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variation of the compass therefrom, and be able to find the longitude by chronometer by the usual methods. He must know how to lay off the place of the ship on the chart, both by bearings of known objects, and by latitude and longitude. He must be able to determine the error of a sextant, and to adjust it, also to find the time of high water from the known time at full and change. (See List A, page 9.)
In Seamanship. In addition to what is required for a Second Mate, he must know how to moor and unmoor, and to keep a clear anchor; to carry out an anchor; to stow a hold; and to make the requisite entries in the ship's log. He will also be questioned as to his knowledge of the use and management of the mortar and rocket lines in the case of the stranding of a vessel, as explained in the official log-book.
11. A FIRST MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have served five years at sea, of which one year must have been as either Second or Only Mate, or as both. *
In Navigation.-In addition to the qualification required for an Only Mate, he must be able to observe azimuths and compute the variation; to compare chronometers and keep their rates, and find the longitude by them from an observation of the sun; to work the latitude by single altitude of the sun off the meridian; and be able to use and adjust the sextant by the sun.
In Seamanship.-In addition to the qualification required for an Only Mate, a more extensive knowledge of seamanship will be required, as to shifting large spars and sails, managing a ship in stormy weather, taking in and making sail, shifting yards and masts, &c., and getting heavy weights, anchors, &c., in and out; casting a ship on a lee-shore; and securing the mast in the event of accident to the bowsprit.
A MASTER must be twenty-one years of age, and have been six years at sea, of which at least one year must have been as First or Only Mate, and one year as Second Mate.
In addition to the qualification for a First Mate, he must be able to find the latitude by a star, &c. He will be asked questions as to the nature of the attraction of the ship's iron upon the compass, and as to the method of determining it. He will be examined in so much of the laws of the tides as is necessary to enable him to shape a course, and to compare his soundings with the depths marked on the charts. He will be examined as to his competency to construct jury rudders and rafts; and as to his resources for the preservation of the ship's crew in the event of wreck. He must possess a sufficient knowledge of what he is required to do by law, 18 to entry and discharge, and the management of his crew, and as to penalties and entries to be made in the official log; and a knowledge of the measures for preventing and checking the outbreak of scurvy on board ship. He will be questioned as to his knowledge of invoices, charter-party, Lloyd's agent, and as to the nature of bottomry, and he must be acquainted with the leading lights of the channel he has been accustomed to navigate, or which he is going to use. (See List B, page 9.)
In cases where an applicant for a certificate as Master Ordinary has only served in a fore-and-aft-rigged vessel, and is ignorant of the management of a square-rigged vessel, he may obtain a certificate on which the words “fore-and-aft-rigged vessel” will be written. This certificate does not entitle him to command a square-rigged ship. This is not, however, to apply to Mates, who, being younger men, are expected for the future to learn their business completely. 13. An EXTRA MASTER'S EXAMINATION is voluntary, and intended for such persons
to prove their superior qualifications, and are desirous of having certificates for the highest grade granted by the Board of Trade.
In Navigation.-As the vessels which such Masters will command frequently make long voyages, to the East Indies, the Pacific, &c., the candidate will be required to work a lunar observation by both sun and star, to determine the latitude by the moon, by Polar star off the meridian, and also by double altitude of the sun, and to verify the result by Sumner's method. He must be able to calculate the altitudes of the sun or star when they cannot be observed for the purposes of lunars,--to find the error of a watch by the method of equal altitudes,—and to correct the altitudes observed with an artificial borizon. He must understand how to observe and apply the deviation of the compass; and to
* Service in a superior capacity is in all cases to be equivalent to service in an inferior capacity.
de luce the set and rate of the current from the D. R. and observation. He will be required to explain the nature of great circle sailing, and know how to apply practically that knowledge, but he will not be required to go into the calculations. He must be acquainted with the law of storms, so far as to know how he may probably best escape those tempests common to the East and West Indies, and known as hurricanes.
