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Books 1—III written in Rome. IV V possibly in exile, vita cod. Kulenkamp in exilio ampliavit satiras et pleraque mutavit. Fr. Rühl' (' zu den vitae Iuvenalis' in Jahrbb. cix 1874 868–9, who tells us that the Iuv. mss. of the Brit. Mus. 'bieten sämtlich den gewöhnlichen, nicht Pithöanischen Text und sind daher vorläufig ohne besonderes Interesse ') gives from cod. Harl. 3301 saec. XV exeuntis a life which also states that the satires were written in exile.

Martial shews that Iuv. was in Rome A. D. 92 and again 101—2 (Friedländer Sittengesch. mir 372–390 Chronologie der Epigramme Martials '). Paris the actor was put to death A.D. 83 aet. Iuv. 16. All the authorities agree that Iuv. was *irati histrionis exul' but the name Paris, given in the lives, seems to be taken at hap-hazard from sat. VII 87. Crispinus, colleague of Fuscus as praef. praet. under Domitian (ind. “Crispinus ') may have stationed Iuv. in Egypt; he may have been exiled after 92 and returned before 101–2.

The dates then, as given by Friedländer, are: birth 67 A. D. at Rome 92 and 101-2. declaimed to 107. bk. i 107–116. II 116-118. III 118–119-20. IV 120—127. v after 127. death 147.



TITULUS AQUINI REPERTUS (p. xiv) 'Ab altera parte legitur decretum Aquinatium de tabula patronatus et statua constituendis IRN 4342.' Grotefend (Philologus xii 489–490). Mommsen supplies the word TRIBUnus. If in the old life of Iuv. we read missus ad praefecturam cohortis and in the life ex cod. Omnibonian. in Achaintre (cf. K. Fr. Hermann in ind. schol. Gott. summerterm 1843 p. 9) Traianus...fecit eum praefectum militum contra Scotos, if in the inscription we see him as officer of a

1 In Philologus xxx 676—7 Rühl shews the necessity for a new collation of P. I 21 it reads vacat. 1 51 sit capiendi, but the t is

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erased. 1 150 dices, e afterwards erased. I 169 animante 1st hand, altered afterwards to animante. anime therefore is the true reading.

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coh. Delmatàrum, and learn from the diploma of Trajan in Cardinali tav. XII, and from that of Hadrian (Orelli-Henzen 5455), that the coh. 1 Delmatarum (without the addition milliaria) was then in Britain, and consider that the inscriptions of the raefectus coh. 1 Delmat. (Orelli 2716—7) were found in Cumberland, we cannot refrain from claiming for Iuv. also the title of a praefectus cohortis, and think we discover the sting of Trajan's words et te Philomela promovit (vita v Jahn) chiefly in this, that by virtue of them the poet received by the Philomela only the lower grade of praefectus, whereas (vir 92 praefectos Pelopea facit, Philomela tribunos) he had ascribed to the Philomela the promotion to the tribunate. Anyhow Mommsen's inscription, in addition to what I have here cited, adds greatly to the weight of the report of Juvenal's exile in Scotland. Grotefend shews that tribuni are commanders of cohortes milliariae, praefecti of ordinary cohorts. The coh. 1 milliaria Delmatarum (Or. 1833. Murat. 455 1) has a tribune, the ordinary coh. 1 Delmatarum (Or. 2153. 2716—7. 4082. 4132. Murat. 812 8) has a praefectus. The inscription will ruu then: (Cere)ri sacrum (D. Iu)nius Iuvenalis (praefectus ?) cohortis 1) Delmatarum, 11(vir) quinq(uennalis), flamen divi Vespasiani, vovit dedicavitq)ue sua pecunia.



