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a body of United States troops landed at Locust Point in that city, and were conveyed by the cars through it without interruption. The Marshal of the city, John K. Kane, was known to be deeply implicated in the work of rebellion, and he was arrested and search was made at the police headquarters for concealed arms and supplies.
The people of Maryland held views which her disloyal legislators had misrepresented. On the 14th of May, a meeting was held at East Baltimore, at which strong Union resolutions were adopted, pledging "lives, fortunes, and sacred honor," to its defence, declaring the right of the government to convey troops through the State, and their own right and duty to aid them in the work.
General Butler the same day occupied Federal Hill, at Baltimore, and issued a proclamation which was scattered in immense numbers among the people, and contributed in a high degree to the restoration of confidence and harmony among all classes. An important step was also taken by Governor Hicks, who, on the same day issued a proclamation calling for the State quota of four regiments of volunteers for three months, to sustain the government and to protect the capital. General Butler had seized various military stores intended for the rebels, and also took possession of arms and powder belonging to loyal parties, to prevent their being removed by enemies to the government.
Brigadier-General Butler, having been appointed Major-General, and placed in command of the military Department of Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee, a most important position, was transferred to Fortress Monroe, and was succeeded by General Cadwallader on the 20th. Fort McHenry was reinforced, and put into the most effective condition for immediate seftice, and the conspirators of Baltimore were restrained from further disorders by the apprehension that any attempt at insurrection would be the signal for a bombardment of the city. After Cadwallader came into command, several arrests of prominent per. sons had been made. Among these was Mr. John Merryman, who applied to Chief-Justice Taney for a writ of habeas corpus. This was granted; and General Cadwallader, in answer, said that the prisoner had been arrested on charge of various acts of treason—of holding a command in a company having in possession arms belonging to the United States, and of avowing his purpose of armed hostility to the Government of the United States. In such cases General Cadwallader said he was authorized by the President to suspend the habeas corpus act; he therefore requested Judge Taney to suspend further action until instructions could be had from the President.
Judge Taney thereupon issued a writ of attachment against General Cadwallader for contempt of court. The Marshal proceeded to Fort McHenry to execute the writ, but was refused admission. Judge Taney urged that the President had no authority to suspend the act of habeas corpus, or to authorize others to do so. An elaborate opinion to that effect was prepared by the Judge and has since been published.
A sufficient number of troops were also at this time stationed in Baltimore, and the loyal citizens were assured that they would be protected in all their rights and privileges, at every hazard. Thus fortified, protected and encouraged, the loyalty of the people was fully displayed, while the disloyal were held in check. Maryland, glorious in her past history, and her devotion to the Constitution, was saved from destruction, and her loyal citizens will in generations to come receive the plaudits of millions whose gratitude will be deep enough to overwhelm her few days of revolt.
DESTEUOTION OP THE GOSPOET NAVY YAED.
April 21, 1861.
The splendid naval and military establishment at Gosport, Virginia, belonging to the Federal Government, was, at the time Virginia seceded, in the possession of the United States. It was supplied with immense quantities of military and naval stores; and several old vessels which had been withdrawn from service, and others of great value, were either waiting orders to sail or undergoing repairs. The entire establishment, whether on land or water, was indispensable to the conspirators, for the possession of the Navy Yard would give them immediate control of ordnance stores and property worth 830,000,000.
The seizure of this vast establishment having been determined upon, five or six vessels had been sunk by the rebels in the channel of the Elizabeth river, below the Navy Yard, thus effectually preventing the passage of larger vessels.
General Taliaferro was placed in command of the insurgent forces then rapidly concentrating at Norfolk. Commodore McCauley, who commanded at the Navy Yard, had been reluctant to adopt any measures which would bring him into hostility with the State troops, and thus inaugurate the war. The rebels took advantage of this leniency, but for once they were disappointed in their expectations of success. The Commodore determined to destroy the immediate agencies of the war, leaving the armories, ship wood, docks and dwellings unharmed, hoping that, although they might for a time be occupied by the insurgents, the stars and stripes would eventually float over them in triumph.
At 8J- o'clock on Saturday evening, the 20th April, the Pawnee, containing 600 Massachusetts troops from Fortress Monroe, arrived at Gosport harbor, the Commodore's flag at its mast-head the white sails, relieved by the dark blue sky, appearing more like the floating wings of the dove of peace than heralds of destruction. The scene that followed is thus graphically described by an eye-witness.
Her coming was not unexpected, and as she glided to her place at the dock, the men on the Pennsylvania and the Cumberland, several hundred in number, greeted her with a volley of cheers that echoed and re-echoed till all Norfolk and Portsmouth must have heard the hail. The men of the Pennsylvania fairly outdid themselves in their enthusiasm on this occasion. They clambered into the shrouds, and not only answered to the " three cheers," but volunteered " three times three," and gave them with a hurricane of heartiness. This intense feeling on their part is easily explained. They had been a long time almost imprisoned on shipboard, on a ship imbedded in the river, motionless and helpless, and subject to promises from the secessionists of speedy demolition. In the advent of the Pawnee they saw-deliverance from such durance, and they exulted with tremendous emphasis.
All Portsmouth and Norfolk were thoroughly aroused by the arrival of the Pawnee. They did not expect her, and were not prepared for her. They were seized with trepidation, thinking, perhaps, she had come, and along with the Cumberland and Pennsylvania, meant to bombard the towns for having obstructed the channel, and for having, the night before, rifled the United States magazine, just below Norfolk, of about 4,000 kegs of powder. Being utterly defenceless and quite terrified, the secessionists made no protest against the Pawnee's presence, nor did they venture too near the Navy Yard.
