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mestic service is generally considered by the parents as unmanly, and as a nursery for idleness. Boys too, who can read and write, ought to expect, with the accustomed diligence and sobriety of Quakers, to arrive at a better situation in life. The girls, however, are destined in general for service; for it must be obvious, whatever their education may be, that the same number of employments is not open to women as to men. Of those again which are open some are. objectionable. A Quaker-girl, for example, could not consistently be put an apprentice to a milliner. Neither, if a cotton-manufactory were in the neighbourhood, could her parents send her to such a nursery of debauchery and vice. From these and other considerations, and because domestic employments belong to women, their parents generally think it advisable to bring them úp to service, and to place them in the families of friends.
It is a remarkable circumstance, when we consider it to be recommended that Quakermasters of families should take Quakerservants, that persons of the latter description are not found to be sufficiently nu
'merous for those who want them. This
This is probably a proof of the rising situation of this Society. It is remarkable again, that the rich have by no means their proportion of such servants. Those of the wealthy who are exemplary, get them if they can. Others decline their services. Of these some do it from good motives; for knowing that it would be difficult to make up their complement of servants from the Society, they do not wish to break in
the customs and morals of those belonging to it by mixing them with others. The rest, who mix more with the world, as I have been informed, are fearful of having them, lest they should be overseers of their words and man
For it is in the essence of the Quakerdiscipline, as I observed upon that subject, that every member should watch over another for his good. There are no exceptions as to persons.
The servant has as much right to watch over his master with respect to his religious conduct and conversation, as the master over his servant;, and he has also a right, if his master violates the discipline, to speak to him, in a respectful manner,
for so doing. Nor would a Quaker-servant, if he were well grounded in the principles of the Society, and felt it to be his duty, want the courage to speak his mind upon such occasions. There have been instances where this had happened, and where the master, in the true spirit of his religion, has not felt himself insulted by such interference, but has looked upon his servant afterwards as more worthy of his confidence and esteem. Such a right, however, of remonstrance, is, I presume, but rarely exercised.
I cannot conclude this subject without saying a few words on the character of the Quaker-poor.
In the first place, I may observe, that one of the great traits in their character is inde pendence of mind. When you converse with them, you find them attentive, civil, and obliging; but you see no marks of servility about them, and you hear no flattery from their lips. It is not the custom of this Society, even for the poorest member to bow, or to pull off his hat, or to observe any outward obeisance to another, who may happen to be rich. Such customs are forbidden to all upon religious principles. In consequence therefore of the omission of such ceremonious practices, his mind has never been made to bend on the approach of superior rank. Nor has he seen, in his own society, any thing that could lessen his own importance or dignity as a man. He is admitted into the meetings for discipline equally with the rich. He has a voice equally with them in all matters that are agitated there. From these causes a manliness of mind is produced, which is not seen among any other of the poor in the island in which
It may also be mentioned as a second trait in their character, that they possess extraordinary knowledge. Every Quaker-boy or girl who comes into the world, must, however poor, if the discipline of the Society be kept up, receive an education. All, therefore, who are born in the Society, must be able to read and write. Thus the keys of knowledge are put into their hands. Hence we find them attaining a superior literal and historical knowledge of the Scriptures, a superior knowledge of human nature, and a knowledge that sets them above many of H 2
the superstitions of those of their own rank in life.
Another trait conspicuous in the character of the Quaker-poor is the morality of their lives.
This circumstance may easily be accounted for. For, in the first place, they are hindered in common with other Quakers, by means of their discipline, from doing many things that are morally injurious to themselves. The poor of the world are addicted to profane swearing. But no person can bring the name of the Creator of the universe into frequent and ordinary use, without losing a sense of the veneration that is due to him. The
The poor of the world, again, frequently spend their time in public houses. They figlit and quarrel with one another. They run after horseracings, bull-baitings, cock-fightings, and the still more unnatural battles between man and man. But by encouraging such habits, they cannot but obstruct in time the natural risings of benevolence, both towards their fellow-creatures, and to those of the animal-creation. Nor can they do otherwise than lose a sense of the dignity of their