In Seamanship. The extra examination will consist of an inquiry into the competency of the applicant to heave a ship down, in case of accident befalling her abroad; to get lower masts in and out; and to perform such other operations of a like nature as the Examiner may consider it proper to examine him upon. QUALIFICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY FOR
A “HOME TRADE PASSENGER SHIP.” 14. A MATE must write a legible hand, and understand the first four rules of arithmetic. He must know and understand the rule of the road, and describe and show that he under. stands the Admiralty regulation as to lights. He must be able to take a bearing by compass, and prick off the ship's course on a chart. He must know the marks in the leadline, and be able to work and heave the log.
15. A MASTER must have served one year as a DIate in the Foreign or Home Trade. In addition to the qualifications required for a Mate, he must show that he is capable of navigating a ship along any coast, for which purpose he will be required to draw upon a chart produced by the Examiner, the courses and distances he would run along shore from headland to headland, and to give in writing the courses and distances corrected for variation, and the bearings of the headlands and lights, and to show when the courses should be altered either to clear any danger, or to adapt it to the coast. lle must understand how to make his soundings according to the state of the tide. Ile will also be questioned as to his knowledge of the use and management of the mortar and rocket lines in the case of the stranding of a vessel, as explained in the Official Log Book.
A first-class Pilot may be examined for a Master's Certificate of Competency for Home Trado Passenger Ships, notwithstanding that he may not have served in the capacity of Mate.
GENERAL RULES AS TO EXAMINATIONS AND FEES. 16. The candidates will be allowed to work out the various problems according to the method and the tables they have been accustomed to use, and will be allowed five hours to perform the work; at the expiration of which time, if they have not finished, they will be declared to have failed, unless the Local Marine Board see fit to extend the time.
17. The fee for examination must be paid to the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office (Shipping Master). If a candidate fail in his examination, half the fee he has paid will be returned to him by the Superintendent of Mercantile Marine Office, on his producing the Form Exn. 17, late BH, which will be given him by the Examiner. The fees are as follow:“FOR FOREIGN-GOING SHIPS."
for “fore-and-aft-rigged vessels N.B.-Any person having a Master's Certificate of Competency for Foreign-going Ships may go up for an Extra examination without payment of any fee, but if he fails in his first examination, half a Master's fee will be charged for each subsequent examination.
FOR “ HOME-TRADE PASSENGER SHIPS.”
18. If the applicant passes he will receive the Form Exn. 16, late GG, from the Examiner, which will entitle him to receive his Certificate of Competency from the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office, at the port to which he has directed it to be forwarded. If his testimonials have been sent to the Registrar to be verified, they will be returned with his Certificate.
19. If an applicant is examined for a higher grade and fails, but passes an examination of a lower grade, he may receive a certificate accordingly, but no part of the fee will be returned.
20. In every case the Examination, whether for Only Mate, First Mate, or Master, is to commence with the problems for Second Mate.
21. In all cases of failure the candidate must be re-examined de novo. If a candidate fails in Seamanship he will not be re-examined until after a lapse of Six Months, to give him time to gain experience. If he fails three times in Navigation he will not be re-examined until after a lapse of Three Months.
22. As the examinations of Masters and Mates are made compulsory, the qualifications have been kept as low as possible; but it must be distinctly understood, that it is the intention of the Board of Trade to raise the standard from time to time, whenever, as will no doubt be the case, the general attainments of officers in the merchant service shall render it possible to do so without inconvenience; and officers are strongly urged to employ their leisure hours, when in port, in the acquirement of the knowledge necessary to enable them to pass their examinations; and Masters will do well to permit apprentices and junior officers to attend schools of instruction, and to afford them as much time for this purpose as possible. EXAMINATION OF MASTERS AND MATES WITH REFERENCE
TO THE COMMERCIAL CODE OF SIGNALS FOR THE USE
OF ALL NATIONS.-INSTRUCTIONS TO EXAMINERS. 23. In transmitting the accompanying copy of the latest edition of the Commercial Code of Signals for the use of the Examiners, the Board of Trade desire to direct attention to the principal points connected with this Code as to which Candidates for examination should be questioned.
