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Caesarem.

109 AD SUA QUI DOMITOS DEDUXIT FLAGRA QUIRITEB V 173 n. Cicero dreamt, Suet. Aug. 94, that Iuppiter presented Octavianus with a flagellum, a symbol, says Casaubon, of slavery, for a Roman citizen might not be beaten with röds virgae, much less with the flagellum, a 'cat' of several chains, with knobs of metal at the ends Rich companion. M. Sen. suas. 6 12 p. 31 GEMINUS VARIUS of Cicero quod ad servitutem attinet, non recusabit; iam tritum collum habet; et Pompeius illum et Caesar subiecerunt: veteranum manci. pium videtis. Luc. 1 665 cum domino pač ista venit. cf. 85. Ix 265. 273. Marcellus the consul scourged a senator of Novum Comum, and bid him shew the marks to Caesar, as an evidence that he was not a citizen of Rome Plut. Caes. 29 8 1. Cf. the terror of the Philippian magistrates, when they learnt that St. Paul whom they had scourged was a citizen Acts 16 37 Wetst. Conybeare and Howson 1 332. DOMITOS Markl. coni. dominos.

110 SUMMUS NEMPE LOCUS NULLA NON ARTÉ PETITUS=petitio summi loci. this use of the participle to supply the place of a noun (ab urbe condita 'from the foundation of the city') is in Vio. chiefly confined to the oblique cases. Quintil. ix 4 § 117 figura laboranti compositioni variata saepe succurrit. For the thought cf. Sen. ep. 94 88 64–5 Pompeius was impelled to his foreign and home wars by insanus amor magnitudinis falsae .... infinita cúpido crescendi. Caesar was driven to his own and the public ruin by gloria et ambitio. Crassus also was stimulated by the ambition of carrying his arms to the furthest éast, and so rivalling the western conquests of Caesar Plut. Crass. 14 $ 3. 16. Niciae cum Crass. comp. 2 88 3. 5. 3 SS 5. 6. 4 $$ 1–4.

NEMPE very frequent in replies, = our colloquial why.' 160. 185. 326. VIII 57 n. 180. Quintil. x 2 & 4 quid enim futurum erat?... nempe. Tac. h. 11 13 quas enim ex diverso legiones? nempe victas. Plin. ep. 111 18 g 6. So Plaut. Ter. Cic. Hor. Ov. Hand Tursell. iv 162.

NULLA NON ARTE Caesar often quoted the verses of Eur. Phoen. 524.5 translated in Cic. off. III 8 82 and Suet. Caes. 30 nam si violandum est ius, regnandi gratia | violandum est. The same verses are alluded to by Plut. Niciae cum Crass. comp. 4 § 4.

111 MAGNAQUE NUMINIBUS VOTA EXAUDITA MALIGNIS Aen. XI 157-8 nulli exaudita deorum / vota. [Plat.) Alc. 11 141o many pray for their own harm, not wittingly, as Oedipus, but thinking that they are praying for blessings. ib.d • I could name many who before now have coveted absolute power and done their utmost to gain it, as a great advantage, and afterwards have lost their lives by conspiracies caused by that very power.'

112 AD GENERUM CERERIS Pluto, whose queen Proserpina was daughter of Ceres. Another allusion to the lower kingdom il 265-7: it was derided even by children in the poet's time it 149–159.

112-3 SINE CAEDE ET VULNERE PAUCI DESCENDUNT REGES Phanias of Eresos wrote a treatise on tyrannicide Athen. III 40 p. 90°. Harmodios and Aristogeiton were celebrated in Athenian drinking-songs, and Attic laws (Meurs. Them, att. 11 15. Petit. leg. att. pp. 313—6) encouraged the murder of tyrants. cf. Xen. Hier. 1 § 38. 2 8$ 9 -18. 38 8. 4 88 2—11. 6 88 8–15. 7 85 10—13. Cic. off. 11 8 23. Thales said,

the strangest thing he had ever seen was an aged tyrant' DL. I § 36 Men. Plut. vii Bap. conv. 2 p. 147b. Sibylline verse on Vespasian in Plut. de ser. num. vind. 22 p. 566d dooròs éwv voúow Tupavvlda Nelyet. DChrys. or. 6 de tyrannide i 212 R .it is not easy for a tyrant to grow old, and old age is burdensome to him.' Tyrannicide was a favorite topic of school declamations, Brutus, Cato of Utica, Mucius Scaevola the idols of

