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INTRODUCTION.

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HE most difficult task, perhaps, known to literature, is to write a history of events as they transpire—to arrange facta before the hand of time has given them just position and importance. In writing a history of the Civil War which is now raging in the land—the most gigantic and stupendous rebellion yet known to the world—the magnitude of the task, and the difficulties that present themselves, challenge a degree of moral courage almost equal to that physical bravery which has been so conspicuous in the war. But if an honest intention to be just—a thorough desire for troth, and a determination to discard all personal prejudices, can produce a faithful history, this work lias a right to claim acceptance.

The political history of a nation, when it merges into armed strife, is generally a record of prejudices and of passion : .civil war is the result. In this work the author deals not with causes, but with the terrible events that spring out of the£i; avoiding so far as possible the threatening clouds of political : dissension that preceded and still follow the tempest. Time, which will clear up obscurities and remove passion, and the intellect of a great statesman, are necessary, before the political and military history of this war can be fittingly imited.

In this book there is a positive rejection of those partizan dissensions which have burst asunder the sacred ties of the greatest nation on earth, and deluged the soil trodden by millions of happy men with the blood of as brave a solg J*diery as ever drew breath. This history of the War for the Union is written . j for no faction—no partv—no combination of men, but for the people of every

portion of the Union. Political passions die—nistory lives; and in an enlightened age like this, it must be written in simple truth, or the clear-sighted generations that follow us will detect the sophistry and falsehood. Impartial history demands honest facts. The opinions of an historian are but the assumptions of one mind attempting to control multitudes. The author's duty is to give details, allowing the intelligent reader to draw his own conclusions unembarrassed by obtrusive opinions, which are in all cases liable to be influenced by prejudices.

The History of the War for the Union is a record of stupendous events which have given grandeur to the American arms and sorrow to every good American heart. Taking up the thread of events where the political history of the nation left them on the fourth of March, eighteen hundred and sixtyone, the author has followed the ensanguined track, giving to every battle-field its place, and every heroic act its record. The sources of information in which the work has found its existence, have been authentic reports from the "War Department, the official statements of commandants on the battte-field, and the many thrilling and graphic descriptions furnished by eye-witnesses.

In giving due credit to those persons who have aided her in the rapid completion of her first volume, the author acknowledges her great obligation to Wm. Oland Bourne, Esq., who has devoted much time to the work, and whose ample collection of material for history* has been freely used in its preparation; and to J. J. Goldbr, Esq., whose research and clear judgment in sifting truth from error, arranging facts, and superintending the work in its progress through the press, has enabled her to place it before the public in less than three months from its commencement. To Mr. Qolder's critical care the reader is indebted for the compact and excellent Chronology attached to this volume, in which all the historical events of the war are placed in their order of succession.

In the mechanical and artistic execution of the work, the publisher has evinced an enthusiasm which corresponds nobly with the great subject of the history, and has been even lavish in pictorial embellishments. These have been all drawn and engraved expressly for this work, at great cost; aM& in the truthfulness and beauty of their execution, add to the high reputation already attained by the artists, Messrs. Waters and Son.

New York, October 1,1868.

ANN S. STEPHENS.

CONTENTS.

Introduction 7

Inauguration of President Lincoln 17

The coming tempest—The national forbearance—Mustering of rebel troops-1

ESorts for conciliation—The Border States—South Carolina—Investment of Fort

Sumter—The Star of the West—Gen. Beauregard.

Fortifications in Charleston Harbor. 25

The iron floating battery—Cummings Point battery—Castle Pinckney.

Bombardment of Fort Sumter 28

Storming of Fort Sumter, viewed from the land—Naval expedition for the relief

of Fort tsumter.

The Nation's Response. 40

Startling effect of the news of the attack on Sumter—The President's Proclama-

tion—Departure of troops for Washington — Enthusiasm of the people—Their

devotion to the national Union—Large contributions to aid the Government.

Reinforcement of Fort Pickens 46

The harbor of Pensacola — Forts HcRae and Barrancas — Description of Fort

Pickens—Its investment by rebel troops under Gen. Bragg—The Federal fleet in

the harbor—Successful landing of troops and supplies.

Burning of Harper's Ferry Arsenal 49

Through Baltimore. 5*

Arrival of the Massachusetts Sixth, Col. Jones, in Baltimore—Blockade of the

streets—Attack by the mob—Defence of the military—Terrible results—The regi-

mental band—The city authorities—Intense excitement of the citizens—Penn-

sylvania troops—Mayor Brown and Marshal Kane.

