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simo ad otium et ad omnem comitatem animo; be there amused himself with watching the games of ephebi, and gave them a feast, when they scrambled for apples and other provisions and jested without control. Tiberius had been accustomed to seclusion at Rhodes (Tac, an. 1 4. IV 57), and several motives combined to induce him, in accordance with a project long entertained (ib. 111 31. 37), to retire from Rome, never to return (as the astrologers foretold) in the autumn of A.D. 26 ib. iv 57—8. 64. 74. Suet. 39. DCass. LVII 1 § 1. He desired to escape from his mother, the imperious Livia DCass. LVII 12 $ 6. Tac. 1. c. 57; he disliked the crowd (ib. 1 4. 1v 57) and despised its pleasures (ib. 1 54.76): he was weary of the senate's sycophancy (ib. 111 65): he smarted under the imputations against him attributed by witnesses to accused persons (ib. IV 42): he desired to wallow unobserved in the most unnatural excesses of lust ib. 1 4. IV 57. 67, VI 46. Suet. Tib. 42–5. Vit. 3, who retails incredible scandal. DCass. LVIII 22 $S 1-3; finally Seianus recommended him to take his ease Tac, an. IV 41. 57. He so far transferred to S. the cares of state, that it might seem that S. was emperor, and he only an island chieftain ynoiapxos DCass. LVIII 5 § 1. Suet. 40 (contradicted by themselves and by Tac.). A. D. 27 he took up his residence there: the difficulty of access, the view (of which the still quiet Vesuvius formed the centre) over the coast from Circeii to Paestum, over Falernum to the Apennines of Sam, nium and the Lucanian hills, then southward to the Liparean islands, the climate cooled by seabreezes in summer, sheltered from the cold winds in winter, all combined to make the place attractive Tac. an. iv 67. From the land, separated by a channel 3 m.p. broad (ib.), it looks like one mass of steep rock from 1000 to 2000 ft. high, but the interior produces coru, vines, olives, figs, oranges, almonds. Tiberius built twelve villas in it (ib.), one named villa Iovis, which he did not quit for nine months after the fall of S. Suet. 65. The security of the spot (ib. 40. 73 ex tuto) was one great charm; hence the alarm of Tiberius when a fisherman discovered a new approach over the crags (ib. 60): a place was shewn where he tortured convicts (ib. 62. cf. id. Cal. 11); one praetorian was killed for stealing a peacock from his aviary (id. Tib. 60). His companions here were Cocceius Nerva a consular and learned lawyer, Seianus, Curtius Atticus, Vescularius Flaccus, Iulius Marinus, all of whom were condemned to death (Tac. an. IV 58. vi 10), except Nerva, who committed suicide (v1 26); also scholars, especially Greeks (iv 58), whom he puzzled with recondite questions in mythology (Suet. 70); he kept and fed a pet snake (Suet. 72). Gaius (Caligula) was summoned to Capreae in his 19th year and by consummate dissimulation escaped the fate of his family (Suet. Cal. 10). Auson, de mort. Caes. monost. 3 sera senex Capreis exsul Nero fata peregit. Plut. de exilio 9 p. 602. Remains of the villas and numerous antiquities have been discovered in modern times.

ANGUSTA IN RUPE SEDENTIS ' perched on his narrow island crag' of limestone the emperor was deportatus in insulam by his own decree 170 n. Suet. 40 the chief attraction of the island for Tiberius was quod uno parvoque litore adiretur, saeptą, undique praeruptis immensae altitudinis rupibus et profundo mari. Here, ib. 65, after the despatch of his letter against S. he had ships in readiness for instant flight, and speculabundus ex altissima rupe watched for the telegraphic signals which were to announce the success or failure of his coup d'état. Claud. iv cons. Honor. 314—5 quem rupes Caprea. rum taetra latebit | incesto possessa seni? cf. in Eutr, ir 61, 94 CUM GREGE CHALDAEO VI 553–81. XIV 248 n, Tac, an, II 27 A. D, 16 Scribonius Libo Drusus charged with consulting Chaldaeorum promissa, magorum sacra, somniorum etiam interpretes, ib. 32 consequent decrees of the senate for banishing astrologers and wizards. cf. Suet, 36. DCass. LVII 15 $8 7-8 daily conferences of Tiberius and Thrasyllus (Iuv. vi 576). Tac. III 22 A. D. 20 Lepida accused of consulting Chaldaei against the im: perial house. ib. iv 58 the astrologers inferred from the constellations under which T. left Rome, that he never would return; which led to the ruin of many, who spread rumours of his approaching decease. Tacitus seems here to attach a certain importance to the art, cf. Suet. 39. Tac. VI 20-22 A, D, 33 T. predicts that Galba would have a taste of empire (cf, DCass, LvII 19 $$ 3—4. LXIV 1 $ 1. 4 8 3. Suet. Galb. 4, who ascribes this prediction to Augustus; and says that T. cum comperisset imperaturum eum, verum in senecta, viyat sane,