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the schools Iuv. VII 151 n. Schmidt Gesch, d. Denk- u. Glaubensfreiheit, Berl. 1847, 423–430; pp. 455–6 he gives an analysis of 21 declamations of M. Sen. [Quintil. ] and Calpurnius Flaccus. Phot. ep. 202=73 tyranny & tree which many climb, but none descends except by & violent fall. Evagr. h. e. III 41 and Petr. Bles. ep. 42 (quoting Iuv.) prove the proposition by the history of the Roman emperors. So John of Salisbury polycr. viii 18–9. cf. 17. 20—3; in c. 20 he refers to a tract of his own composition, de tyrannorum exitu, and is remarkable for the vehemence with which he justifies taking their life.

PAUCI 2 n. i 161 n. 113 DESCENDUNT VI 622. bloodless, natural. cf. Tac. an. 11 52 Furius Camillus defeated Tacfarinas, et decrevere patres triumphalia insignia, quod Camillo ob modestiam vitae impune fuit.

114-132 The boy who still wooes a cheap Minerva with a single mite (who is still at his spelling-book], at whose heels the young houseslave bears his little satchel, begins already in his day-dreams to pray for Demosthenes' or Tully's eloquence and renown, and prays through the whole March holiday of the goddess. Yet their eloquence was the ruin of both, both were done to death by the flush of a brimming spring of wit. Wit's hand and neck were severed by the headsman's sword, but the rostra never reeked with blood of a puny pleader. 'O fortunatam natam me consule Romam! 0 Rome, new born to fortune in my consulship! Cicero might have slighted the swords of Antonius, as he did Catilina's, if he had never spoken but in jingling, vainglorious doggrel like this, if .all his malice had been to murder words.' Better for me his verses, made only for a laughing-stock, than thou, inspired Philippic, of world-wide fame, who art rolled second on the list. À cruel end snatched away the wonder of Athens also, who bore the assembly with him on the current of his breath, curbing at will the passions of the crowded theatre. Sure, he was born under a boding horoscope, while the gods scowled and fate was froward, whom his blacksmith father, blear-eyed from soot of glowing iron, sent from safe trade to glory, from coal and tongs and swordforging anvil and dingy Vulcan to the school of rhetoric.

115 QUINQUATRIBUS triatrus, quinquatrus, sexatrus, septimatrus, decimatrus originally denoted the 3rd, 5th,6th, 7th, 10th days after the ides Varr, 1. l. vi $ 14. Fest. p. 254. Charis. p. 81 20 K. Serv. g. 1277. Gell. 11 21 $ 7. The

maiores in March, and q. minores in June, fell accordingly on the 19th of those months. In later times at all events the greater lasted 5 days, March 19—23. Pitiscus and Pauly 8. v. Marquardt iv 447—8. V i95. Preller röm. Mythol. 260—2. Ovid and others derive the name from these five days f. III 809–10. 815—6. 829—830 fiunt sacra Mi. nervae , nomina quae iunctis quinque diebus habent. . . . Pallada nunc pueri teneraeque orate puellae. I qui bene placarit Pallada, doctus erit. nec vos turba fere censu fraudata, magistri, / spernite, discipulos attrahit illa novos. He adds that spinners, weavers, fullers [cf. Plin. xxxv § 143], dyers, shoemakers, physicians [Varro's satire quinquatrus apparently represented a company of physicians keeping their holiday), sculptors, painters, poets, all did honour to their patroness on this feast. So fortunetellers and soothsayers looked for a gift at the Plaut. mil. 691-2. It was a general merrymaking. Tac. an. XIV 4 at Baiae. 12; Suet. Aug. 71 spent by Augustus in gambling. Domitian, who professed to be under the special protection of Minerva, established prizes for orators and poets on her day, and also a college charged with the exhibition of beast-fights and stage-plays Suet. 4. Dio LxvII 1 2 A. D. 82,

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Above all it was a holiday in schools Hor. op. II 2 197-8 puer ut festis quinquatribus olim, | exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim. Symm. ep. v 83 oro iam venias, et praesentia tua honorem augeas festorum dierum. nempe Minervae tibi sollemne de scholis notum est, ut fere memores sumus etiam procedente aetate puerilium feriarum. ad eum diem convivium tibi paramus.

