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bar, so that the same forces which created the bar might be relied on to keep them in their places.

The bar was not to be obstructed entirely; for natural forces would soon open a new passage, since the rivers must discharge themselves by some outlet; but to be only partially obstructed, so that, while this channel was ruined, no old one, like Swash or Sanford, should be improved, or a new one formed.

The vessels were so placed that on the channel course it would be difficult to draw a line through any part of it that would not be intercepted by one of them. A ship, therefore, endeavoring to make her way out or in could not, by taking the bearings of any point of departure, as she could not sail on any straight line.

The vessels were placed checker wise, at some' distance from each other, so as to create an artificial unevenness of the bottom, remotely resembling Hell Gate and Holmes's Hole, which unevenness would give rise to eddies, counter-currents and whirlpools, adding so seriously to the difficulties of navigation that it could only be practicable by steamers, or with a very commanding breeze.

The execution of this plan was begun by buoying out the channel and circumscribing within four points the space where the vessels were all to be sunk, as follows:

S. W. * THE BAE. * N. B.

The distance between the points from s. w. to N. E. is about an eighth of a mile; the breadth perhaps half as much. It was no part of the plan to build a wall of ships across, but to drop them at a little distance from each other, on the principles above stated, closing the channel to navigation, but leaving it open to the water.

Work was resumed on Friday morning, the 20th, the Ottawa and Pocahontas bringing the ships to their stations. The placing of them was an operation of considerable nicety, especially as some of the vessels were so deep as to be with difficulty dragged on the bar, except at high water. A graver hindrance to their exact location was found in the imperfection of the arrangement for sinking, several of the ships remaining afloat so long after the plug was knocked out, that they swung out of position. They were, nevertheless, finally placed very nearly according to the plan. Great credit was earned by Mr. Bradbury and Mr. Godfrey for the successful execution of so difficult an undertaking. The last ship, the Archer, closed the only remaining gap, and the manner in which Mr. Bradbury took her in with the Pocahontas and then extricated the- latter from her perilous position, filled the fleet with admiration for his skillful seamanship and cool daring. By half past ten the last plug was drawn, and every ship of the sixteen was either sank or sinking.

One of the vessels, the Robin Hood, with upright masts, stood erect, in water too shallow to submerge her. As evening drew near she was set on fire, and in a little time the evening sky was lighted up with the pyrotechnic display, while the inhabitants of Charleston, the garrison of Fort Moultrie, and the surroundings, were compelled to look on and sec the temporary completion of the blockade they had so long derided and defied.

This event provoked loud and vindictive complaints and assaults in France and England, and the measure was denounced as an outrage on civilization, and a sufficient warrant for interference in the war. But an examination of the historical precedents afforded by British practice closed the mouths of the declaimers in Parliament as well as through the' pres.s, and once more American practice was permitted to pass, justified by the verdict of opinion as well as of illustrious example.


Dbckmeee 13, 1861.

On Thursday morning, December 12th, Brigadier-General R. H. Milroy started from his headquarters on Cheat Mountain Summit, with fifteen hundred men,, with the design of attacking a rebel camp on the Alleghany mountains, twenty-five miles distant. The column started at eight o'clock, and after a fatiguing day's march arrived, at eight P. M., at the old Camp Bartow, on the Greenbrier river, the scene of General Reynolds' rencontre on the 3d of October previous. Here the troops rested until eleven p. sr., when the General divided his force into two columns, with the intention of reaching the enemy's camp on the summit of the mountain, about eight and a half miles distant, from two opposite points, at four o'clock, A. M., of the 13 th.

The first division, consisting of detachments from the Ninth Indiana, Colonel Moody, and Second Virginia, Major Owens, about one thousand strong, took up its march on the old Greenbank road to attack the enemy on the left.

The second division consisted of detachments from the Thirteenth Indiana, Twenty-fifth and Thirty-second Ohio, and Bracken Cavalry, under Major Dobbs, Colonel J. A. Jones, Captain Hamilton and Captain Bracken. Brigadier-General Reynolds and his staff conducted this division, numerically about the same as the first division. This column took the Staunton pike, and marched cautiously until they came in sight of the enemy's camp, where, after throwing out more skirmishers, the division left the road and commenced to ascend the mountain to the enemy's right. After driving in some of the hostile pickets they reached the summit in good order. The enemy were fully prepared to receive them. The fight on the enemy's right commenced about twenty minutes after daylight.

Lieutenant McDonald, of General Reynolds' staff, with one company of the Thirteenth Indiana, formed the line of battle, placing the Twentyfifth Ohio on his left, part of the Thirteenth Indiana on their left, and part of the Thirty-second Ohio on their left. The enemy immediately advanced to attack the Federal troops, but after a few rounds retreated in great confusion, leaving their dead and wounded. Colonel Moody's division not appearing to attack the enemy on the left, the rebels seeing the inferior force opposed to them, were again encouraged to advanoe toward their assailants, which they did with a far superior force, paring in their fire with vigor. Some of the Federals now commenced falling to the rear, all along the line; but Captains Charlesworth and Crowe, of the Twenty-fifth Ohio, Lieutenant McDonald, Captains Myers and Newland, of the Thirteenth Indiana, and Hamilton, of the Thirtysecond Ohio, rallied them, and brought them into line in a few moments. The enemy again fell back and attempted to turn their right flank, but was immediately met and repulsed. The fortunes of the day appeared to alternate between the respective armies for three hours, the Federals holding out bravely against the superior numbers of the enemy, who were enabled to concentrate their eutire army of two thousand men and four or five pieces of artillery against this comparatively small force.