ait, quando id ad nos nihil pertinet !); he had learnt the art from Thrasyllus in Rhodes, whom he esteemed as an oracle, after he had put him to a severe test (cf. DCass. LV, 11 with Xiphil.). these chapters of Tac., who distinctly accepts many predictions of astrologers as genuine, e. g. that of Nero's accession by the son of Thrasyllus, and the tract of Favorinus against the Chaldeans (Gell. XIV 1) are loci classici, Tac, vi 46 his prediction respecting Gaius (Caligula). cf, Ios. ant. XVIII 6=8 § 9 an important passage. DСass, LVIII 23 88 2—3. Suet. 14 early predictions which confirmed T. in his faith in astrology. Thrasyllus, ib. 62 Thrasyllus induced him to postpone certain executions, by holding out hopes of a longer life. cf. DCass. LVIII 27 $S 1–3. 28 $ 1. Suet. 67 he foresaw the infamy which would attach to him. ib, 69. Othọ in like manner was surrounded by Chaldeans Plut. Galb. 23 & 4.

VIS CERTE PILA COHORTES at least if you do not desire to rule the world, you desire stato and pomp. "pikes and cohorts' of the guard which escorted S.

95 EGREGIOS EQUITES as the equestrian census was but a small sum for imperial times, and the order comprised many men of mean origin, Augustus distinguished those whose grandfathers had been ingenui, and who possessed a senatorial census, by the name of equites illustres (often in Tac.), splendidi (Orelli-Henzen ind. p. 88 a), speciosi, insignes, primores equitum (Tac. h. 1 4). The youth of such fami commenced their career on the staff of S. CASTRA DOMESTICA S. first brought the praetorians together into a standing camp; before they had been quartered about the city Tac. an. IV 2. 7. Here his personal body guard is meant; so domestici Vopisc, Numer. 13 § 1, Eutrop. x 17 of the household troops of the emperor. 96 ET QUI NOLUNT OCCIDERE QUEMQUAM, POSSE VOLUNT Grang, cites Plaut. Stich, 116–7 the good woman is she quoi male faciundist potestas, quom ne id faciat temperat. cons. ad Liv. 47 nec nocuisse ulli et fortunam habuisse nocendi. Add Ov, her. 12 75 perdere posse sat est, siquem iuvat ipsa potestas. Publil. Syr. 397 nocere posse et nolle laus amplissima est, where Woelfflin cites Menand, monost. 638. Auson. VII sap. sent. Bias 6, 7. Caecil. Balb, pp. 21, 38, who quotes from Plato it is the triumph of innocence not to sin where you have the power.' Tac. an. IV 34 A, D. 25 Cremutius Cordus was accused by the clients of S.; id pernicia bile reo. VI 8 A.D. 31 M. Terentius before the senate, we observe what is open to view, who they are that receive from you [Tiberius] wealth and office, quis plurima įuvandi nocendive potentia: and no one can deny that all this fell to the lot of S.' 97-8 QUAE PRAECLARA ET PROSPERA TANTI, UT SIT MENSURA MALORUM the subject to tanti est is here and 11: 54 the prize which is of so great worth, that one would pay such and such a price, endure such and such sufferings, in order to win it; XIII 96 n. the subject