Military Occupation of Annapolis, Md. 61

The Eighth Massachusetts and the Seventh New York—Gen. Butler—Gov. Hicks

—the frigate Constitution—the Naval Academy—March to the Junction.

Maryland. 66

Efforts of secessionists to involve the State in rebellion—Patriotic deration of

loyal citizens—Gov. Hicks—The State Legislature—Gen. Butler in Maryland—Gen.

Cadwallader—The Tialtfas corpus act—Chief-Justice Taney.

Destruction of Gosport Navy Yard 78

The State of the Nation before its Troops entered Virginia 76

Response of the Governors of Maryland, Delaware, North Carolina, Kentucky, and

Missouri, to the President's Proclamation—The position of Virginia—The" Con-

federate Congress, at Montgomery—Jefferson Davis—The Confederate army—Let-

ters of Marque—-Postal communication—Tennessee and Arkansas—Border States

Convention—Position of Missouri.

Occupation of Alexandria, Va. 83

Assassination of Col. Ellsworth—The Marshall House—J. W. Jackson—Brownell

Sketch of Ellsworth—Defection of Gen. Lee—Lieut. Tompkins' scout to Fairfax

Court House.

Battle of Great Bethel 88

Death of Major Winthrop and Lieut. Greble.

The Ambuscade at Vienna, Va 91

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The Battle of Bull Run.......................................... . . . 98.

The Federal Commanders and the movements of their forces—The engagement—

Arrival of rebel reinforcements—The climax and the retrey—The battle on the
left wing—The battle-field at night.

Western Virginia......................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 129

Battle of Phillipi, Wa........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 131

Destruction of Railroad Property............................. ** - - - - - - 133

Gen. McClellan in Western Virginia................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 133

Battle of Scareytown........ ...................................... 134

Battle of Rich Mountain.......................... - - - - - - - - - - - - -... ... 135

Battle of Carrick's Ford............................................ 137

Gen. Rosecrans and Col. Lander—Gen. Morris—Capt. Benham—Defeat of the

rebel forces and death of Gen. Garnett.

The West................ ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 141

Missouri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 143

Capture of Camp Jackson...... -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . ... . . . : 144

Decisive action of Capt. Lyon—Gen. Frost—The Missouri Legislature—Gov. Jack-

son–Gun. Harney—Gen. Price—Gen. Lyon appointed to command the Department.

Cairo. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 150

Battle of Booneville........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 151

Battle of Carthage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - - - - - - - - - - 152

Battle of Monroe, Mo.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Guerrilla Bands in Missouri.............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 155

Gen. Pope in Northern Missouri–State Convention at Jefferson City—Gen. Fre-

mont at St. Louis—Invasion of the State by Gens. Pillow and Jeff. Thompson—

Address of the State Convention.

Battle of Dug Springs............................ * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 156

Skirmish at Athens, Mo........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - -". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Battle of Wilson's Creek........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 159

Gen. Lyon at Springfield–Gens. Price and McCulloch—Critical position of the

Federal army—The battle—The death of Gen Lyon—Retreat of the Union army.

Kentucky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

The neutrality of the State–Position of Gov. Magoffin—Gen. Buckner—Gen. Mc-

Clellan—The State legislature—Decisive Union measures.

The Occupation of Paducah.. ................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 168

Rebel troops ordered to withdraw from Kentucky—Attempt to form a revolution-

ary fo. in the State—Military movements of the rebels in Kentucky—The
loyal State government.

Naval Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 175

The Expedition to Cape Hatteras........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... .... 177

Capture of Forts Hatteras and Clark..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 180

Western Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 182

Surprise at Cross Lanes. . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . 158

Battle of Carnifex Ferry....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 183

Battle of Cheat Mountain Pass............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 186

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The Stone Fleet............................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . 225

Battle of Camp Alleghany, Western Virginia......................... . 228

Battle of Munfordsville, Ky.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 230

Capture of Rebel Recruits at Milford, Mo.......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 232

Battle of Pranesville, Wa................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 238

Expedition to Ship Island.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 241

Engagement at Mount Zion, Mo............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ......... 242

Arkansas and the Indians....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Bombardment at Fort Pickens................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 245

Rout of Gen. Marshall at Paintsville, Ky.............................. 247

Battle of Middle Creek, Ky................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 248

Battle of Silver Creek, Mo................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ..... 251

Battle of Mill Spring, Ky...................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 255

Investment of Fort Pulaski, Ga...................................... 262

New Mexico and Arizona........ - - - - - - ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Battle of Walvende, N. M.......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... ... 267

Battle of Apache Cañon... .................... . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - ... . 270

Fight at Blooming Gap, Wa........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 273

East Tennessee under Confederate rule ....................... ........ 275

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