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minus ludicris quam seriis probari : maiore damno seria, graviore invidia ludicra neglegi: minus acribus stimulis congiaria quam spectacula expeti : congiariis frumentariam modo plebem singillatim placari ac nominatim, spectaculis universum (populum].

81 CIRCENSES XI 195=197 totam hodie Romam circus capit. III 223. VI 87. VIII 59 n. 117–8 parce et messoribus illis , qui saturant urbem circo scenaeque vacantem. IX 144. XI 53. XIV 262. On the large sums spent by Augustus in shows see Suet. 43. DCass. LIV 17 § 5 Pylades, when rebuked by Augustus for his quarrels with Bathyllus, 'it is for your interest, Caesar, that the people should devote their leisure to us.' cf. Macr. sat. 11 7 & 19. Tac. dial. 29 calls the histrionalis favor et gladiatorum equorumque certamina special vices of Rome, inbred from the womb: athletics engrossed the mind, leaving no room for higher pursuits: few talked of any other topic at home or in the lecture-room; even professors curried favour with their class by feigning an interest in sport. At Constantinople also the circensian games were the life of the many Greg. Naz. or. 36 $ 12. After Trèves had been repeatedly sacked by the barbarians, amid famine and pestilence, the first request of the few remaining nobles was for circensian games Salvian. de gubern. Dei vi 15. See Friedländer 112 151–468 for an exhaustive treatment of the subject. cf. Mart. VII 7 8–10. VIII 11 5—6. Ammian. XXVIII 4 28/31 e.g. hi omne, quod vivunt, vino et tesseris impendunt et spectaculis. eisque templum et habitaculum et contio et cupitorum spes omnis circus est maximus,

PERITUROS AUDIO MULTOS Tac. an. IV 74 A.D. 28 of the courtiers of S. quidam male alacres, quibus infaustae amicitiae gravis exitus imminebat. ib. vi 1 $S 1–2 a bold friend of S. who anticipated his sentence by suicide, Blaesus. § 3 P. Vitellius who stabbed himself with a penknife (cf. Suet. Vitell. 2); Pomponius Secundus, who survived Tiberius; Aelius Gallus. § 4 the children of S. (cf. DCass. LVIII 11 $ 5). $ 6 the one consul, Trio, accused his colleague Regulus of slackness in crushing the accomplices of S. Regulus accused Trio in return of being himself a conspirator (cf. DCass. LVIII 9 § 3). ib. 7 Minucius, who was the more pitied, as having borne meekly the friendship of S.; yet after condemnation he turned informer. ib. 10 Iulius Marinus, formerly a tool of S. ib. 14 Geminius, a boon companion of S. ib. 19 A. D. 33 inritatusque suppliciis cunctos, qui carcere attinebantur accusati societatis cum Seiano, necari iubet. iacuit immensa strages, omnis sexus, omnis aetas, inlustres ignobiles, dispersi aut aggerati. neque propinquis aut amicis adsistere, inlacrimare, ne visere quidem diutius dabatur. sed circumiecti custodes et in maerorem cuiusque intenti corpora putrefacta adsectabantur, dum in Tiberim traherentur, ubi fluitantia aut ripis adpulsa non cremare quisquam, non contingere. ib. 30 A. D. 34 Lentulus Gaetulicus, who had promised his daughter to the son of S., was accused, but escaped, being the only connexion of S. who was spared. ib. 38 A.D. 35 Fulcinius Trio. Suet. Tib. 55 cum plurimorum clade Aelium Seianum (perculit). ib. 61 in omne genus crudelitatis erupit, . . . cum . . Seiani familiares atque etiam notos persequeretur ; post cuius exitum vel saevissimus extitit. Gaius (Caligula) professed to burn the private informations, libelli, against the friends of S. but afterwards brought them forward, defending the severity of Tiberius as necessary id. Cal. 30. cf. 12. DCass. LIX 6 $ 3. Plut. de amicor. mult. 7 p. 96b. D Cass. LVIII 12 ss 1–3 the populace slew as it met them the friends of S. who had abused their greatness; the praetorians, jealous of the confidence shewn to the vigiles, set fire tó. houses and fell to pillage. Those who had courted S., those who had. accused or borne witness against others to please him, were panic-stricken. ib. 14 his relations, friends, flatterers, and those who had moved the senate to vote him honours, were put on their trial; some who had been acquitted were again tried, on the ground that they owed their escape to his favour; the mere fact that one had been a friend of S. stood in lieu of all proof of guilt; his own creatures endeavoured to screen themselves by accusing others. ib. 15 SS 1–3 most of the accused committed suicide.