This school feast was in the middle ages christened in honour of pope Greg. i the great founder of schools, St Gregory's day, and is still or was lately here and there observed, being the only saint's day ever kept in the german evangelical church, Luther having a pleasant recollection of the days when he went about as a schoolboy begging from door to door, and Melanchthon having written a "Gregory-song.' See J. K. Schauer in Niedner's Zeitschr. f. d. hist. Theol. 1852 146-62, where is an account of the boy-bishop, the school comedies etc. In some places the 12th, in others the 19th of March, in others Whit-tuesday, in Weimar 19 Aug. was kept as the feast. Where it was abolished, the teachers were sometimes recompensed for the loss of their Minerval.

116 QUISQUIS ADHUC UNO PARCAM COLIT ASSE MINERVAM VII 217 n. 242 n. à boy in a low form offering a very small present Gloss. Minervale didaktpor. Minervalicium ouotatikov, * entrance-money.' Macr. 1 12 8 7 'in March they paid to masters the fees which the year's end made due,' March having been originally the first month. Tertull. de idol. 10 schoolmasters must keep the feasts of idols, as their income depends upon them. What master will attend the quinquatria without a picture of the seven idols (Sol, Luna, etc. the gods of the week-days] ? The very first fee of the new pupil he dedicates to the honour and name of Minerva, so that though he may not be an idolater, he may be said in words at least “to eat of things offered to idols'

the Minervalia of Minerva, and the Saturnalia of Saturn. Hieron. in Eph. vI 4 (vir 666• Vallarsi) of bishops and priests, who teach their sons oomedies, so that the offerings made to God by virgin or widow, the pauper's mite, are handed over to grammarians or rhetoricians : hoc kalendariam strenam et Saturnaliciam sportulam et Minervale munus grammaticus et orator aut in sumptus domesticos aut in templi stipes aut in sordida scorta convertit.

he worships a frugal Minerva,' a penny-Pallas' (Stapylton), he has not yet advanced to a high and costly school : from his A B C and horn-book he aspires to the pinnacle of fame.

117 QUEM SEQUITUR CUSTOS ANGUSTAE VERNULA CAPSAE dig. XL 2 13 capsarius, id est qui portat libros, where as in Suet. Ner. 36 he is distinguished from the paedagogus. [Lucian] amor. 44 of the boy well brought up: ‘he rises early, and sets out from his father's house: attendants and tutors (rraldaywyol) follow him, an orderly chorus, bearing in their hands the grave instruments of virtue, no toothod comb to smooth the hair, nor mirrors, unpainted images of the forms presented to them, but either tablets of many leaves follow in his rear, or books that guard the virtues of ancient exploits.' Philostr. soph. ir 1 $ 21 when M. Aurelius attended in Rome the lectures of the philosopher Sextus, one Lucius exclaimed “Iuppiter ! the Roman emperor in his old age, still goes to school with a tablet slung on his arm (tov épayouevos of. Hor. 8. 1 6 71-82 Teuffel), but my king Alexander died in his 320 year. ib. 27 & 7 Hippodromos seeing at Smyrna ‘a temple and tutors sitting by it, and foot-boys carrying burdens of books slung in wallets, understood that a famous teacher was giving lessons within.' Liban, or. in 260 R. speaking of the scholars' prank of tossing in a blanket, it is played not on the slaves, by whom the books are carried

PARCAM

behind (@tetai) their young masters, but against those who bear a respec table title (rraldaywyoi), whom the masters need to second their labours.' S. Aug. in ps. XL 14 the Jews serve us, they are our capsarii as it were, studentibus nobis codices portant. Other capsarii kept bathers' clothes, or jewellers' goods.