is the price which it is worth while to pay, in order to win such and such a prize. “What glory or success is of so great value, that the measure of misfortunes should [i.e. that we should be content that it should] equal the prosperity ? • What glory or success is not bought too dear, at the cost of a weight of suffering equal to the delight?' Madvig opusc. II 187—195, where he discriminates the senses of the phrase, compares Claud. in Ruf. II 249–250 non est victoria tanti , ut videar vicisse mihi, .victory would be dearly bought, if I were thought to have won it for mere selfish ends.' Cic. ad Att. xi 16 § 2 ego non adducor quemquam bonum ullam salutem putare mihi tanti fuisse, ut eam peterem ab illo, • I can't believe that any honest man thinks that I so highly valued any personal safety, as to beg it from Caesar.' Add Prop. III=11 16 55–6 ne tibi sit tanti Sidonia vestis, | ut timeas quotiens nubilus auster erit, do not barter peace of mind for a purple robe. Plin. ep. VIII 9 $ 2 nulla enim studia tanti sunt, ut amicitiae officium deseratur, 'no plea of study can warrant our neglect of the calls of friendship.' For the thought cf. Suet. Tib. 55 of twenty counsellors of Tiberius scarce two or three escaped destruction.

UT REBUS LAETIS PAR SIT MENSURA MALORUM xiv 313—4 of Alexander qui totum sibi posceret orbem, \ passurus gestis aequanda pericula robus. Sen. ep. 4 § 7, after speaking (cf. Iuv. 108] of Pompeius and Crassus, neminem eo fortuna provexit, ut non tantum illi_minaretur, quantum permiserat. The pessimist Plin. VII S 41 (cited by Britann.) exclaims: 'goods are not equal to evils, even when equal in number: nec laetitia ulla minumo maerore pensanda.' Grang. cites [Plaut.] querolus 238—250, where care is represented as dogging wealth and pleasure.

99 HUIUS QUI TRAHITUR 66. PRAETEXTAM 35 n. Plut. quaest. Rom. 81. DCass. LVIII 11 SS 1–2 whom all in the morning escorted to the senate house as even superior to them. selves, him they then dragged to prison as no better than the meanest; whom before they judged worthy of many crowns, on him they then clapt chains; whom they used to serve as a body guard, him they guarded as a runaway and bared his head when he would have covered it; whom they had decorated with the praetexta, τα περιπορφύρω ιματίω, him they buffeted; whom they used to adore and sacrifice to him as to a god, him they led to death.' Macro, warned by the fate of S., refused to avail himself of the permission to wear the praetexta. ib. 12 SS 7–8. 100 FIDENARUM GABIORUMVE VI 55—6. Aen. vi 773 Gabios urbemque Fidenam. Hor. ep. I 11 7–8 Gabiis desertior atque | Fidenis vicus. Gabii, Fidenae, Ulubrae, are samples of the desolated country towns of Italy 111 2 n. (cf. on the decay of Samnium Strab. vi pp. 253-4). Fidenae, Castel Giubeleo, 40 stadia or 5 miles N. E. of Rome (DH. 11 53), near the confluence of the Tiber and Anio (ib, III 55) on the Via Salaria. In the early history of Rome it played an important part, but is not heard of as an independent city after B.C. 426, when its inhabitants were sold as slaves Liv. IV 34. In the time of Augustus Strabo v p. 230 ranks it with towns, Tolixvia, which had dwindled down to villages, Kwual, and were in the hands each of one private owner. Plin, III 88 69-70 ranks it with the once famous towns of Italy, which had vanished away. See for lid. and Gab. Burn Rome and the Campagna ind. E. H. Bunbury in dict. geogr. Cluver. Ital. 11 8 pp. 654–7. III 4 pp. 954–8. GABIORUM 111 193. VII 4. a town of Latium, now Castiglione, about halfway from Rome to Praeneste, 100 stadia or 12miles from Rome Strab. v p. 238. DH. IV 53, who adds that only the portions lying on the highway were still inhabited. Cic. p. Planc. § 23 names it among towns which fvere almost too depopulated to claim their share of meat at the sacrifices on the Alban mount. Prop. V=IV 1 34 et, qui nunc nulli, maxima' turba, Gabi. cf. Luc. VII 393. It was famous in the history of the kings.