24. At the same time, as the subject is probably new to some of the Examiners themselves, the Board recommend to them a perusal of the Report of the Signal Committee of 1855 (which will be found at the commencement of the Signal Book), and also the first few pages of the Book. The information therein given will be found sufficient to make the Examiners theoretically acquainted with the characteristics of the New Code, and the advantages it claims to possess over other Codes, and will enable them to appreciate and urge upon Candidates for Examination the facilities which the new System of Signalling affords for easy and rapid communication.
25. The “comprehensiveness” and “distinctness” of the Commercial Code are its chief recommendations.
26. The form of the Hoist generally indicates the nature of the Signal made, so that an observer can at sight understand the character of the Signal he sees flying.
27. The Examinations should tend to elicit a knowledge of the distinctive features of the Code above alluded to.
With this object the Examiners should make the 2, 3, and 4 Flag Signals on the Frame board which is furnished for the purpose (always taking care first to show the Ensign and the Code Pennant at the Gaf),* questioning the Candidates as to the distinguishing Forms of the respective Hoists, which will be indicated according as a Burgee, or a Pennant, or a Square Flag, is uppermost.
28. The Candidate ought to know how to find in the Signal Book the communication or the inquiry he desires to make, and how to make the Signal. The Signal to be made should invariably be sought for by the candidate in the Vocabulary and Index, Part II, and never in Part I.
29. The Candidate ought to know how to interpret a Signal.
* The object of this is, of course, to distinguish the Signals from those of another Code.
Masters' and Mates' Voluntary E.caminations in Steam.
The Examiner should place a Signal on the Frame board, and vary the Signal hy showing a 2 or 3 Flag Sigoal, or a “Geographical" or a Vocabulary” Signal, or the name of a Merchant Ship or a Ship of War.
The two latter Signals would not of course be found in the Signal Book. The Candidate ought to point them out in the Code List of Ships.
30. A Candidate ought to be able to read off a Signal at sight, so far as to name the Flags composing the Hoist.
31. He ought to know the use of the Code Pennant, and of the Pennants C and D, “ Yes" and "No,"
32. The Candidate should be practised in the use of the Spelling Table, by being made to spell his own name, or some word not in the Vocabulary of the Code.
33. As Ships of War use a different set of Code Flags, the Candidate ought to be aware of the fact, and should know that a plate of the Admiralty Flags is to be found in the Signal Book, as well as plates of the Code Flags which Foreign Ships of War will use in signalling to Merchant Vessels. He should also know that every Official Log Book contains plates of these Code Flags.
34. A knowledge of the Distant Signals should be required of the Candidate, their object, and the mode of signalling by Distant Code, which will be found at the end of the Signal Book.
For the purpose two Black Balls, two Black Square Flags, and two Black Pennants will be furnished with the Frame board, and the Candidate should be required to make one or two Distant Signals, and to read off one or two made by the Examiners.
The Ball being the distinguishing symbol of the Distant Signal, any Pennants or Flags of the Code may be employed in conjunction with it, irrespective of colour. The Black Pennants and Flags are merely sent as showing best in the light background of the Frame board.
SEMAPHORES. 35. We have as yet no Semaphores on our coasts. The French, however, have upwards of 110 such stations established on their coasts, at which the Commercial Code of Signals only is used.
36. A plate at the end of the Signal Book explains the method by which the arms of the Semaphore are made to represent by their position (up, down, or horizontal), the three symbols used for distant signalling, viz., a Flag, a Ball, or a Pennant. Before making Signals with the Semaphores, the Black Disc, with the white rim, should be placed on the top of the Semaphore Mast, as it properly forms a part of the Mast itself.
37. The Board of Trade think it of consequence to observe that as the Commercial Code has (in its integrity) been translated into French, and as copies of the Signal Book are furnished to all French Vessels of War and Semaphore stations, any Englishman can now, by this Code, make his wants known to them.
