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being sent ashore, they found the place deserted by all except several men, women and children, who resided on the island. The Federals found eleven 32-pounders, three 12-pound howitzers, two 24-pounders, one 8-inch columbiad, one 80-pound rifled cannon, one thousand 32pound shot, and other articles of minor importance. The fort was in good condition, with all its property. It was left in charge of Actingmaster Tamsen, of the U. S. navy.

On the 28th, Lieutenant-Colonel Higgins, commanding the forts, sent a communication to the Commodore, offering to surrender. The Harriet Lane (flag-ship) accordingly steamed up to the forts, and received the commander on board, when the articles of capitulation were drawn up and signed. Not to prolong the contest by very exacting terms, Commodore Porter received the forts and property, and allowed Brigadier-General Duncan, commander of coast defences, and LieutenantColonel Higgins, commanding the forts, to retain their side arms, under parole. The other officers and privates were to retire on parole, giving up all arms and accoutrements, the United States to transport the men from the forts.

Three steamers of the rebel fleet remained, and were under the direction of Commander J. K. Mitchell. Lieutenant-Colonel Higgins said he had no command over them, and was not responsible for their conduct. While the flag of truce was up, and the capitulation was under conference, they towed the iron floating battery, Louisiana, to a place above the forts, set it on fire, and turned it adrift upon the Federal fleet. The guns soon becoming heated, began to discharge, throwing their shot around the river, and in a little while the battery itself exploded with a terrific report, scattering the fragments all over the river, and wounding one of their own men in Fort St. Philip.

As soon as the terms of capitulation were concluded and signed, Commodore Porter started for the rebel fleet. One vessel had been sunk by the Federal guns during the consultation, and another was, taken by the Commodore. He immediately put the officers in close confinement, for the attempt to blow up the Federal vessels while under the flag of truce.

While the reduction and surrender of the forts was effected apparently by the fleet, it was evidont that they could have held out in defiance of the bombardment for an indefinite period. The successful passage of the gunboat fleet threw an immense force above the forts, while a competent force remained below. In addition to this, General Butler had succeeded in finding a passage for a portion of his land forces through the channels in the rear of Fort St. Philip, and thus threatened the forts in a direction where they were easily vulnerable. Under these circumstance? - -onsiderable part of the garrison revolted, on the night of the 27th, refused to serve, and demanded a surrender, because defence was no longer of the least service to their main purpose, that of defending the approach to the city. The discontented part of the troops, about two hundred in number, were permitted to leave the fort, and they proceeded to the quarantine and gave themselves up to General Butler. This timely co-operation of General Butler led to the decision of the commander, and on the following morning the capitulation was completed, and the national flag was restored to the walls of Forts Jackson and St. Philip.

The forts were placed in command of General Phelps. Fort Jackson suffered most from the bombardment, the chief object being to compel its surrender, Commodore Porter knowing that the other would inevitably follow. Nearly 8,000 shells and round shot were thrown from the Federal fleet, of which more than 2,000 fell into or exploded over, the forts. More than 1,100 were counted on the ground near the forts, lying around after the capture.


At eleven o'clock, A. M., on the 24th, the flag-ship raised her anchor, and led the way up the river towards New Orleans. Commander Farragut had been apprised of the obstacles which he would meet, and was therefore prepared to encounter them. There was no occurrences of moment on the way up the river, except the demonstrations of joy or of opposition made by the people,%ccording to their loyal or disloyal sympathies. Boats loaded with cotton were burnt or burning along the river as they passed, and fragments of the Mississippi battery floated down the stream.

At about the same hour of the next day, the fleet reached two forts, one on either side of the river, about two miles below the city, known as the Chalmette batteries, which had no flags flying. At eleven o'clock they opened on the Cayuga, which was then in the advance. After a short time spent in firing the bow guns, the Hartford poured in a terrific broadside, which appeared to be very destructive. Other discharges followed from other vessels, and the garrison abandoned the works . without hoisting a flag. The guns being silenced, and the forts evacuated, the fleet passed on and came to anchor opposite the city about one o'clock. Ths river was filled with vessels on fire, and along the levee cotton, stores, and other property were wantonly burned, filling the atmosphere with suffocating smoke, and adding to the heat of the day. Vast amounts of property were thus destroyed. On shore and on the wharves the people hastened to and fro, some cheering for Jeff. Davis and the Confederacy, Beauregard, and others, while some of the more exulting loyalists cheered for the Union and the old flag.

