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chus, QcOS va en' axgwe opew, a god who dwells on the tops of the mountains, beget you, on any of the nymphs that possess Helicon, with whom he frequently sports ?*
The judicious author of the Tragedy of Elfrida, hath given occasion to a kind of controversy among the more curious critics, concerning the utility of the chorus, which, after the model of the ancients, he hath endeavoured to revive. That the great Grecian masters retained it only out of respect to its antiquity, and from no intrinsic valuableness or propriety of the thing, can scarcely be imagined. The sentiments of the judicious Brumoy are moderate and rational, and seem to comprehend all that is necessary to be said on this subject. “ I know (says he) the chorus is attended with inconveniences. Sophocles had the address to withdraw his chorus for a few mo. ments, when their absence was necessary, as in the Ajax. If the chorus, therefore, incommodes the poet, and puts him under difficulties, he must charge it solely to his own want of dex
terity, terity. What advantage, on the other hand, may he not reap from a body of actors that fill the stage; that render more lively, striking, and sensible, the continuity of the action, and give it the air of greater PROBABILITY? For it is not natural, or conceivable, that a great and illustrious action, such as a revolution in a state, should pass
* 0:37. Tupav. 1118.
without witnesses. We perceive and feel a kind of void on the stage, on account of the absence of the choruses; and the successful attempt of Racine, who adopted and revived the use of them in his ATHALIA and Esther, were sufficient, one would imagine, to undeceive, and convince us of their importance and utility. The ancients treated only of such stories as were publicly transacted: now the banishment of the chorus has been the necessary consequence of the custom of the moderns, in taking for their representations all kinds of subjects, and in filling and overcharging the action with incidents and surprises. For how could these various crowded events and incidents have been possibly introduced in a public place, exposed to the view of courtiers and the people; while
the generality of our tragedies turn on particular and private affairs, removed from the view and notice of all men ? The Athenian spectators were ever accustomed to concern themselves in all public affairs, and to be witnesses and judges of them. The modern stage, by its disuse of the chorus, may, perhaps, have gained a great number of fine subjects for tragedy; yet, in return, it is burthened with confidents, it loses the continuity of action, and is deprived of the magnificent spectacle that serves
to support that continuity, and which is, if I may be aliowed the expression, the accompagnient of the picture."*
I thought it more equitable, as well as more convincing, to quote at large the words of this admirable critic, whose work is one of the most valuable that his elegant nation has produced, than to adopt, as some have done, with small variations, his opinion, without acknowledging the debt. An apology would be necessary for this digression, if it was not my professed design, in this Essay, to expatiate into such 'occasional disquisitions as naturally arise from the subject: it has, however, kept us too long from surveying a valuable literary curiosity; I mean the earliest production of Pope, written when he was not twelve years old, his ODE ON SOLITUDE.
* Le Theatre de Grecs. Tom. i. 104. and 214, and 198.
The first sketches of such an artist ought highly to be prized. Different geniuses unfold themselves at different periods of life. In some minds the ore is a long time in ripening. Not only inclination, but opportunity and encouragement, a proper subject, or a proper patron, influence the exertion or the suppression of genius. These stanzas on Solitude, are a strong instance of that contemplative and moral turn which was the distinguishing characteristic of our poet's mind. An ode of Cowley, which he produced at the age of thirteen years, is of the same cast, and perhaps not in the least inferior to this of POPE. The voluminous Lopez de Vega, is commonly, but perhaps incredibly, reported
by the Spaniards, to have composed verses when he was * five years old; and Torquato Tasso, the second or third of the Italian poets, (for that wonderful original, Dante, is the first,) is said to have recited poems and orations of his own writing when he was seven. It is, however, certain, which is more extraordinary, that he produced his Rinaldo in his eighteenth year; no bad precursor to the Gierusalemma Liberata ; and no small effort of that genius, which was, in due time, to shew, how fine án épic: poem the Italian language, notwithstanding the vulgar imputation of effeminacy, was capable of supportingt
Those who are fond of biographical anecdotes, which are some of the most amusive and instructive parts of history, will be, perhaps, pleased with the following particulars in the life of Pope. He frequently declared, that the time of his begin. ning to write verses was so very early in his life, that he could scarcely recall it to his memory.
* It is a certain fact, that s. Bononcini composed and
performed an opera when he was but nine years old.,
† But the Italians, in general, prefer Ariosto to Tasso.