Colonel Moody's force not having then been heard from, Colonel Jones, who had charge of the division now in action, after exhausting bis ammunition, withdrew his men from the field.

Almost at this juncture, Colonel Moody's command, which had been detained by obstructions placed in the road over which they were compelled to pass, arrived, and attacked the enemy vigorously on his left, and in turn maintained an obstinate contest, unaided, against the entire rebel command, which they did with much courage and skill, until three o'clock, p. M., when they too were compelled to retire before the superior force of their opponents.

Though thwarted in his plan of attack by the unexpected obstructions which Colonel Moody's division had to encounter, General Milroy was far from being disconcerted by the result. The men had evinced a high order of courage, and the divisions had alternately maintained an obstinate fight against an army of nearly three times their number.

The official report of the casualties on the Federal side gives the number of killed, twenty; wounded, one hundred and seven; missing, ten. The rebel loss is acknowledged by the Richmond inquirer to have been about the same.

Dkcembek 17, 1861.

Colonel Willich, with the Thirty-second Indiana, a regiment composed of Germans, occupying an advance post of General McCook's division of the Federal army in Kentucky, was attacked on the 17th of December, by three regiments of Arkansas infantry, Colonel Terry's Texan Rangers, and Major Phifer's cavalry, and also an artillery company, with four pieces, tbe whole under the command of General T. C. Hindman.

Colonel Willich's regiment was guarding a new bridge built by the Federal troops over Green river, at Rowlett's Station, on the Louisville and Nashville railroad, a temporary substitute for the handsome iron structure which had been destroyed by the rebels, in front of Mumfordsville. A picket guard of two companies had been thrown across the river on the south side, occupying a wide area of cleared ground, which was skirted by forests, from whence the rebels attempted to surprise and capture them.

The second company, Captain Glass, was acting in detached squads as pickets in the woods on the right flank, and were attacked in detail by the enemy's skirmishers. The pickets made a gallant defence, and fell back slowly and in good order on their supports. The alarm in the mean time having been given to the other companies on the north side of the river, they started in "double-quick" over the bridge, crossed the hill on the opposite side, and rushed with fierce haste into the woods whence the firing proceeded, led on by Lieutenant-Colonel Treba, Colonel Willich at the time being necessarily at headquarters. A portion of the third company, under Lieutenant Sachs, occupied a covered position on the left flank, where they were now attacked by the advancing enemy. Unable to restrain the ardor of his men, the Lieutenant boldly left his sheltered position and attacked the rebels in the open field; but fierce as his onset was, the disparity of numbers proved too greatly t against him, and his little band would have inevitably been cut to pieces but for the timely arrival of Lieutenant-Colonel Treba, with the main body of the regiment. He sent the sixth, seventh and tenth companies to support the second company on the right, and the first, fifth, eighth and ninth companies to support the third company on the left flank. At the very first rush of the skirmishers, the enemy were thrown into confusion, and driven back at all points.

Then the most severe and bloody part of the battle commenced. With terrible ferocity Colonel Terry's regiment of Texas Rangers poured in black masses of cavalry upon the Union skirmishers along the whole line. They rode up within fifteen or twenty yards, some even in the very midst of the men, and commenced a terrible fire from their carbines and revolvers. At their first onset, it seemed as if every one of the men would be destroyed. But here it was that the veteran coolness and bravery of the Union troops shone forth. They allowed the enemy to come almost as near as he chose, and then poured a deadly fire upon him, which shook the entire line. Upon the right flank of the third company's position, by order of Adjutant Schmidt, the eighth company was led forth by Lieutenants Kappel and Levy; upon the left, Lieutenant-Colonel Treba advanced with the ninth company; both attacked the enemy in close skirmishers' line, drove hini back, and rescued the rest of the heroic little band under Lieutenant Sachs. He himself and a number of his men were, however, already killed, though they had made the enemy pay dearly for their lives.

Now the artillery of the enemy was brought to bear upon the Union men. Their fire, balls and shrapnell, was well directed, but fortunately not very fatal. Only a few of the men were wounded by splinters of balls.

"While this was going on upon the left wing, the conflict on the right was no less severe. The second, sixth and tenth companies were scattered as skirmishers, while the seventh was drawn up in company column for their support. The sixth company had taken position behind a fence. The Rangers galloped up to them in close line, and commenced firing from rifles and revolvers. Their fire was Bteadily returned by the sixth, which held them in check till a part of them got behind the fence, when the skirmishers fell back behind the seventh, drawn up in a square. Now a fearful conflict ensued. A whole battalion of Rangers, fully two hundred strong, bore down upon the little band of not more than fifty. Upon the front and left flank of the square they rushed, with a fierce attempt to trample down the squad before them.

Captain Welschbellich allowed them to come within a distance of seventy yards, then fired a volley, which staggered and sent them back. But immediately afterward they reformed and again rushed fiercely upon the front and both flanks of the square. They seemed frantic with rage over the successful resistance offered to them, and this time many of their band rode iqs to the points of the bayonets. But another well-aimed volley emptied a number of saddles, and sent back the whole mass which a moment before had threatened certain destruction to Captain Welschbellich's company. A few bayonet thrusts and scattering shots brought down those who had ventured to the front. This second ••fpulse had a marked effect. Yet a third attack was made, much less determined and fierce than the two first, though it was more disastrous to the enemy. During this third attack it was that Colonel Terry, the

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