a visage, o for a painter's canvas to do it justice, when the one-eyed general bestrode his Gaetulian elephant! What then is his end? O pride! why, vanquished in his turn, he posts into banishment, and sits there a mighty retainer, the marvel of a gaping crowd, in the lobby of a court, till his Bithynian majesty may deign to wake. Not swords, nor volleys of stones, nor darts, shall quench that soul, which once embroiled the world, but that avenger of Cannae, the poisoned ring, making amends for floods of Roman blood. Go, madman, scour the stormy Alps, to become the wonder of school-boys, to furnish out a theme for a speech-day show. For Pella's youth one single globe is all too small; he chafes, poor soul, in the narrow bounds of the universe, as though pent in Gyara and tiny Seriphus; yet, let him once set foot in Babylon that city of brick, and a stone coffin will satisfy his every want: death and death alone betrays the nothingness of men's puny frames, what dwarfs our bodies are. Ships sailing across mount Athos, and other bold lies of Greek history, have long passed for truth, the sea paved by the same navy, a firm roadway for wheels; we believe that deep rivers failed and their streams were drained to the dregs as the Mede broke his fast, and whatever else Sostratus sings and strains himself to sing with reeking armpits. Yet in what plight did he return, after the flight from Salamis,-he who in barbarian fashion was wont to storm with the lash against the North-West and South-East, winds that had never brooked like outrage in their Aeolian dungeon,he who had fettered earth-shaking Neptune's self—so far relenting, no doubt, that he did not sentence him to be branded to boot! Would any god accept service under such a lord !---But in what plight, I say, did he return? why with one poor bark, while the waves ran blood and the cumbered prow struggled through shoals of corpses. Such forfeit did glory-glory sought with prayers-wring from him.

A parallel passage, which Iuv. may have had in mind, is Manil. 1 37 seq. Hannibal e. g. 37 (Iuv. 155. 165) quid referam Cannas admotaque moenibus arma? 41—2 (Iuv. 162. 165) furtiva morte. 65—6 (Iu. 179. 185—6) Xerxem, maius et ipso | naufragium pelago. Croesus, Marius, Pompeius, Priam are introduced later by Iuv.

133 seq. [Plat.) Alc. II 142a generals exiled and put to death, more straitly besieged by false accusers than they had ever been by an enemy, so that they regret their successful ambition, ώστε ενίους αυτών εύχεσθαι αστρατηγήτους είναι μάλλον ή έστρατηγηκέναι. 133 EXUVIAE from exuo cf. ekò'w. sub-u-cula. nudus i.e. ne-u-dus. indile viae (Curtius gr. Etymol. 11 205—6) strippings,' used of the serpent's slough, the Nemean lion's skin etc., very frequently, as here, of spoils taken in war: oküla (from okú/lw to flay) and spolia are exact parallels. Tac. an. III 72 hostiles exuvias. see Mühlmann. 133—4. TRUNCIS ADFIXA TROPAEIS LORICA ET FRACTA DE CASSIDE BUCCULA PENDENS Tac. an. II 18 in modum tropaeorum arma subscriptis victarum gentium nominibus imposuit. ib. 22 congeriem armorum struxit superbo cum titulo. Gaius (Caligula Suet. 45) ordered a sudden attack of the Germans to be reported to him, on which he and his friends with some horsemen hurried into the nearest forest, truncatisque arboribus et in modum tropaeorum adornatis, returned to camp by torch. light, taunting with cowardice those who had not shared in his exploit. Trophies were borrowed by the Romans from Greece, and often appear on coins, always in the shape of the trunk of a tree with a cross bar hung See Aen. XI 5-11.

CASSIDE Diez has a warning against the derivation of casque from cassis. Tapayvaðis gloss. p. 206 Valpy; the cheekpiece of the helmet. In low Latin= buckle. Buccula also öugalós the boss of a shield, whence

135 CURTUM TEMONE IUGUM the yoke of a war chariot broken off at the pole, a part of the trophy.

with arms.

BUCCULA=

135–6 VICTAEQUE

buckler.

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