POTESTAS I 34 n. x 45 n. like 'government' imperium (Rei. sig-Haase 131 n. 145) used abstract for concrete (Staveren on Nep. xv 6 § 4. Hand Lehrbuch 161)='magistrate.' ('åpxń, magistratus, authorities. Dem. p. 1254 oi ä'pxovtes followed immediately by ápxô. J. E. S. 'Podestà or principal magistrate see Eustace's Italy i 148.' J. MITFORD.) Cic. de legg. III $ 9. Tusc. 1 $ 74 tamquam à magistratu aut ab aliqua potes. tate legitima, sic a deo evocatus. Luc. 1 92—3 omnisque potestas | impatiens consortis erit. 111 105—7 non consule sacrae | fulserunt sedes, non proxima lege potestas | praetor adest. v 397 quondam veneranda potestas (consul). Plin. ix & 26 iniuriae potestatum ... venientium. XXVIII $ 106 contra ducum ac potestatum iniquitates. xxix § 66 successus petitionum a potestatibus et a dis etiam precum. $ 67 mites praestare dominos potestatesque exorabiles. etc. Suet. Caes. 17 Ruhnken Novium quaestorem, quod compellari apud se maiorem potestatem passus esset. id. Claud. 23 iuris dictionem de fidei commissis, quot annis et tantum in urbe delegari magistratibus solitum, in perpetuum atque etiam per provincias potestatibus demandavit, etc. For Quintil. see Bonnello lex. and Spalding on iv 1 $ 72. Ammian. XXIII 5 § 15 coronaque celsarum circumdatus potestatum. cf. Dirksen manuale. Ducange. Serv. and schol. Mai on Aen. x 18. Rittersh, on Salvian. vol. II pp. 21--3. Gracchanus Iunius wrote a treatise de potestatibus dig. 1 13 pr. Span. potestad ; portug. podestat, poestat.

101 DE MENSURA IUS DICERE an aedilis iuri dicundo at Caero Orell. inscr. 3787; at Novaria Suet. rhet. 6. In several Italian towns, as Fundi, Formiae, the chief magistrates (usually called duumviri or quattuorviri iuri dicundo) were named aediles Iuv. III 179 summis aedilibus. Thus Cicero's son and nephew and M. Caesius were aediles of his birthplace Arpinum B.C. 46 ep. fam. XIII 11 g 3. cf. ad Att. xv 15 § 1. Hadrian also, Spartian 19 § i, was elected dictator, aedile, duumvir by various Latin towns. Aediles in colonies and municipia, who were inferior to the above-named, occur more frequently. They regulated the games, the cornmarket, the public streets, buildings, baths, temples, and the police Rein in Pauly 14 219-220, who cites many inscriptions. Becker ir 2 312 on the jurisdiction of aediles in Rome. cf. the Athenian åyopávomoc K. F. Hermann Privat-Alterth. $ 60 n. 11. St.-A. $ 150 n. 12.

101--2 VASA MINORA FRANGERE PANNOSUS Vacuis AEDILIS ULUBRIS from Pers. i 129_-130 sese aliquem credens, Italo quod honore supinus | fregerit heminas Arreti aedilis iniquas. OrelliHenzen 7133 an inscription found at Catholica between Pisaurum and Ariminum; standard balance and weights set up by the aediles in pursuance of a decree of the decurions [local senate), to correct the existing inequalities of weights and measures; just as such standards were kept in the Capitol at Rome. cf. Apul. met. 1 24-5. Petron. 44. Plaut. rud. 373–4. The aediles at Rome had the same function Cic. ep. fam. viii 6 8 5 a lex alimentaria, committing the measuring of corn to the aediles. Rein Criminalr. 781. 788.

VASA MINORA "short' measures; plebiscitum Silianum ap. Fest. 246 M. 'if any magistrate fraudulently makes pondera modiosque vasaque publica modica minora maiorave.'

102 FRANGERE dig. xix 2 13 8 8'if any one shall have hired measures, mensuras, and the magistrate (afterwards called aedile) shall have ordered them to be broken, frangi, if they be faulty, iniquae.'