ators and knights and ladies were crowded into the carcer, and either despatched there or thrown headlong from the Capitol. ib. 16 $$ 5–7 guilty and innocent suffered alike. Once Tiberius declared that any one was free to mourn for S.; but shortly afterwards the executions were resumed. ib. 19 some friends of S. were spared, as L. Seianus the praetor and M. Terentius a knight, who boldly avowed his friendship for the fallen favorite, and defended it by the example of Tiberius. ib. 25 88 2 4 A, D. 35 Fulcinius Trio, who had served s. as an informer, anticipated condemnation by suicide. 82 MAGNA EST FORNACULA Quintil. 1 5 § 46 tells us that some regarded such a contradictio in adiecto (the epithet 'great' with a diminutive) as a solecism vitium, quod fit per quantitatem, ut magnum peculiolum, erunt qui soloecismum putent, quia pro nomine integro positum sit deminutum. Apul. mag. 74 calls a false accuser totius calumniae fornacula. The form forn. is also used by Vitruvius and Fronto; diminutives began to be affected in the silver age, and have passed in great numbers into the Romance languages ver. 173 n. The metaphor lay very near cf. ver. 61 seq. In such a devouring furnace perished the friends of Livia (Suet. Tib. 51), Agrippina (Tac. an. iv 52) and Germanicus (ib. 68; see esp. 69 fin. for the universal terror). So Gaius (Caligula) prosecuted many on the score of friendship for his former victims (DCass. LIX 23 $ 8); the case of Lepidus, his brother-in-law and intended successor (ib. 22 SS 6—9) is an exact parallel to this of S.; the soldiers received a donative aś for a victory, and three swords were dedicated by the emperor to Mars Ultor.

MI the only instance of this form in Iuv. 83 BRUTIDIUS MEUS Brutidius Niger, a famous orator of the day, aedile A. D. 22, when he accused C. Silanus Tac. an. III 66 Brutidium artibus honestis copiosum et, si rectum iter pergeret, ad clarissima quaeque iturum festinatio extimulabat, dum aequales, dein superiores, postremo suasmet ipse spes anteire parat: quod multos etiam bonos pessum dedit, qui spretis quae tarda cum securitate, praematura vel cum exitio properant, words which seem to imply that Brutidius incurred some hazard by thus serving the ends of S. DCass. LVIII 12 & 3 notes that many who had accused the victims of S. were themselves accused after his fall. He described the death of Cicero and the exposure of his head M. Sen. suas. 6 SS 20–1 pp. 34—5 Bu. cf. id. contr. 9 $$ 35–6 pp. 130—1 (he was a pupil of Apollodorus). Cf. Bücheler in Rhein. Mus. 3 Folge xı 295 on the double form of the name Brutidius and Bruttēdius. I 44 n.

MARTIS ARAM in the campus Martius, near the porticus reaching from the porta fontinalis on the Quirinal to the saepta and diribitorium, Burn Rome and the Campagna 344–5. Liv. xxxv 10 $ 12. XL 45 $ 8.

