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new tenets of religion, in admiration of their benevolence.

The Quakers of the present day consider their poor in the same light as their venerable elder, namely, as members of the same family, whose wants it is their duty to relieve, and they provide for them nearly in the same manner. They entrust this important concern to the monthly meetings, which are the executive branches of the Quaker constitution. The monthly meetings appoint four overseers, two men and two women, over each particular meeting within their own jurisdiction, if their number will admit of it. It is the duty of these to visit such of the poor as are in membership; of the men to visit the men, but of the women sometimes to visit both. The reason why this double burthen is laid

upon the women-overseers is, that women know more of domestic concerns, more of the wants of families, more of the manner of providing for them, and are better advisers and better nurses in sickness than the men. Whatever these overseers find wanting in the course of their visits, whether money, clothes, medicines, or medical advice and


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attention, they order them, and the treasurer of the monthly meetings settles the different accounts *. I


observe here, that it is not easy for overseers to neglect their duty; for an inquiry is made three times in the year of the monthly meetings by the quarterly, whether the necessities of the poor are properly inspected and relieved. I may observe also, that the


may stand in need of relief are always relieved privately, I mean at their respective homes.

It is, however, possible, that there may be persons, who, from a variety of unlookedfor causes, may be brought into distress, and whose case, never having been suspected, may be passed over. But persons in this situation are desired to apply for assistance. It is also a rule in the Society, that even persons whose conduct is disorderly are to be relieved, if such conduct has not been objected to by their own monthly meeting, “ The want of due care," says the Book of Extracts, “ in watching diligently over the fock, and in dealing in due time with such as walk disorderly, hath brought great difficulties on some meetings; for we think it both unseasonable and dishonourable, when persons apply to monthly meetings for relief, in cases of necessity, then to object to them such offences as the meeting, through the neglect of its own duty, hath suffered long to pass by unreproved and unnoticed.” The

* In London a committee is appointed for each poor person. Thus, for example, two women are appointed to attend to the wants and conforts of one puós old woman. - 8


poor are supported by charitable collections from the body at large; or, in other words, every monthly meeting supports its own poor. The collections for them are usually made once a month, but in some places once a quarter, and in others at na stated times, but when the treasurer declares them necessary and the monthly meeting approves. Members are expected to contribute in proportion to their circumstances ; but persons in a low situation, and servants, are generally excused upon these occasions.

It happens in the district of some monthly meetings, that there are found only few persons of property but a numerous poor, so that the former are unable to do justice in their provision for the latter. The Society have therefore resolved, when the poor are too numerous to be supported by their own

monthly monthly meetings, that the collections for them shall be made up out of the quarterly meeting to which the said monthly meeting belongs. This is the same thing as if any particular parish were unable to pay the rates for the poor, and as if all the other parishes in the county were made to contribute towards the same.

On this subject I may observe, that the Quaker-poor are attached to their monthly meetings as the common poor of the kingdom are attached to their parishes, and that they gain settlements in these nearly in the

same manner.


Education of the children of the poor particularly

insisted upon and provided for by the QuakersThe boys usually put out to apprenticeship— The girls to service-The latter not sufficiently nua merous for the Quaker-families who want themThe rich have not their proper proportion of these in their service-Reasons of it-- Character of the Quaker-poor.

As the Quakers are particularly attentive to the wants of the poor, so they are no less attentive to the education of their offspring.


These are all of them to receive their education at the public expense. The same overseers, as in the former case, are to take care of it, and the same funds to support it. An inquiry is therefore made three times in the year into this subject. 6. The children of the poor," says the Book of Extracts, “are to have due help of education, instruction, and necessary learning.” The families also of the poor are to be provided with Bibles, and books of the Society, at the expense

of the monthly meetings. And as some members may be straitened in their circumstances, and may refuse out of delicacy to apply for aid towards the education of their children, it is earnestly recommended to friends in every monthly meeting, to look persons


be thus straitened, and to take care that their children shall receive instruction; and it is recommended to the parents of such, not to refuse this salutary aid, “but to receive it with a willing mind, and with thankfulness to the great Author of all good.”

When the boys have received their necessary learning, they are usually put out as apprentices to husbandry or trade. Do3


out for

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