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VIRTUE is the only true nobility: if you are just in word and deed, by

these features I recognise you (agnosco 26) as a noble: otherwise your
illustrious name may but be applied in mockery, as we call a dwarf
an Atlas (1–38). Rubellius may boast of his ancestor Iulus: but if
he sits still as a stock, while plebeians are actively serving their
country in the law-court or the camp, he must look to be condemned
like the lagging horse in the circus, whom no pedigree can save from
the mill or the cart (39—70). Would you know how to live as befits
your descent? Be a brave soldier, a just judge, an honest governor,
as well in unwarlike Corinth as in rude Gaul or Spain. So will high
birth be indeed an honour to you; whereas it only brings out in
more glaring colours the crimes of the oppressor or debauchee (71–
145). So is it with Lateranus, who, though a consular, lives the life
of a vulgar sot: a slave, who should do the same, would be sent to
work in chains in the country (146—182). Other nobles, still more
completely lost to shame, appear on the stage. Be it so, that they
are well paid : what of that? No plea, but that of necessity, can
palliate the offence. Nor indeed can that: better were it to die,
than to act with Thymele or Corinthus (183—197). Beyond this
there is but one lower stage of infamy,—the arena: and even there
you may see a Gracchus, and see him too, as though determined to
publish abroad his shame, choose those arms which least of all hide
the wearer's features. No wonder that the very gladiators are
ashamed of so degenerate an antagonist (198—210). None can be
of nobler birth than Nero, yet he exceeded the crime of Orestes,


without the excuse of Orestes (211—230). The high-born Catiline would have laid the city waste with fire and sword, but for Cicero, a new man from a country town; justly then did this new man receive the title of Father of his country (231—244). Marius also and the Decii were plebeian; Servius Tullius was the son of a slave; and these Rome reckons among her chief benefactors (245—268). The sons of Brutus, the deliverer of Rome, would have betrayed their country, had it not been for a slave (261–268). After all, this long pedigree of which you boast, ends at last in some peasant or robber (269–275).

Cf. Stob. fl. LXXXVI. Sen. ep. 44. VI. 111 4 and 5. Vell. 11 128. Ilor,

Sall. Iug. 85.

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1 40. The imagines themselves, together with the painted lineae which connect them, constitute the stemma or pedigree Becker 11 1 220 seq. Marquardt v 1 247. Plin. XXXV § 6 aliter apud maiores in atriis haec erant, quae spectarentur ; non signa cxternorum artificum, nec acra aut marmora : expressi cera vultus (veteres cerae Iuv. 19 n.), singulis. disponebantur armariis, ut essent imagines quae comitarentur gentilicia funera; semperque defuncto aliquo totus aderat familiae eius, qui umquam fuerat, populus. stemmata vero lineis discurrebant ad imagines pictas. Sen. de ben. II 28 § 2 nemo altero nobilior, nisi cui l'ectius ingenium, et artibus bonis aptius. qui imagines in atrio exponunt et nomina familiae suae longo ordine ac multis stemmatum illigata flexuris in parte prima acdium collocant, non noti magis quam nobiles sunt? Mart. cited on 20. Suet. Galb. cited on 5. id. Ner. 37 obiectum est .... Cassio Longino iuris consulto ac luminibus orbato, quod in vetere gentili stemmate C. Cassi percussoris Caesaris imagines retinuisset. cf. Forcellini. FACIUNT... PRODEST Mart. 111 75 3—4 sed nihil erucae faciunt...l improba nec prosunt iam satureia tibi. 2 CENSERI LAUDE exx, in Freund “to take rank by.' • to be rated at' as in parvo aere censeri. Apul, apol. 57 fin. pro studio bibendi quo solo censetur. M. Sen. contr. 24 § 3 p. 244 26 mendicitate censentur.

PICTOS Macrob. Sat. 11 3 clypeatam imaginem eius ingentibus lineamentis usque ad pectus ex more pictam. Polyb. vi 53 ñ oe eikúr é o TC apóow Tov [a mask] εις ομοιότητα διαφερόντως εξειργασμένος και κατά την πλάσιν και κατά την ÚToypadhv. he adds that at funerals the ancestors of the deceased were personated, and their imagines worn, by persons resembling them in stature and bearing. There were special slaves to attend to the imagines Bianchini camera ed iscrizioni sepulcrali de' liberti Rom. 1727 n. 32.

3. STANTES etc. triumphal statues vii 125 n. x 59. The enemies of the Jews set up such a statue of Caligula in the principal proseucha of Alexandria Phil. leg. ad Gaium 20. AEMILIANOS the son of L. Aemilius Paulus, when adopted by the son of Scipio Africanus the elder, received the name of P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus minor,

4 curios XI 78 n. M'. Curius Dentatus, the opponent of Pyrrhus. Luc. yii 359—60 si Cu.