84–5 QUAM TIMEO VICTUS NE POENAS EXIGAT AIAX UT MALE DEFENSUS-the contest between A. and Ulixes for the arms of Achilles was a commonplace of rhetoric vii 115 consedere duces : surgis tu pallidus Aiax. Greek declamations of Antisthenes are extant on the subject. Porcius Latro also declaimed on it in his school, from whom his pupil Ovid m. xii1 borrowed (M. Sen. contr. 10 $ 8

AD

p. 136 Bu.). Brutidius must also have espoused the side of A. in this controversy: he passes along pale for fear of the mighty furnace which devoured S.; but the speaker in the text feigns concern for his dear friend (meus), threatened with the vengeance of A., whom he has so feebly defended in the schools (Madvig; Hertzberg adds that Brutidius may have been one of those who timidly raised their voice on behalf of S. in the senate; S. is the A. ill-defended, who avenges himself on his lukewarm advocate, gloating over his terror from the other world. Hertzberg gives the text to Brutidius; but the transition would then be too abrupt).

86 DUM IACET IN RIPA the body was thrown down the scalae Gemoniae, out. raged for three days by the populace, and then cast into the river DCass. LVII 11 8 5: so Sabinus before ib. 1 g 3: so many of the friends of S. afterwards ibid. 15 $ 3. cf. lx 35 § 3. the corpses of all the friends of S. who were executed were cast out in the forum and then thrown into the river Tac. an. vi 19 (cited on ver. 81). id. bist. 1 49 (outrage done to Galba's corpse). Plin. h. n. VIII § 145 a dog remained near its master's body on the scalae, to whose mouth it carried food offered by the crowd; when the body was thrown into the river, the dog tried to support it. Suet. Tib. 71 cries of the people Tiberium in Tiberim! Lamprid. Comm. 17 § 4 the people demand that Commodus' corpse should be dragged with the uncus and cast into the Tiber. On Aug. 7 1328 the bodies of Germans and other adherents of Louis of Bavaria were disinterred, dragged through Rome and then thrown into the Tiber.

CALCEMUS XV 60. Blomf. gloss. Aesch. Ag. 858.

CAESARIS HOSTEM Suet. Calig. 7 Neronem et Drusum senatus Tiberio criminante hostes iudicavit,

87 VIDEANT SERVI, NE QUIS NEGET let our slaves see us kick the traitor's corpse, lest any of them accuse us of slackness in giving proof of loyalty. On the charge of treason dig. XLVIII 4 7 8 2 servi quoque deferentes audiuntur, et quidem in dominos suos. Otherwise slaves were severely punished for betraying their masters cod. x 11 6–8 & 2. Tac. an. II 30 vetere senatus consulto quaestio in caput domini prohibebatur, a rule which Tiberius evaded by ordering that the slaves should first be purchased by the actor publicus. ib. III 36 libertique etiam ac servi patrono vel domino, cum voces, cum manus intemptarent, ultro metuebantur. ib. 67. iv 10. 11. 29. XIII 10. Plin. pan. 42 slaves are now again dutiful: verentur et parent et dominos habent. non enim iam servi nostri principis amici, sed nos sumus, nec pater patriae alienis se mancipiis cariorem quam civibus suis credit. accusatore domestico liberasti unoque salutis publicae signo illud, ut sic dixerim, servile bellum sustulisti. in quo non minus servis quam dominis praestitisti: nos enim securos, illos bonos fecisti. we remember Domitian principem illum in capita dominorum servos subornantem monstrantemque crimina quae tamquam delata puniret. cf. Suet. Tib. 61 nemini delatorum fides abrogata. DCass. LVII 19 § 2. Claudius punished many slaves who had thus plotted against their masters under Tiberius and Gaius id. Lx 13 & 2; yet shortly after Messalina and Narcissus were allowed to revive the abuse ib. 15 5. 28 § 1. LXVII 1 $ 3. LXVIII 1 & 2 Domitian and Nero punish such slave informers. See Geib Gesch. d. röm. Criminalpr. 142. 348–52. 516—7.

87–8 IN IUS CERVICE OBSTRICTA DOMINUM TRAHAT Plaut. Poen. III 5 45 obtorto collo ad praetorem trahor. VM. i 1 § 5 in ius vocanti matronam corpus eius attingere non permiserunt. Tac. an. iv 21 trahere in ius Urgulaniam. ib. 70 trahebatur damnatus, quantum obducta veste et astrictis faucibus niti poterat, clamitans. Sulp. Sev. ep. 3 $ 1 si

omnes

son).

parentes liceret in ius vocare, te .....ad praetoris tribunal iusto dolore traheremus. cf. Britann.