CAPSAE whence case, cash, chase, enchase. Dig. XxxIII 10 3 § 2 capsas et armaria, si librorum aut vestium aut armamentorum gratia parata sint.

Iul. Paull. sent. III 6 76. Figures in Spon miscell. erud. antiq. 216. 229 seq. They were often of wood, especially beech, for lightness, and of cylindrical form; the rolls stood upright, with the titles projecting Becker Gallus 13 383–4. Catull. LXVIII 33. 36 nam quod scriptorum non magna est copia apud me, I ... huc una ex multis capsula me sequitur. Cic. divin. in Caec. 8.51 mihi quam multis custodibus opus erit, si te semel ad meas capsas admisero ? 118—121 Quintil. decl. 268 p. 509 Burm. * Why should I tell you how great service eloquence has rendered to the state? It has harmed itself. Let us look at the orators of either nation. nonne Demosthenem illum oppressum veneno suo scimus ? nonne Ciceronem in illis, in quibus toties placuerat, rostris poenae suae expositum ?' Demosthenes took poison in the island of Kalauria 13 Pyanepsion B.C. 322, 7 days after the death of Hyperides, in order to escape Antipater. Cicero was murdered 7 Dec. B. C. 43 at Caieta by order of the triumvirs, whom he had irritated by his Philippics. Cf. Plut. Dem. 3 § 2. comp. Dem. c. Cic. 4. 5.

PERIT perfect. III 174. vi 128. 295. 559 magnus civis obit et formidatus Othoni. ib. 563 perit cui. L.: Müller de re metr. 399. Lachmann and Munro on Lucr. 111 1042. Madvig opusc. II 225-6. Mommsen inscr. r. Neap. 3368.

119 LETO DEDIT Luc. IX 730 datis omnia leto. Phaedr. I 22 9. III 16 18. VFI. VI 272. See Munro on Lucr. v 1007 and ind. 8. V. do. Mühlmann i 505-6. FONS 128 n.

120 INGENIO dat. cf. for the use of the abstract term xi 44–5 non praematuri cineres nec funus acerbum luxuriae:

INGENIO MANUS EST ET CERVIX CAESA Genius lost hand and head. M. Sen. suas. 6. deliberat Ciceró an An. tonium deprecetur.' contr. III 17 • Popillius, the murderer of Cic., who had defended him, is accused of ingratitude' (the most valuable parts of his book) has preserved a fragment of Livy, with other contemporary evidence; for no theme was more popular for school declamations (Quintil. III 8 § 46). The authorities are cited by Drumann vı 377–9 and given at length' by Suringar Cic. de vita sua 820--6. Add Sen. ep. 83 & 25 drunkenness ruined Antonius: it made him cruel, cum capita principum civitatis cenanti referrentur, cum inter adparatissimas epulas ora ac manus proscriptorum recognosceret. See esp. Liv. ap. M. Sen. suas. 6 § 17 prominenti ex lectica praebentique immotam cervicem caput praecisum est. nec satis stolidae crudelitati militum fuit: manus quoque scripsisse aliquid in Antonium exprobantes praeciderunt. ita relatum caput ad Antonium iussuque eius inter duas manus in rostris positum, ..., ubi eo ipso anno adversus Antonium quanta nulla umquam humana vox cum ammiratione eloquentiae auditus fuerat: in Liv, perioch. cxx on the other hand the right hand alone is said to have been exposed with the head. Sen. ib. § 18 Aufidius Bassus makes Cic. give the word of command incide cervicem. Cremutius Cordus ib. & 19 praependenti capiti orique eius inspersa sanie, yet what moved most tears was visa ad caput eius deligata manus dextera, divinae eloquentiae ministra. Bruttedius Niger $$ 20—1 head between two hands. Cornelius Severus ib. 8 26 (Meyer anthol. 124) 1-3.