Other nations are now negotiating for the adoption of the Commercial Code, and from the favour with which Foreigners seem to have accepted the Code wherever it has been presented to their notice, there is every reason to believe that in a short time the Mercantile Marine of all nations will have the advantage of being able to communicate by an “Universal Language of Signals.”
38. Her Majesty's Government have done all in their power to promote the use of the Commercial Code, and the Government of India and nearly all the Colonial Governments have adopted it, and a large number of Signal Books and Code Lists have already been circulated in the British Possessions abroad,
AND MATES' VOLUNTARY EXAMI.
39. Arrangements have been made for giving to those Masters and First and Only Mates who are possessed of or entitled to certificates of competency, an opportunity of undergoing a voluntary examination as to their practical knowledge of the use and working of the steam
engine. These examinations are conducted on the premises, and under the superintendence of the Local Marine Boards at such times as they may appoint for the purpose; and the Examiners are selected by the Board of Trade from the Engineer Surveyors appointed under the fourth part of “The Merchant Shipping Act, 1854.”
40. Any Master or Mate desiring to be examined in Steam, must deliver to the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office, a statement in writing to that effect, upon the form of application (Exn. 2, late EE); if the applicant has a Certificate of Competency, such certificate must be delivered to the Shipping Master along with his statement. If he is about to pass an examination for a Certificate of Competency at the same time, the applications should be sent in together.
41. A fee of one pound must be paid by the applicant for the examination in Steam, and the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office will thereupon inform him of the time and place at which he is to attend to be examined, and the examination will then and there proceed in the same manner as the other examinations. If the applicant fails, and has given in his certificate, it will at once be returned to him, but no part of the fee he has paid will be returned.
42. If he passes, the Report (Exn. 14, late FF) will be sent to the Board of Trade, and the Certificate of Competency with the Form (Exn. 2, late EE) to the Registrar-General of Seamen; the words “ Passed in Steam," with the date and place of examination, will then be entered on the certificate and its counterpart, and the certificate will be sent to the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office of the port named in the Application (Exn. 2, late EE) to be delivered to the applicant in the usual manner.
43. The examination is viva voce, and extends to a general knowledge of the practical use and working of the steam-engine, and of the various valves, fittings, and pieces of machinery connected with it. Intricate theoretical questions on calculations of horse-power or areas of cylinders and valves, or any of the more difficult questions which appertain to steam-engines and boilers, will not be asked. The examination will in fact be confined to what a master of a steam-vessel may be called upon to perform in the case of the death, incapacity, or delinquency of the engineer,
44. If the applicant fails to answer some few of the questions, and yet, in the opinion of the Examiner, possesses such a competent knowledge of the parts of the engine generally, and such other practical knowledge of the subject as will enable him to effect the object in view, the Examiner will exercise his discretion as to whether a sufficiently high standard of knowledge has been attained, and pass him or not accordingly.
45. The Examiner will provide drawings and working sections, on a sufficiently large scale, of the various parts of the steam-engine, and of the valves and slides, &c., as may be necessary, and will require the applicant to make use of them in giving his answers to the various questions put to him; and, if an opportunity offer, the applicant will be permitted, under the guidance of the Examiner, to start and stop the engine of some vessel which may have her steam up.
CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE. 46. A Certificate of Service entitles an Officer who had served as either Master or Mate in a British Foreign-going Ship before the 1st January, 1851, or as Master or Mate in a Home Trade Passenger Ship before the ist January, 1854, to serve in those capacities again; and it also entitles an Officer who has attained or attains the rank of Lieutenant, Master, Passed Mate, or Second Master, or any higher rank in the service of Her Majesty or of the late East India Company, to serve as Master of a British Merchant Ship, and may be had by application to the Registrar-General of Seamen, Adelaide Place, London Bridge, London, or to any Superintendent of a Mercantile Marine Office in the Outports, on the transmission and verification of the necessary certificates and testimonials. LOCAL MARINE BOARD EXAMINATIONS-NOTICE
TO CANDIDATES-OFFICIAL NOTICE.
1. Candidates are required to appear at the examination room punctually at the time appointed.