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At two o'clock Commodore Farragut sent Captain Bailey on shore to communicate with the authorities, and demand a surrender of the city. He started with a flag of truce, and on reaching the levee was greeted with curses by the mob. With some difficulty he reached the City Hall, with the officer who accompanied him, and there found the Mayor, City Council, and General Lovell, the commander of the rebel forces in the city. New Orleans being under martial law, the civil authorities could do nothing, and General Lovell declared he would never surrender it. He was informed that the city was then in the power of the Federal fleet, and the responsibility of any suffering or destruction that might follow his obstinate determination must rest with him. If no resistance were made, nothing would be injured. General Lovell then agreed to evacuate the city, and restore it to the control of the civil authorities. Captain Bailey and Lieutenant Perkins entered a carriage and returned to their boats. Just before they reached the levee, the new ram Mississippi, already mentioned, floated down the river wrapt in flames. The rebels had attempted to tow her up the river, but finding some of the Federal vessels on the alert in pursuit, they set her on fire. Two or three other similar vessels, partly built, were in the shipyards of the city and Algiers, on the other side of the river, which were also destroyed.

When the news of the passage of the forts by the Federal fleet had been telegraphed to the city, the popular excitement was unbounded. Under apprehension that the city would be pillaged, and given up to the violence of a body of Northern desperadoes, the mob, led on by ?ome of the most bitter secessionists, were anxious to fire the public buildings, and reduce the city to ruin in advance. But other counsels prevailed, and they were fortunately restrained from the commission of these atrocities.

On the following morning, the 26th, at half-past six o'clock, the Mayor sent his secretary and chief of police to see the Commodore, informing him that he would call a meeting of the Council at ten o'clock. Commodore Farragut replied to the message of the Mayor, and sent him a formal demand for the unqualified surrender of the city. The Council met, and on hearing a message from the Mayor, John T. Monroe, that body adopted resolutions in accordance with the message, and the Mayor made a reply to the Commodore, stating that the city was subject to his power. Both the message of the Mayor, and his reply to Commodore Farragut, breathed a spirit of bold defiance to the Federal authority, declaring that they submitted only to stern necessity, and that they still maintained their allegiance to the Confederate States.

At ten o'clock two officers were sent on shore, with a body of marines, to raise the flag on the Custom House; but the protest of the Mayor was so urgent, under the apprehension that the mob would resist this attempt to plant the old flag in its rightful place, that the Commodore deemed it advisable to recall the order. About the same time the Pensacola sent a boat to raise the flag on the mint. A general order for a thanksgiving service at eleven o'clock, on shipboard, had been issued, for the success of the expedition, and while thus engaged, the stars and stripes were torn down by a mob. The Pensacola fired a howitzer, killing one man, which occasioned intense excitement.

On the surrender of the forts, General Butler hastened with his forces to the city, where he arrived, with his transports, on the afternoon of the 28th.

On the morning of the 29th, Pierre Soule, one of the most prominent men of New Orleans, visited the Commodore for the purpose of a private interview. Soon after he left the ship, the marines of the fleet went ashore in the small boats to raise the flag on the Custom House and Post Office. Two howitzers were in the company, to assist, if necessary, in maintaining order. The duty of hauling down the State flag of Louisiana, and replacing it with the national emblem, was assigned to Commander H. H. Bell. When the boats reached the levee, the men formed in line of march, and proceeded to the Custom House, where the stars and stripes were once more flung to the southern breeze. After leaving the Custom House, they proceeded to the City Hall, where Captain Bell generously yielded the distinction of raising the flag to George Russell, boatswain's mate of the Hartford, who had won general approbation by his heroic conduct.

General Butler established his headquarters in the city, proclaimed martial law, and commenced his administration without opposition. With this peaceful and successful result was crowned one of the most brilliant achievements in naval history.


Mat 4, 1862.

As the month of April was passing away, dispatches from the peninsula gave assurances that the two great armies now confronting each other before Yorktown would in a few days be compelled to test their relative strength in a general engagement, should neither, meantime, voluntarily abandon the position. The daily bulletin of casualties gave evidence of closer and more sanguinary contests among the working or reconnoitering parties, or from the batteries erected on new parallels p{ i vj/ged embankments springing up daily in closer proximity. A most

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