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16–20 oraque magnanimum spirantia paene virorum | in rostris iacuere suis : sed enim abstulit omnis, | tamquam sola foret, rapti Cice. ronis imago. I ... informes voltus sparsamque cruore nefando | canitiem sacrasque manus operumque ministras | tantorum pedibus victor proiecta superbis | proculcavit ovans nec lubrica fata deosque I respexit. nullo luet hoc Antonius aevo. M. Sen, contr. 17 § 1 Porcius Latro speaking of Popillius abscidit caput, amputavit manum. $2.5. 7. 9 fin. 10 fin. 14 fin. App. b. c. IV 20 then Laenas, though he had once won an action through Cicero's advocacy, drew his head from the litter, striking or rather sawing it three times; so unhandy was he. He likewise cut off the hand, wherewith Cicero wrote those orations against the tyranny of Antonius, which in imitation of Demosthenes he called Phi. lippics [the same point in Plut. Cic. 48 $ 2 both hands, Anton, 20 $1 the right hand] .... Laenas, finding Antonius seated in the forum, waved the head and hand while yet a long way off, by way of displaying them. Ant. overjoyed crowned the tribune, and gave him 250,000 Attic drachms over and above the promised reward, as having despatched the greatest and most rancorous of his enemies. Cicero's head and hand long hung from the rostra, where he used to speak. . . . It is said that Ant. set Cicero's head before the table at his meal, till he had glutted himself with the sight.' Fulvia, another Herodias (Hieron, in Rufin. III 42] spat upon the head, took it on her knees and stabbed the tongue with her hair pin D Cass. XLVII 8 SS 344. ET CERVIX VM. v 3 84 C. Popillius Laenas caput Romanae eloquentiae et pacis clarissimam dexteram per summum ac securum otium occupavit.

neque enim scelestum portanti onus succurrit illud se caput ferre, quod pro capite eius quondam peroraverat. Plut. Cic. 49 g 1. Sen. do tranq. an. 168 1 Pompeius et Cicero [coguntur) clientibus suis praebere cervicem. Hands cut off M. Sen. contr. 27 p. 266 9 qui patrem pulsaverit, manus ei praecidantur. ib. &$ 2—4. 8. Sen. de ir. 111 18 g 1 Catilina carried out Sulla's orders for breaking the legs, plucking out the eyes, striking off the hands of the proscribed. 120-1 NEC UMQUAM SANGUINE CAUSIDICI MADUERUNT ROSTRA PUSILLI cf. 18. Marius (DCass. pr. 102 88 8–9 pp. 141—2 Dind. Oros. V 19 p. 345) and Sulla (DCass. pr. 109 & 21 p. 153), the triumvirs of B.C. 43 (id. XLVII 3 $ 2), Claudius A. D. 42 (id. Lx 16 § 1), Domitian A. D. 91 (id. LXVII 11 § 3), all exposed on the rostra the heads of those whom they had executed. cf. Luc. VII 305-6 spectate catenas | et caput hoc positum rostris. [Sen.] Oct. 522–5 exposita rostris capita caesorum patres | videre maesti. flere nec licuit suos, l non gemere dira tabe polluto foro | stillante sanie per putres voltus gravi. Exx. (1) P. Sulpicius, tribune 'and demagogue, slain by Sulla B.C. 88 Vell. 11 19 & 1. (245) the orator M. Antonius, C. and L. Iulius Caesar, and R. Lutatius Catulus, victims of Marius, B.C. 87 Cic. de or. III $ 10 words which might seem prophetic of his own fate M. Antonii in eis ipsis rostris, in quibus ille rem publicam constantissime consul defenderat, ... positum caput illud fuit, a quo erant multorum civium capita servata. id. Tusc. v 55. Liv. LXXX. VM. ix 2 & 2.' App. b. c. 1 73. (647) the consul Cn. Octavius (Cic. Tusc. v § 55. Liv. LXXX. App. b. c. 1 71. Flor, II 9=III 21 § 14. Aug. civ. D. III 27) and Q. Ancharius, in the same persecution App. b.c. 173. (8) C. Marius the younger in his consulship B. c. 82, after committing suicide ib. 1 94. For the special risk run by orators in revolutions see Cic. Brut. § 307. 121 CAUSIDICI VII 113 n.

ROSTRA like Temple Bar and London Bridge the most public place in the city, being in the middle of JUV. II.

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