88 one of 33 spondaic verses in Iuv. in 31 of the number the final word is a trisyllable or tetrasyllable, and the 4th foot is a dactyl: one III 273 ends with a monosyllable, one v 38 with three spondees Lupus 6. 90 VISNE SALUTARI SICUT SEIANUS 1 73 n. (on the use of the second per

128 n. III 130. Friedländer 13 315-9. Tac. an. IV 41 A.D. 25 S. recommended Tiberius to retire from Rome, lest by forbidding the crowds which thronged his house, assiduos in domum coetus arcendo, he might weaken his influence, or by permitting them, awake suspicion. Again, all approach to the emperor would be through him; he would escape envy by ceasing to hold morning levées, adempta salutantium turba, and would by sacrificing the shadow of power seize the substance. ib. 74 A. D. 28 Tiberius and S., at the urgent petition of the senators, quitted Capreae for the neighbouring coast. Senators, knights, commons, flocked to the spot, and bribed the insolent slaves of S., who was harder of access than his master, to procure them admission. The foul spectacle of their slavery pampered his pride. Night and day they lay pell-mell on the fields or on the beach, waiting on the caprice of turnkeys, until they were ordered home, those on whom he had not deigned to waste a word or a look, in great alarm. ib. VI 8 A. D. 32 M. Terentius, an eques, accused as a friend of S., said in the senate: the acquaintance of his very freedmen and porters was an object of ambition pro magnifico accipiebatur. DCass. LVII 21 8 4 A, D. 22 .among other notables the very consuls used often to pay him court in the morning, and consulted him both on all private claims which they intended to urge upon Tiberius, and also upon any urgent public business; in a word, from this time nothing of this kind was done without him.' ib. LVIII 5 § 2 A.D. 31 'there were eager struggles about his door, as men were afraid not only to absent themselves altogether, but even to appear among the last; for

every

word and nod was exactly noted, especially in the principal men.' $S 3-4 touchiness of upstarts. $5 on a festival a couch in the audience chamber of S. was broken down by the multitude of visitors. HABERE TANTUNDEM XIV 207 n. as we say “to have as much.' 91 TANTUNDEM the Medicean Vergil always has iandudum, eundem, eandem. Orelli-Henzen inscr. 6183 per decen dies. tantundem occurs four times in the lex agraria of B.C. 111, and once in the lex Cornelia de xx quaestoribus of B.C. 81. See Corp. inscr. Lat. 1 608. Corssen Aussprache u. s. W, 12 265–6.

91-2 ILLI...ILLUM 196—7. II 93—5—9. cf. 1 46–7 n. hic...hic. Ov. tr. 1 10 50 illa suos (ventos) habeat, nec minus illa suos (he had said 47—8 altera ... altera puppis). id. heroid. 2 148 Burm. ib. 3 28. Quintil. 11 8 8 11 Spald. and Bonnell lex. p. 398. Plin. ep. VI 20 § 15 Schäfer.

ILLI SUMMAS DONARE CURULES i.e. sellas, ivory chairs without back or arms, reserved for dictators, censors, consuls, praetors and curule aediles Becker 11 2 77. Marquardt v 2 317. 334. Sil. viii 487 haec altas eboris decoravit honore curules. Stat. s. I 4 82 maior curulis. III 3 115—7 fasces summam que curulem | frater ... tulit. Tac. an. 111 66 Iunius Otho a schoolmaster, praetor A.D. 22, owed his advancement to S. IV 2 A.D. 23 S. won the praetorian guard by his affability; himself chose the centurions and tribunes ; and bribed the senators with offices and provincial governments. ib. 68 A.D. 28 four aspirants to the consulship, to which the only approach was through S., accuse a friend of Germanicus; for the good will of S. was only to be won by villany. ib. vi 8. DCass. LVIII 19 L. Seianus, a relation of S., was a praetor. cf. Claud. in Eutr. I 192—221 esp. 198 institor imperii, caupo famosus honorum.

