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PREAMBLE. Objects of the Constitution.


two thirds of each house, notwithstanding, &c. Bill not returned in ten days. — Resolutions, &c., to be passed and ap

proved like bills. 8. Powers of congress. 9. Provision as to migration or im

portation of certain persons.
Habeas corpus. — No bills of at-
tainder, &c. — Taxes, how ap-
portioned. — No export duty.
– No commercial preferences.
- No

drawn from treasury, unless, &c. – No titular nobility Officers not to re

ceive presents, unless, &c. 10. States prohibited from the exercise

of certain powers.


SECTION 1. Legislative powers, in whom

vested. 2. House of representatives, how and

by whom chosen. - Qualifications of a representative. — Representatives and direct taxes, how apportioned. — Census. Vacancies to be filled. - Power of choosing officers, and of im

peachment. 3. Senators, how and by whom

chosen. How classified. State executive to make temporary appointments, in case, &C. - Qualifications of a sena. tor. - President of the senate, his right to vote. — President pro tem. and other officers of senate, how chosen. – Power to try impeachments. - When president is tried, chief justice

to preside. — Sentence. 4. Times, &c., of holding elections,

how prescribed. — One session

in each year. 5. Membership. Quorum. — Ad.

journments. — Rules. — Power
to punish or expel. — Journal.
– Time of adjournments lim-

ited, unless, &c.
6. Compensation. Privileges.

Disqualification in certain cases. 7. House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. — Bill may be passed by

SECTION 1. President and vice-president, their

term of office. — Electors of president and vice-president, number, and how appointed. — Electors to vote on same day.

Qualifications of president. - On whom his duties devolve in case of his removal, death, &c. - President's compensation.

- His oath. 2. President to be commander-in

chief. - He may require opin- . ion of heads of departments. – Pardoning power.

Treaty. making power.

Nomination of certain officers. - When president may

fill vacancies. 3. President shall communicate to

congress. — He may convene and adjourn congress, in case, &c.; shall receive ambassadors, execute laws, and commission

officers. 4. All civil offices forfeited for cer

tain crimes.


SECTION 1. Judicial power.— Tenure. — Com

pensation. 2. Judicial power, to what cases it

extends. - Original jurisdiction of supreme court. - Appellate. – Trial by jury, except, &c.

Trial, where. 3. Treason defined. – Proof of.

Punishment of.

ARTICLE IV. SECTION 1. Each state to give credit to the

public acts, &c., of every other. 2. Privileges of citizens of each state.

- Fugitives from justice to be delivered up. — Persons held to service, having escaped, to be

delivered up. 3. Admission of new states. - Power

of congress over territory and

other property 4. Republican form of government

guarantied. — Each state to be protected.

by whom taken. — No religious


ARTICLE VII. What ratification shall establish con



ARTICLE 1. Religious establishment prohib

ited. — Freedom of speech, of

the press, and right to petition. 2. Right to keep and bear arms. 3. No soldier to be quartered in any

house, unless, &c. 4. Right of search and seizure regu

lated. 5. Provisions concerning prosecution,

trial, and punishment. — Private property not to be taken

for public use, without, &c. 6. Further provision respecting crim

inal prosecutions. 7. Right of trial by jury secured. 8. Excessive bail or fines and cruel

punishments prohibited. 9. Rule of construction. 10. Same subject. 11. Same subject. 12. Manner of choosing president and

vice-president. 13. Slavery abolished. Congress

empowered to enforce this arti

cle by legislation. 14. Citizens and their rights. — Rep

resentative apportionment. Disability of persons engaged in the rebellion. – Validity of public debt assured. — Congress empowered to enforce this arti

cle by legislation. 15. Right of impartial suffrage.

Congress empowered to enforce this article by legislation.

ARTICLE V. Constitution, how amended. — Pro


ARTICLE VI. Certain debts, &c., adopted. — Su

premacy of constitution, treaties, and laws of the United States. - Oath to support constitution,


WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this ConstitUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


Legislative powers, in whom vested.

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall be composed of mem- House of

reprebers chosen every second year by the people of the several states; sentatives, how and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite chosen.

and by whom for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to Qualifications the age of twenty-five years and been seven years a citizen of the of a represent

ative. United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the

Representaseveral states which may be included within this Union, according to tives and direct their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the taxes, bow apwhole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three Census. years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative: and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, one ; Connecticut, five; New York, six; New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six ; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the Vacancies to be executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such filled. vacancies.

The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other Power of choosofficers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

ing officers and

of impeachSec. 3. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six Senators, how Fears; and each senator shall have one vote.

and by whom

chosen. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the

How classified. first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every


year ; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess State executive of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make tem- to make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which morary appoint

, , shall then fill such vacancies.

&c. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age Qualifications of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, of a senator. and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the President of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

senate, his right The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro President pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exer- tem, and other cise the office of president of the United States.

officers of senThe senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. ate, how chosWhen sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. Power to try When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice impeachments. shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concur- When presirence of two thirds of the members present.

dent is tried, chief justice to preside.


to vote.

each year.

Sentence. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend farther than to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any

office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial,

judgment, and punishment, according to law. Times, &c., of

Sec. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for holding elections, how pre

senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by scribed. the legislature thereof; but the congress may at any time by law

make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing

senators. One session in The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such

meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall

by law appoint a different day. Membership Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and

qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall conQuorum. stitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn

from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of Adjournments. absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each

house may provide. Rules. Power Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its to punish or

members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two expel.

thirds expel a member. Journal.

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present,

be entered on the journal. Time of ad- Neither house, during the session of congress, shall without the journment limited, unless,

consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any &c.

other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. Compensation. - Sec. 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compen

sation for their services, to be ascertained by law and paid out of the Privileges. treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except trea

son, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in

either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place. Disqualifica- No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he tion in certain

was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of

either house during his continuance in office. House to origi- Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house

of representatives ; but the senate may propose or concur with nue bill

amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives

and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the Veto.

president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to that house in which

it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on Bill may be their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsidpassed by two eration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall house, notwith- be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it standing, &c. shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that

house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of


nate all reve

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