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rios his fata darent reducesque Camillos | temporibus. The family was now extinct Marquardt hist. equit. rom. 50. DIMIDIOS mutilated xv 5. Mart. x 2 10 dimidios Crispi mulio ridet equos.

UMEROS MINOREM Sil. III 42 frontemque minor truncam amnis Acarnan. the abl. is in Luc. II 717. 5 CORVINUM 1 108 n. Luc. cited on 9. GALBAM Suet. Galb. 2 Neroni Galba successit, . haud dubie nobilis. simus magna que et vetere prosapia ; ut qui ... imperator ... etiam stemma in atrio proposuerit, quo paternam originem ad Iovem referret. Tac. h. i 15. ib. II 76 Galbae imagines. ib. 48. Plut. Galb. 3. comp. Arist. c. Cat. 1. The most eminent of this family were (Suet. 3) P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus (cos. B.c. 211 and again 200), who conducted the war with Philip of Macedon; and Ser. Sulpicius Galba the orator, consul B.C. 144. 6 seq. 135 seq.

7 several mss. omit this verse : it cannot have followed upon 6 i because Corvinus has been mentioned just before ; ii because the tablet need not be capax to contain a single

CONTINGERE XI 62. VIRGA variously explained i schol. multis fascibus, dignitate. ii Rup. the lineae or rami (Pers. III 28), which connect the imagines. iii Heinr. who however rejects the verse, a broom Ov. f. 1v 736. iv K. F. Hermann (who retains 7, but strikes out 5–6, Rhein. Mus. 1848, p. 454 seq.) the wand with which the noble points to (cont.) the imagines. 8 FUMOSOS 1 120 n. Sen. ep. 44 g 4 non facit nobilem atrium plenum fumosis imaginibus. Cic. in Pis. § 1 obrepsisti ad honores .. commendatione fumosarum imaginum. Boeth. de cons. phil. i pros. 1 ante med. quarum speciem, sicut fumosas imagines solet, caligo quaedam neglectae vetustatis obduxerat. The imagines stood in the atrium 19 n. Serv. ad Aen. 1 726 ibi [in atrio] et culina erat, unde ét atrium dictum est : atrum enim erat ex fumo. Mart. II 90 5-8 differat hoc patrios optat qui vincere census | atriaque immodicis artat imaginibus. I me focus et nigros non indignantia fumos / tecta iuvant. Isidor. orig. xv 3 4. Marquardt v 246. St. Luke 22 55.

9 CORAM Sen. ep. 97 g 1 numquam apertius quam coram Catone peccatum est. LEPIDIS VI 265—7 dicite vos neptes Lepidi caecive NIetelli | Gurgitis aut Fabii, quae ludia sumpserit umquam hos habitus ? A noble family of the Aemilia gens Cic. Phil. XIII § 8 magnis et multis pignoribus M. Lepidum respublica illigatum tenet. summa nobilitas est homi. nis. ib. & 7. Vell. 11 114 § 5. Tac. an. III 22. Luc. VII 583—6 nobilitas venerandaque corpora ferro | urgentur. caedunt Lepidos caeduntque Metellos | Corvinosque simul Torquataque nomina, regum | saepe duces summosque hominum.

MALE VIVITUR VM. II 9 & 1 quid prodest [Iuv. 1] foris esse strenuum, si domi malo vivitur?

EFFIGIES Quo i.e. quo pertinet habere efigies etc. 142 n. XIV 135. XV 61. Cic. fam. VII 23 & 2 Martis vero signum quo mihi pacis auctori ? Hor. ep. 15 12 Bentl. and Obbar (not. crit.). Ov. her. ii 53 Heins. and Ruhnk. ib. IV 157 Heins. id. amor. III 4 41. Quintil. v 10 & 70 quo schema, si intellegitur ? quo, si non intellegitur ? M. Sen. contr. 2 § 1 p. 68 2 quo mihi sacerdotem? 20 § 2 quo mihi lumen? Phaedr. 111 18 9. app. Burm. 17 9. Mart. v 53 2 quo tibi vel Nioben, Basse, vel Andromachen? ib. ix 66 2. XIV 27. 116. Sen. q. n. i 16 Gron, unde is similarly used Iuv. XIV 56 n. 10 ALEA I 88 n.

11 ANTE 9. 144.

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