92 ILLUM EXERCITIBUS PRAEPONERE Iunius Blaesus, as maternal uncle of Seianus, was sent into Africa against Tacfarinas A.D. 21, received the triumphal insignia, and was the last general saluted imperator by order of Tiberius A. D. 22 Tac. an. III 35. 58. 72 Tiberius distinctly stated that he acted out of regard to S. dare id se dixit honori Seiani. 74. IV 26 A. D. 24 Tiberius refused the triumphal insignia to Dolabella, who ended the war, Seiano tribuens, lest the glory of his uncle Blaesus should be tarnished. ib. vr 18 2 after the death of S. A. D. 31 Tiberius heaped many reproaches on Blaesus. ib. vI 40 A. D. 35 priesthoods designed for two Blaesi during the prosperity of their family, and afterwards kept vacant, were filled up by Tiberius; which they understood as a sentence of death and executed it with their own hands.

TUTOR HABERI PRINCIPIS 62 n. 63 n. The guardian's sanction was required to give legal validity to the acts of the ward; if the ward were under seven years of age, or absent, or lunatic, the guardian had the entire administration of his estate; he represented him in lawsuits Rein Privatrechta 524—9. Tac. an. 1 24 already A.D. 14 S. was of great authority with Tiberius, and sent with the imperial prince Drusus to the mutinous legions of Pannonia, rector iuveni. ib. iv 7 Drusus, son of T., complained incolumi filio adiutorem imperii alium vocari. et quantum superesse ut collega vocaretur ? ib. 40 A.D. 25 the magistrates and principal persons in the state do nothing without asking counsel of S. ib. vi 8 M. Terentius in the Senate A. D. 32 • we courted not S. of Vulsinii, but a branch of the Claudian and Iulian house, which he had entered by marriage, thy son-in-law, Caesar, the partner of thy consulship, tua officia in re publica capessentem.' DCass. LviL 19 7 A. D. 20 Tiberius gave S. the insignia of a praetor, and made him his counsellor and minister for all business. ib. LVIII 4 § 1 A.D. 30 senators and others courted S. as supreme ruler, and made light of Tiberius. § 2 every word and deed of Tiberius was betrayed to S. by spies, while T. was kept in the dark respecting the intrigues of § 3 A.D. 31 T. made S. his colleague in the consulship, and styled him in dispatches 'my S.' ib. 6 & 2 men called S. colleague of T., not merely with reference to the consulship, but to the empire. ib. 7 8 4 the senate conferred on S. proconsular power. Suet. Tib. 55 T. advanced S. ad summam potentiam. Vell. 11 127 of T. singularem principalium onerum adiutorem in omnia habuit atque habet [Seianum]. cf. 128 & 3 S. impelled by native genius ad iuvanda onera principis.

93 PRINCIPIS ANGUSTA CAPREARUM IN RUPE SEDENTIS Jahn reads augusta with P, but the contrast is more effective between the emperor, lord of the world, and the narrow crag on which he is cribbed. See F. Gregorovius die Insel Capri, mit Bildern u. Skizzen v. Lindeman-Frommel Leipz. 1868. fol. Höck 1 (3) 129-42. Cluver. Ital. IV 4 pp. 1168--9. De Vit onomasticon. Mommsen inscr. regni Neap. 181. Pauly 11 137. R. Unger in Philologus iv 732. Strab. 1 p. 60. V 247 Capreae near the promunturium Minervae. Plin. h. n. III § 82 an island off the coast of Campania, 8 m. p. distant from Surrentum, 11 in circuit, Tiberi principis arce nobiles Capreae, now Capri. Augustus obtained it from the Neapolitans, in exchange for Aenaria, and built upon it Strab. v p. 248. DCass. LII 43 § 2 A.D. 29. Suet. Aug. 92. ib. 72 his terraces and shrubberies there contained a geological museum, immanium Veluarum ferarumque membra praegrandia, quae dicuntur gigantum ossa et arma heroum. ib. 98 he spends four days in the secessus of C., remissis,

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