PANNOSUS AEDILIS 1 179 in country towns sufficiunt tunicae gummis aedilibus albae, On the free and easy costume there allowed, 28 contrasted with the stiff Roman toga, cf. ib. 172 n. Cic. or. cum senat. grat. egit § 17 derisively calls Piso consul of Capua. Hor, 8. 15 34-6 Orelli flouts the praetexta and laticlave of thọ praetor of Fundi. cf. Iuv. VIII 238 n. municipalis eques. Dealers in provisions, though they might have been scourged by the aediles, were not debarred from mu. nicipal offices dig. L 2 12,

VACUIS ULUBRIS ȚII 2 ŋ, Ulubrae, a town of Latium proverbial for its desolation, Cic. ep. fam, VII 12 § 2 to Trebatius, patronus of the town; "what will become of the state of Ulu, brae, if you (as an Epicurean) hold it wrong to engage in public affairs ?? įb. 18 $ 3 this I am writing in the Pomptine villa of M. Aemilius Philemon, from which I have already heard the voices of my olients, those, I mean, whom you secured for me. For it is well known that at Ulubrao a strong party of frogs have bestirred themselves to shew respect to me.' Hor. ep. 1 11 29-30 quod petis, hic est, 1 est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus, Plin. III § 64 names the Ulubrenses in the first region, In Orell. 4942 we have a praef. iur, dicundo at Ulubrae; ib. 122 and 123 a local senate (as late as A. D. 132 n. 122); these last inscriptions were found at Cisterna, 8m. from Velletri and 35 from Rome. The triumvirg are said to have constituted it a colonia Gromatici p. 239 Lachm., where it is placed in Campania.

104–7 DCass. LVIII 12 g 6 of Se. janus they had egged him on to destruction by the extravagance and povelty of his distinctions, and now they decreed against him strange thanksgivings to the gods alsa,'

NIMIOS HONORES Suet. Caes. 76 nec enim honores modo nimios recepit.

105 NUMEROSA yıı 151 n. in this our modern sense the word belongs to the silver age; in Cic. it means 'rhythmical,' 'in time and measure' [Milton P, I. y 150 prose or numerous verse. J.E.S.] Add to lexx. Colum. vii 2 § 1 numerosis dapibus. VFI. 1 436 numerosa phalanx. Ammian. xxx 4 g O Crassi et Antonii et cum Philippis Scaevolaz aliique numerosi. Eutr, y 3 cum annis numerosis iam populo Romano obedirent, ib, Ix 27, x 5 and 6. ib. 1 si cum amicis numerosioribus esset epulandum. So numerositas Macr, 1 22 § 8. Philastr. haer. 38,


UNDE ALTIOR ESSET CASUS Claud. in Ruf, ! 20—23 e.g. tolluntur in altum, / ut lapsu graviore ruant. Minuc. Fel. 37 in hoc altius tolluntur, ut decidant altius. Hi enim ut victimae ad supplicium saginantur, ut hostiae ad poenam coronantur. Wetst. on Lu. 1 52. Sen. Agam. 57—102. As early as A. D. 21 it was observed that all colleagues of Tiberius in the consulship died a violent death DCass. LVII 20 SS 1-2.

107 IMPULSAE PRAECEPS IMMANE RUINAE i, e. unde pr. imp. r. esset immane, Praeceps subst. cf. 1 149. Stat, s. Į 4 51 subiti praeceps iuvenile pericli. Apul. m. IV 5 paululum a via retractum per altissimum praeceps in vallem ... praecipitant, cf. Reisig-Haase 396. Impello is 'to shove,''to push;' imp. ruinam to set the downfall going,

to start it;' praeceps a steep,' precipice ;' ruinae is gen. subj. But stir (imp.) the lofty tower with its many floors, and it would come toppling down from its giddy height.

108 CRASSOS POMPEIOS pl. in the generic sense (1 109 n. VIII 182), as the combination with Caesar (Hor. c. 11 1 3–4 gravesque | principum amicitias B.O. 60) shews. Else we might have included the son of Crassus, who fell with him in battle against the Parthians 9 June 701 =6 May 53 B.c, and the sons of Pompeius, Gnaeus, who was slain 12 Apr, 45 B.C., a few weeks after the battle of Munda, and Sextus who was slain at Miletus B.C. 35. Cf. Luc. 1 81— 128. Sen. ep. 104 g 29. ben, v 16 & 4.

ILLUM C. Iulium

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