The Pawnee made fast to the dock, and Colonel Wardrop marched out his regiment and stationed them at the several gates of the Navy Yard to oppose the entrance of any forces from without, in case an attempt to enter should be made. Having adopted this precaution, tho Commodore set the marines on the Pennsylvania, the Cumberland, the Pawnee, and in the yard, to work. All the books and papers, the archives of the establishment, were transferred to the Pawnee.
Everything of interest to the Government on the Pennsylvania was promptly transferred to the Cumberland. On this latter vessel, it was also said, £ large amount of gold from the Custom House at Norfolk had been in good time placed. Having made safe everything that was to be brought away, the marines were next set to work to destroy everything on the Pennsylvania, and the other ships, and- in the yard, that might be of immediate use in waging war upon the government. Many thousand stands of arms were destroyed. Carbines had their stocks broken from the barrels by a blow, and were thrown overboard. A largo lot of revolvers shared the like fate. Shot and shell by thousands went with hurried plunge to the bottom. Most of the cannon had been spiked the day and night before. There were at least 1,500 pieces in the yard—some elegant Dahlgren guns, and Columbiads of all sizes.
It is impossible to describe the scene of destruction that was exhibited. Unweariedly it was continued from 9 o'clock until about 12, during which time the moon gave light to direct the operations. But when the moon sank behind the western horizon, the barracks near the centre of the yard were set on fire, that by its illumination the work might be continued. The crackling flames and the glare of light inspired with new energies the destroying marines, and havoc was carried everywhere within the limits of orders. But time was not left to complete the work. Four o'clock of Sunday morning came, and the Pawnee was passing down from Gosport harbor w,ith the Cumberland, the coveted prize of the secessionists, in tow—every soul from the other ships and the yard being aboard of them, save two. Just as they left their moorings, a rocket was sent up from the deck of the Pawnee. It sped high in air, paused a second, and burst in shivers of many-colored light. As it did so, the well-set trains at the ship-houses, and on the decks of the fated vessels left behind, went off as if lit simultaneously by the rocket. One of the ship-houses contained the old New York, a ship thirty years on the stocks, and yet unfinished. The other was vacant; but both houses and the old New York burnt like tinder. The older and unserviceable vessels, the Pennsylvania, the Raritan, the Columbia, the Dolphin, were fired without compunction; while the Merrimac, Plymouth and Germantown were sunk, and the immense lifting shears used for raising vessels was broken down and rendered useless. The old Delaware and Columbus, worn out and dismantled seventy-fours, were scuttled and sunk at the upper docks on Friday.
The grand conflagration now burst in judgment on the startled citizens of Norfolk, Portsmouth, and all the surrounding country. The flames leaped from pitchy deck to smoking shrouds, and writhed to their very tops around the masts that stood like martyrs doomed. It was not thirty minutes from the time the trains were fired till the conflagration roared like a hurricane, and the flames from land and water swayed, and met, and mingled together, and darted high, and fell, and leaped up again, and by their very motion showed their sympathy with the crackling, crashing roar of destruction beneath. But in all this magnificent scene, the old ship Pennsylvania was the centre-piece. She was a very giant in death, as she had been in life. She was a sea of flame, and when her bowels were consuming, then did she spout from every porthole of every deck torrents and cataracts of fire that, to the mind of Milton, would have represented her a frigate of hell pouring out unremitting broadsides of infernal fire. Several of her guns were left loaded, but not shotted, and as the fire reached them, they sen? -nut on the startled morning air minute guns of fearful peal, that added greatly to the alarm that the light of the conflagration had spread through the surrounding country. The Pennsylvania burnt like a volcano for five hours and a half before her mainmast fell. At precisely 9£ o'clock the tall tree that stood in her centre tottered and fell, and crushed deep into her burning sides, whilst a storm of sparks filled the sky.
As soon as the Pawnee and Cumberland had fairly left the waters, and were known to be gone, the gathering crowds of Portsmouth and Norfolk burst open the gates of the Navy Yard and rushed in. They could do nothing, however, but gaze upon the ruin wrought. The Commodore's., residence, left locked but unharmed, was burst open, and a pillage commenced, which was summarily stopped. As early as six o'clock a volunteer company had taken possession in the name of Virginia, and run up her flag from the flag-staff. In another hour several companies were on hand, and men were at work unspiking cannon, and by nine o'clock they were moving them to the dock, whence they were begun to be transferred, on keels, to points below, where sand batteries were to be built.
Notwithstanding the splendor of the scene, and the great destruction of property, the result was incomplete, and a large amount of artillery and munitions of war fell into the hands of the Virginians.
THE STATE OP THE NATION BEPOEE ITS TEOOPS ENTERED YIEGINIA.
. President Lincoln, on the 15th of April, issued a proclamation stating that the laws of the United States had been and are opposed in several States, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary lourse of judicial proceedings; he therefore called for 75,000 troops from the several States. The first service assigned to this force would probably be to repossess the forts and other places and • property which had been seized from the Union. An extra session of Congress was also to meet on the 4th of July.
When President Lincoln issued his proclamation on the 15th of April, dispatches were sent from the Secretary of War, addressed to the Governors of the several States, designating the quotas assigned to each State, under this proclamation. The Executives of the slaveholding States, with the exception of Maryland and Delaware, peremptorily refused to comply with this requisition. Governor Ellis, of North Carolina, replied, " I regard the levy of troops made by the Administration for the purpose of subjugating the States of the South as in violation of the Constitution, and a usurpation of power. I can be no party to